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Maurizio Elia, Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Hans Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Although a larger number of antiepileptic drugs became available in the last decades, epilepsy remains drug-resistant in approximately a third of patients. Ketogenic diet (KD), first proposed at the beginning of the last century, is complex and has anticonvulsant effects, yet not completely understood. Over the last decades, different types of ketogenic diets (KDs) have been developed, namely classical KD and modified Atkins diet (MAD). They offer an effective alternative for children and adults with drug-resistant epilepsies...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Alberto Martini, Donata Villari, Giulio Nicita
After radical cystectomy or pathologies affecting the ureter(s), bowel segments can be employed to restore the natural urine flow or to create an external urinary diversion. Nevertheless, the interposition of bowel segments in the urinary tract is not devoid of complications. In fact, bowel's microstructure differs from the urothelium; specifically its mucosa is aimed at reabsorption, rather than storage. The aim of this paper is to revise the pathophysiology of complications related to bowel's mucosal properties...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Bruno Nicolino Cezarino, Rubens Park, Paulo Renato Marcelo Moscardi, Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Francisco T Denes, Miguel Srougi
INTRODUCTION: Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with na increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL), as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases...
November 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Ekin Akyildiz, Murat Yalcin, Fidan Sever, Hüseyin Semiz, Senol Kobak
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, eye and musculoskeletal system involvement. Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are important electrolyte imbalances resulting from sarcoidosis and sometimes they may cause nephrolitiasis and kidney failure. Hyponatremia, although being quite rare, has been found in some patients with sarcoidosis. Herein, we have reported a patient with neurosarcoidosis who presented with hyponatremia and responded well to corticosteroid treatment...
October 5, 2016: Reumatología Clinica
Cristina Gervasoni, Paola Meraviglia, Davide Minisci, Laurenzia Ferraris, Agostino Riva, Simona Landonio, Valeria Cozzi, Nitin Charbe, Lara Molinari, Giuliano Rizzardini, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Dario Cattaneo
INTRODUCTION: Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) is a relatively well tolerated antiretroviral drug. However, side effects including hyperbilirubinemia, dyslipidemia, nephrolithiasis and cholelithiasis have been reported in the medium and long term. Unboosted ATV may be selected for some patients because it has fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects, less hyperbilirubinemia and less impact on lipid profiles. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of ATV plasma trough concentrations according to drug dosage and the potential relationship between ATV plasma trough concentrations and drug-related adverse events in a consecutive series of 240 HIV-infected patients treated with ATV/r 300/100 mg (68%) or ATV 400 mg (32%)...
2015: PloS One
Mohammad Reza Tamadon, Mohammad Nassaji, Raheb Ghorbani
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis is a widespread multifactorial disorder. Constitutional, environmental and genetic factors play a role in stone formation. Although important advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of stone formation, none of the many theories have given a satisfactory explanation of this process. OBJECTIVES: The objective of study was to evaluate the probable relationship between cigarette smoking and nephrolitiasis in adult men...
2013: Nephro-urology Monthly
Marco Rosa, Paolo Usai, Roberto Miano, Fernando J Kim, Enrico Finazzi Agrò, Pierluigi Bove, Salvatore Micali
This review summarizes recent literature on advances regarding renal and ureteral calculi, with particular focus in areas of recent advances in the overall field of urolithiasis. Clinical management in everyday practice requires a complete understanding of the issues regarding metabolic evaluation and subgrouping of stone-forming patients, diagnostic procedures, effective treatment regime in acute stone colic, medical expulsive therapy, and active stone removal. In this review we focus on new perspectives in managing nephrolitihiasis and discuss recentadvances, including medical expulsive therapy, new technologies, and refinements of classical therapy such as shock wave lithotripsy, give a fundamental modification of nephrolithiasis management...
February 16, 2013: BMC Urology
Laura Groseanu, Rodica Marinescu, Dan Laptoiun, Iozefina Botezatu, Florica Staniceanu, Sabina Zurac, Ruxandra lonescu
Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism caused by deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase and resulting in accumulation of homogentisic acid in collagenous structures. This causes the classic clinical triad: (1) homogentisic aciduria (urine blackens on standing when oxidized or alkalinized); (2) eumelanin-like pigmentation of skin, sclera, cartilages, etc and (3) degenerative ochronic arthropathies usually in the fourth decade of life. Other important but more rare consequences of alkaptonuric ochronosis are cardiovascular and urinary tract involvement...
October 2010: Journal of Medicine and Life
P C B Pereira, D M Miranda, E A Oliveira, A C Simões E Silva
Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is characterized by metabolic acidosis due to renal impaired acid excretion. Hyperchloremic acidosis with normal anion gap and normal or minimally affected glomerular filtration rate defines this disorder. RTA can also present with hypokalemia, medullary nephrocalcinosis and nephrolitiasis, as well as growth retardation and rickets in children, or short stature and osteomalacia in adults. In the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RTA and the fundamental molecular physiology of renal tubular transport processes...
March 2009: Current Genomics
Claudio Casella, Francesco Di Fabio, Ernesto Di Betta, Riccardo Nascimbeni, Bruno Salerni
The Authors report their experience on 136 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrolitiasis was proven in 56 patients (41.3%), 20 patients (14.7%) were asyntomatic. Acute primary hyperparathyroidism was detected in 12 cases (8.8%). The preoperative localization of the diseased glands permits to minimize the procedure in terms of length and region of incision, extent of exploration and morbidity. 91.3% of the lesions were single adenoma, 7.3% double adenomas and 1.4% hyperplasia in MEN 1. The intraoperative PTH assay, performed in 90 patients (66...
March 2008: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 1949: Lékařské Listy
G Monteleone, A De Lorenzo, M Sgroi, S De Angelis, L Di Renzo
The use of whole body vibration (WBV) training is becoming more widespread both among athletes and the general public for improving muscle performance. The biological and mechanical effects of WBV are not completely understood and numerous contraindications, that can be identified while obtaining the patient's clinical history, must be taken into consideration. Nephrolithiasis, which often remains asymptomatic for an indefinite time, is not reported in the medical literature as a contraindication to WBV. This paper reports a case of significant morbidity following one session of WBV training in a patient with asymptomatic nephroli-thiasis...
December 2007: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ana Suely de Andrade, Adriana Moreira Almeida de Silva, Luíza Maria Carvalho Jalles, Mônica Ferreira Lopes, Tereza Neuma Souza de Brito, Lúcia Fátima Campos de Pedrosa
PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the quality of diet and the relationship between protein diet and calciuria in children and adolescents with nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Forty-nine children and adolescents (28 male and 21 female; 10.1 +/- 3.16 years old) with nephrolithiasis were included in study. Diet evaluation was performed over a 3 day period in order to determine nutrient consumption. The analysis of diets were carried out by DietWin Clínico 3.0 software...
2005: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
G A D Miggiano, M G Migneco
Nephrolitiasis is a frequent metabolic disease, with a high rate of recurrences. Epidemiological studies reveal that about 80% of all kidney stones are composed of calcium salts (75% calcium oxalate), while about 5% are pure uric acid. Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with several underlying disorders of metabolism: that is why diet is an important treatment, especially in the prevention of recurrences. Nutritional intervention is based on a high water intake, physiological calcium intake, modest sodium and animal protein restriction and vitamin C intake <2 gr daily...
January 2007: La Clinica Terapeutica
B Orive Olondriz, J Elorz Lambarri, C Vázquez Cordero
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Defects in the CFTR gene cause abnormal chloride conductance across the apical membrane of epithelial cells, which results in progressive lung disease and also affects other organs. Because life expectancy has increased, other complications of CF have become more apparent. We present a patient with CF and symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Several stones were evident in both kidneys. A 24-hour urine sample showed hyperoxaluria (141 mg/24 h/ 1...
August 2006: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Matthias A Hediger, Richard J Johnson, Hiroki Miyazaki, Hitoshi Endou
Humans excrete uric acid as the final breakdown product of unwanted purine nucleotides. Urate scavenges potential harmful radicals in our body. However, in conjunction with genetic or environmental (especially dietary) factors, urate may cause gout, nephrolitiasis, hypertension, and vascular disease. Blood levels of urate are maintained by the balance between generation and excretion. Excretion requires specialized transporters located in renal proximal tubule cells, intestinal epithelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells...
April 2005: Physiology
M Trompeter, M Spahn
Therapeutic strategies and operative techniques in urology develop rapidly. In particular, surgery becomes more and more differentiated and complex. Radiologists, especially uroradiologists wil have to provide special knowledge about urologic therapy and operative techniques in order to critically look at postoperative changes. Part I of this review will cover therapy and postoperative evaluation in nephrolitiasis, renal tumors and disease of the ureter. Using the appropriate modality at the appropriate time in postoperative course is discussed...
July 2003: Der Radiologe
Rocco Damiano, Andrea Oliva, Ciro Esposito, Marco De Sio, Riccardo Autorino, Massimo D'Armiento
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the early and late complications of indwelling ureteral stents in a series of 146 patients with nephroureteral lithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 146 patients with obstructing nephrolitiasis were treated for urinary diversion with double pigtail ureteral stent before extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and following ureterorenoscopic treatment of lithiasis. All patients were scheduled for stent removal or replacement at specific 3-month intervals until stone-free status was achieved...
2002: Urologia Internationalis
J L Casado, A Moreno, R Sabido, P Martí-Belda, A Antela, F Dronda, M J Perez-Elías, S Moreno
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of indinavir (IDV) in a twice daily dosing regimen with coadministration of 100 mg ritonavir (RTV) and to explore the influence of plasma drug levels in the rate of virologic response. METHOD: We performed a prospective study of 59 patients who switched to a salvage regimen with two nucleoside analogs plus the combination of 100 mg RTV plus 800 mg IDV twice daily. Pharmacokinetics of IDV and RTV were assessed in 11 patients...
July 2000: HIV Clinical Trials
A J Locatelli, G M Marcos, M G Gómez, S A Alvarez, L C DeBenedetti
The purpose of our study was to compare the incidence of peritonitis between continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment (Group I) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) treatment (Group II) taking into account the same population. We compared 20 patients with a follow-up of 215 patient-months on CAPD and 252 patient-months on APD. Demographic data, diagnosis, peritoneal equilibration test (PET) results, adequacy, and peritonitis rate were analyzed. Diagnoses included glomerulopathy 35%, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) 20%, Type II diabetes 10%, systemic lupus erythematosus 5%, interstitial nephritis 5%, nephrolitiasis 5%, and unknown 20%...
1999: Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis
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