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J-Y Pan, R-X Cai, Y Chen, Y Li, W-W Lin, J Wu, X-D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) on neuronal apoptosis, Ca2+ concentration, and Caspases expression after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into control group (CON group), hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning group (HBO-PC group) and spinal cord injury group (SCI group), with 12 rats in each group. Rats in group HBO-PC were given HBO-PC intervention before modeling...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Susanne Horn, Sonia Leonardelli, Antje Sucker, Dirk Schadendorf, Klaus G Griewank, Annette Paschen
Poor clinical responses to checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies in melanoma have recently been associated with acquired IFNγ resistance that protects tumor cells from the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic cytokine activity. IFNγ-resistant melanoma cells very often lack functional expression of the IFNγ signaling pathway gene JAK2 due to gene deletions or inactivating gene mutations. Analyzing melanoma cell lines (n = 46, applying next-generation targeted sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays) as well as available genomic data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) tumor tissue samples (cutaneous melanoma n = 367, lung squamous cell carcinoma n = 501, bladder urothelial carcinoma n = 408, breast invasive carcinoma n = 768, colorectal adenocarcinoma n = 257), we demonstrate that the frequent chromosomal losses of the tumor suppressor CDKN2A in melanoma and other tumor entities enhance the susceptibility to IFNγ resistance by concomitant deletion of the JAK2 gene (odds ratio = 223...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Tian-Sheng He, Tian Chen, Dan-Dan Wang, Liang-Guo Xu
Mitochondrial anti‑viral signaling protein (VISA), additionally termed MAVS, IPS‑1 and Cardif, is located at the outer membrane of mitochondria and is an essential adaptor in the Rig‑like receptor (RLRs) signaling pathway. Upon viral infection, activated RLRs interact with VISA on mitochondria, forming a RLR‑VISA platform, leading to the recruitment of different TRAF family members, including TRAF3, TRAF2 and TRAF6. This results in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/IRF7) by TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and/or IKKε, as well as activation of NF‑κB, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Eun Ji Ryu, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Hyo Sang Jo, Jung Hwan Park, Su Bin Cho, Chi Hern Lee, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Duk-Soo Kim, Sung-Woo Cho, Yong-Jun Cho, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Keun Wook Lee, Kyu Hyung Han, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum, Soo Young Choi
Oxidative stress is known to be a primary risk factor for neuronal diseases. Glutaredoxin (GLRX)‑1, a redox‑regulator of the thioredoxin superfamily, is known to exhibit an important role in cell survival via various cellular functions. However, the precise roles of GLRX1 in brain ischemia are still not fully understood. The present study investigated whether transduced PEP‑1‑GLRX1 protein has protective effects against oxidative stress in cells and in an animal model. Transduced PEP‑1‑GLRX1 protein increased HT‑22 cell viability under oxidative stress and this fusion protein significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species and levels of DNA damage...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Catarina Leite Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Joana R Ferreira, Matteo D'Este, David Eglin, Mauro Alini, Sibylle Grad, Mario Barbosa, Raquel Goncalves
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by an unbalanced cell catabolic/anabolic activity and cell death, resulting in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and water loss. Repopulating the IVD with new cells may help recovering tissue homeostasis and revert the degenerative process. Here the regenerative potential of a hyaluronan based (HA)-chemoattractant delivery system able to recruit Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) seeded on the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) of IVD was explored...
June 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Hilary A Seifert, Gil Benedek, Ha Nguyen, Grant Gerstner, Ying Zhang, Gail Kent, Arthur A Vandenbark, Jürgen Bernhagen, Halina Offner
A seven day pretreatment course of an oral antibiotic cocktail (Ampicillin, Metronidazole, Neomycin Sulfate, and Vancomycin) was shown to induce changes in peripheral immune regulation and protect mice from signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To determine if a shorter course of antibiotic pretreatment could also protect the mice from EAE and induce regulatory immune cells, studies were conducted using the same oral antibiotic cocktail for three days. In addition, the CNS was examined to determine the effects of antibiotic pretreatment on EAE disease course and immune modulation within the affected tissue...
June 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Meghraj Singh Baghel, Mahendra Kumar Thakur
Our previous report on hippocampal proteome analysis suggested the involvement of voltage-dependent anion channel (Vdac) 1 in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further silencing of Vdac1 in young mice reduced the recognition memory. Vdac1 is a porin protein present abundantly on outer mitochondrial membrane. It acts as a transporter of energy metabolites ATP/ADP and Ca2+ ions and helps in communication between mitochondrial matrix and cytosol. As Vdac1-associated energy metabolism may be affected during amnesia, we determined the downstream function of Vdac1 in the present study...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Andrea Comba, Laura V Bonnet, Victor E Goitea, Marta E Hallak, Mauricio R Galiano
After retrotranslocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm, calreticulin is modified by the enzyme arginyltransferase-1 (ATE1). Cellular levels of arginylated calreticulin (R-CRT) are regulated in part by the proteasomal system. Under various stress conditions, R-CRT becomes associated with stress granules (SGs) or reaches the plasma membrane (PM), where it participates in pro-apoptotic signaling. The mechanisms underlying the resistance of tumor cells to apoptosis induced by specific drugs remain unclear...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Masashi Sakuma, Shigeru Toyoda, Takuo Arikawa, Yota Koyabu, Toru Kato, Taichi Adachi, Hideaki Suwa, Jun-Ichi Narita, Koetsu Anraku, Kimihiko Ishimura, Fumitake Yamauchi, Yasunori Sato, Teruo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia has a close relationship with cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. However, it is controversial whether xanthine oxidase inhibition has benefits for patients with chronic heart failure. We designed the Effect of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor in Chronic Heart Failure Patients Complicated with Hyperuricemia study (Excited-UA study) to compare the beneficial effects between a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, topiroxostat, and a conventional agent, allopurinol, in patients with chronic heart failure and hyperuricemia...
June 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Rebecca Mercieca-Bebber, Douglas Williams, Margaret-Ann Tait, Jessica Roydhouse, Lucy Busija, Chindhu Shunmuga Sundaram, Michelle Wilson, Ailsa Langford, Claudia Rutherford, Natasha Roberts, Madeleine King, Elisabeth Vodicka, Beth Devine
AIMS: It is important to understand the number, types and regions of trials that include patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to appreciate how patient experiences have been considered in studies of health and interventions. Twenty-seven percent of trials registered with (2007-2013) included PROs; however, a regional breakdown was not provided and no reviews have been conducted of the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). We aimed to identify trials registered with ANZCTR with PRO endpoints and describe their characteristics...
June 18, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Zoé Colombet, Benjamin Allès, Wendy Si Hassen, Aurélie Lampuré, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
PURPOSE: Rebalancing the contribution of animal- and plant-based foods is needed to achieve sustainable diet. However, little is known concerning individual characteristics that may influence intake of plant-based foods and their changes over time. We aimed to assess changes in the contribution of plant-based foods to dietary intake over time and their association with individual characteristics. METHODS: The contribution of plant-based foods was assessed by percent energy intake provided by plant proteins in diet (PEIPP) and a score of adherence to a pro-vegetarian diet, using repeated 24-h records in 15,615 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Claus von der Burchard, Felix Treumer, Christoph Ehlken, Stefan Koinzer, Konstantine Purtskhvanidze, Jan Tode, Johann Roider
PURPOSE: Current algorithms for automated computer interpretation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of patients suffering from neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) mostly rely on fluid detection. However, fluid detection itself and correct interpretation of the fluid currently limits diagnostic accuracy. We therefore performed a detailed analysis of the requirements that would have to be met for fluid detection approaches. We further investigated if monitoring retinal volume would be a viable alternative to detect disease activity...
June 18, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Pooja Bhadoria, Mahindra Nagar, Veena Bharihoke, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
Introduction: In the recent years, ethephon, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, is one of the most commonly used plant growth regulators. At present, it is being used on fruits, vegetables, and cereals for promoting pre- and post-harvest ripening. The effect of artificial ripening has become questionable because of various health-related issues. This study was conducted to note the morphology of liver after ethephon administration as it is the site where chemicals undergo first pass metabolism and probably will be affected by ethephon...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Timo Jan Oberstein, Lava Taha, Philipp Spitzer, Janina Hellstern, Martin Herrmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Juan Manuel Maler
The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e., neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, consist of beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau. These are accompanied by reactive microglia and astrocytes in the vicinity of the neuritic plaques and by changes to the peripheral immune system, e.g., an increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. To address a potential involvement of peripheral T helper cell (Th ) subsets in AD, we conducted a case control study with 54 individuals with AD dementia ( n  = 14), with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (MCIAD , n  = 14), with MCI unlikely due to AD (MCIother , n  = 13), and controls without cognitive impairment (controls, n  = 13)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Qingling Guo, Ying Wu, Yuanyuan Hou, Yongping Liu, Tingting Liu, Hao Zhang, Chenling Fan, Haixia Guan, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
Background: Inflammasomes, which mediate maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) and lead to pyroptosis, have been linked to various autoimmune disorders. This study investigated whether they are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Methods: We collected thyroid tissues from 50 patients with AIT and 50 sex- and age-matched controls. Serum levels of free T3, free T4, thyrotropin, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassays...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rakesh K Singh, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Nevien Ismail, Amit Kaul, Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda, Hira L Nakhasi
The protozoan parasite Leishmania has evolved several strategies to undermine host defense mechanisms by inducing Th2-type adaptive immunity and suppressing effector functions of Th1 phenotype. In our earlier studies, using centrin gene-deleted Leishmania (LdCen-/- ) parasites as an immunogen, we have shown induction of an effective Th1-type immunity and robust memory responses that mediate protection against virulent challenge. However, role of inhibitory signals in Leishmania vaccine induced immunity in general, and LdCen-/- in particular has not been studied...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Elise S Hovingh, Steven de Maat, Alexandra P M Cloherty, Steven Johnson, Elena Pinelli, Coen Maas, Ilse Jongerius
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Whooping cough is currently re-emerging worldwide and, therefore, still poses a continuous global health threat. B. pertussis expresses several virulence factors that play a role in evading the human immune response. One of these virulence factors is virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8). Vag8 is a complement evasion molecule that mediates its effects by binding to the complement regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). This regulatory protein is a fluid phase serine protease that controls proenzyme activation and enzyme activity of not only the complement system but also the contact system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anuvinder Kaur, Muhammad Suleman Riaz, Valarmathy Murugaiah, Praveen Mathews Varghese, Shiv K Singh, Uday Kishore
Human surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a potent innate immune molecule, which is emerging as a key molecule in the recognition and clearance of altered and non-self targets. Previous studies have shown that a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) induced apoptosis via p53-mediated apoptosis pathway in an eosinophilic leukemic cell line, AML14.3D10. Here, we report the ability of rfhSP-D to induce apoptosis via TNF-α/Fas-mediated pathway regardless of the p53 status in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma using Panc-1 (p53mt ), MiaPaCa-2 (p53mt ), and Capan-2 (p53wt ) cell lines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chengmin He, Zhi Yang, Ying Jin, Xiaoyang Qi, Jin Chu, Xiaoyuan Deng
Adult mammalian skin has a defective regenerative capacity following full-thickness cutaneous injury; this defect overshadows the complete physiological functions of the skin. Immune-mediated skin reconstruction driven by biological scaffolds is a recently developed innovative repair strategy to support regenerative wound healing. However, to date, little is known about how biological scaffolds orchestrate the immune response to promote regeneration. Here, using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) scaffolds, we discovered that the default pro-inflammatory response was altered in response to a pro-regenerative response characterized by specific M2 polarization...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stéphanie Val, Marian Poley, Krueger Anna, Gustavo Nino, Kristy Brown, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Diego Preciado
BACKGROUND: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is characterized by persistent middle ear effusions that are in most cases highly viscous, but some patients present with serous fluid. This study aimed at comprehensively characterizing the macromolecular composition of mucoid vs. serous middle ear effusions (MEEs). METHODS: MEEs from patients with COME were analyzed for proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) and western blot techniques, total DNA quantity, bacterial DNA (16S sequencing), and cytokine content...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Research
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