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Hypernatremia dehydration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856199/severe-hypernatremia-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-after-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-peg-placement
#1
Rosangela Muratori, Andrea Lisotti, Pietro Fusaroli, Alessandra Caponi, Giulia Gibiino, Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Francesco Azzaroli, Nicole Brighi, Guglielmo Altimari, Franco Bazzoli
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is the preferred option for providing enteral nutrition, allowing for an improvement in survival and quality of life. AIM: To evaluate risk factors for early and delayed mortality after gastrostomy placement. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis of a prospectively-collected database including all patients undergoing gastrostomy placement for enteral nutrition was performed. Two operators performed all the procedures according to the most recent guidelines...
November 2, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716387/extreme-hypernatremia-as-a-probable-cause-of-fatal-arrhythmia-a-case-report
#2
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642476/-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-hus-in-children-at-the-university-hospital-center-in-dakar-about-four-cases
#3
Aliou Thiongane, Aliou Abdoulaye Ndongo, Idrissa Demba Ba, Djibril Boiro, Papa Moctar Faye, Younoussa Keita, Aïssatou Ba, Djeynaba Fafa Cissé, Idrissa Basse, Lamine Thiam, Indou Déme Ly, Babacar Niang, Abou Ba, Amadou Lamine Fall, Saliou Diouf, Ousmane Ndiaye, Mamadou Ba, Mamadou Sarr
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a common cause of organic acute renal failure (ARF) in children. It is a progressive complication of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), especially caused by Escherichia coli in children. This study aimed to describe the clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of this affection in four children. We collected four cases of HUS. The average age was 10,5 months (5-15mois), exclusively boys. Clinical examination revealed a hemolytic anemia (pallor and jaundice), oligoanuria and edematous syndrome (2 cases), arterial hypertension (1 patient), AGE associated with severe dehydration and hypovolemic shock (2 patients), consciousness disorders...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463219/extrapontine-myelinolysis-associated-with-severe-hypernatremia-in-infancy
#4
Ryoji Aoki, Tetsuji Morimoto, Yuno Takahashi, Hiroshi Saito, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Shori Takahashi
Extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) is an uncommon disorder in children, with few pediatric cases reported to date. We report the first case of an infant with EPM without central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) presenting with severe hypernatremia. On admission, the infant had impaired consciousness, mild dehydration, and severe hypernatremia (190 mmol/L). The following day, the patient developed abnormal involuntary movements. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed EPM without CPM. He recovered without sequelae, and clinical examinations were within normal limits approximately 6 months after discharge...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242936/cerebral-malaria-an-unusual-cause-of-central-diabetes-insipidus
#5
Resmi Premji, Nira Roopnarinesingh, Joshua Cohen, Sabyasachi Sen
Central diabetes insipidus is an uncommon feature of malaria. A previously healthy 72-year-old man presented with fever, rigors, and altered mental status after a recent trip to Liberia, a country known for endemic falciparum malaria. Investigations confirmed plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Within one week after admission, the serum sodium rose to 166 mEq/L and the urine output increased to 7 liters/day. Other labs were notable for a high serum osmolality, low urine osmolality, and low urine specific gravity...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225145/prevalence-of-electrolyte-disorders-among-cases-of-diarrhea-with-severe-dehydration-and-correlation-of-electrolyte-levels-with-age-of-the-patients
#6
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Abdul Wahid, Mubashra Ahmad, Nazia Mahboob, Ramlah Mehmood
OBJECTIVE: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. METHODOLOGY: All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study...
May 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192691/images-in-clinical-medicine-loose-teeth-and-excessive-thirst
#7
Roman H Khonsari, Blandine Ruhin
A 36-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of oral pain and loose teeth; four teeth had been lost spontaneously within the 6 months before presentation. Increased thirst and urination also developed within 4 months before presentation. Blood electrolyte levels revealed hypernatremia and..
May 19, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183555/a-rare-cause-of-retinal-artery-occlusion-in-severe-hypernatremic-dehydration-in-newborns
#8
Pinar Altiaylik Ozer, Emrah Utku Kabatas, Bengi Ece Kurtul, Dilek Dilli, Aysegul Zenciroglu, Nurullah Okumus
Neonatal hypernatremia is an important electrolyte disorder that may have serious complications. It may be a rare and underdiagnosed cause of venous and arterial thrombosis, leading to severe brain damage by cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage. Here, the authors present a case of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion in a newborn with severe hypernatremic dehydration who is found to be normal in terms of other causes of retinal arterial thromboembolization. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina...
May 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105154/interpretation-of-postmortem-vitreous-concentrations-of-sodium-and-chloride
#9
B Zilg, K Alkass, S Berg, H Druid
Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels...
June 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011115/buccally-administered-intranasal-desmopressin-acetate-for-the-treatment-of-neurogenic-diabetes-insipidus-in-infancy
#10
Allison R Smego, Philippe Backeljauw, Iris Gutmark-Little
CONTEXT: The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in infancy is challenging and complicated by fluid overload and dehydration. Therapy with subcutaneous (SC), intranasal (IN), or oral tablet desmopressin acetate (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin [DDAVP]) remains difficult to titrate in infants. OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy and safety of buccally administered IN DDAVP for the management of infants with neurogenic DI. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 15 infants (mean age, 4...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994581/hyperosmolar-sodium-chloride-is-toxic-to-cultured-neurons-and-causes-reduction-of-glucose-metabolism-and-atp-levels-an-increase-in-glutamate-uptake-and-a-reduction-in-cytosolic-calcium
#11
Cecilie Morland, Mi Nguyen Pettersen, Bjørnar Hassel
Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake...
May 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851435/clinical-manifestations-of-hyponatremia-and-hypernatremia-in-under-five-diarrheal-children-in-a-diarrhea-hospital
#12
Lubaba Shahrin, Mohammad Jobayer Chisti, Sayeeda Huq, Thamanna Nishath, Maria D Christy, Anika Hannan, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To study clinical manifestations and outcome of hyponatremia and hypernatremia in children with diarrhea. METHOD: We compared children aged 0-59 months hospitalized from 1 January to 31 December 2013 with hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mmol/l), hypernatremia (serum sodium >150 mmol/l) and normonatremia (serum sodium 135-145 mmol/l). RESULTS: The case fatality was significantly higher among the children with hypernatremia and hyponatremia than normonatremia...
June 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688326/factors-associated-with-mortality-in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-severe-hypernatremia
#13
Ihsan Ates, Nihal Özkayar, Güvenç Toprak, Nisbet Yılmaz, Fatih Dede
Hypernatremia is a common electrolyte disorder associated with prolonged hospitalization and death. Severe hypernatremia is defined as a serum sodium (Na(+)) concentration >160 mmol/L. To the best of our knowledge, there is little information on patients with severe hypernatremia, Na(+) >160 mmol/L. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the frequency, demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbid conditions and treatment strategies in patients presenting to the emergency department with severe hypernatremia, and also to evaluate the effects of these factors on mortality...
April 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26609290/hypertriglyceridemia-in-infants-and-children-with-hypernatremia
#14
Fathelrahman E Ahmed, Mohamed F Lutfi
BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia in association with hypernatremia was reported in a few children; however, studies exploring this association are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of change in serum triglycerides levels in hypernatremia patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective case-control study done at North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia from April 2008 to March 2011. PATIENTS AND METHOD: serum triglycerides and sodium were measured in 16 patients with hypernatremic dehydration as a study group and 14 patients with isonatremic dehydration as a control group...
July 2015: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606207/hypernatremia-in-a-cat-with-toxoplasma-induced-panencephalitis
#15
Christiane Weingart, Achim D Gruber, Mathias Brunnberg, Barbara Kohn
A 12 yr old female neutered Carthusian crossbreed cat was presented due to progressive neurological signs. Clinical signs included dehydration, stupor, and anisocoria. Laboratory examination revealed severe hypernatremia, azotemia, hyperglobulinemia, and an erythrocytosis. Clinical signs and hypernatremia suggested an intracranial process. Imaging studies revealed a loss of structure in the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. Due to a poor prognosis, the cat was euthanatized. Histopathological examination revealed a subacute granulomatous and necrotizing panencephalitis with Toxoplasma-typical protozoa...
January 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26314308/safety-and-efficacy-of-low-osmolarity-ors-vs-modified-rehydration-solution-for-malnourished-children-for-treatment-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-and-diarrhea-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ruchika Kumar, Praveen Kumar, S Aneja, Virendra Kumar, Harmeet S Rehan
World Health Organization-recommended rehydration solution for malnourished children (ReSoMal) for rehydrating severe acute malnourished children is not available in India. In present study, 110 consecutive children aged 6-59 months with severely acute malnourishment and acute diarrhea were randomized to low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) (osmolarity: 245, sodium: 75) with added potassium (20 mmol/l) or modified ReSoMal (osmolarity: 300, sodium: 45). In all, 15.4% of modified ReSoMal group developed hyponatremia as compared with 1...
December 2015: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26267442/a-descriptive-study-of-the-fluid-intake-hydration-and-health-status-of-rehabilitation-inpatients-without-dysphagia-following-stroke
#17
Jo Murray, Sebastian Doeltgen, Michelle Miller, Ingrid Scholten
Adequate hydration is important for all people, particularly when hospitalized with illness. Individuals with dysphagia following stroke are considered to be at risk of inadequate fluid intake and, therefore, dehydration, but there is little information about the fluid intake or hydration of individuals without dysphagia poststroke. This cohort study measured the average beverage intake, calculated the urea/creatinine ratio as a measure of hydration, and documented specific health outcomes of 86 people without dysphagia poststroke who were inpatients in rehabilitation centers...
2015: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239685/diabetes-insipidus-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
Cristina Capatina, Alessandro Paluzzi, Rosalid Mitchell, Niki Karavitaki
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI)...
2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26217664/a-rare-case-of-congenital-diabetes-insipidus
#19
Tanvi Rege, Srujana Polsani, Belinda Jim
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a conformation disease resulting from protein misfolding. Ninety percent of mutations result from the inactivating mutations of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene transmitted in an X-linked fashion, blocking the response to vasopressin, resulting in the inability to concentrate urine. Clinical features include polyuria, polydispsia, dehydration, and hypernatremia. They are generally more severely in affected males but present variably in females due to skewed inactivation of the X chromosome...
2015: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26195098/dehydration-hypernatremia-and-hyponatremia
#20
REVIEW
John E Morley
Disturbances of serum sodium are one of the most common findings in older persons. They are also a major cause of hospital admissions and delirium and are associated with frailty, falls, and hip fractures. Both hypernatremia and hyponatremia are potentially preventable. Treatment involves treating the underlying cause and restoring sodium and volume status to normal. The arginine vasopressin antagonists, vaptans, have increased the therapeutic armamentarium available to physicians.
August 2015: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
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