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Chuan Zhou, Dianping Ma, Wenming Cao, Haiming Shi, Yuanrong Jiang
Capsaicinoids are pungent components in hot peppers, which have been detected in waste cooking oil. However, trace analysis of capsaicinoids in edible and crude vegetable oils is a challenging task due to the complex matrix. In this study, a simple liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with RP-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of capsaicinoids in edible and crude vegetable oils to screen the adulteration with waste cooking oil. This method was used to simultaneously determine 3 capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin) with capsaicin-d3 , and dihydrocapsaicin-d3 as internal standards...
March 30, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Anjum Nawab, Feroz Alam, Mohammad Abdul Haq, Mohammad Samee Haider, Zubala Lutfi, Sheikh Kamaluddin, Abid Hasnain
In this study mango kernel starch (MKS) based heat sealable pouches were developed for packing of red chili powder. The films were prepared by casting technique using glycerol, sorbitol and 1:1 mixture of glycerol and sorbitol and were sealed. All films showed better heat sealing capacity but glycerol films plasticized exhibited higher seal strength than their counterparts. The red chili powder was packed in the MKS film pouches while commercially available polyethylene (PE) film was used as control. The pungency and color of red chili powder was monitored during six months storage at 40 °C...
March 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Joel Martínez, Julieta Rosas, Javier Pérez, Zenaida Saavedra, Vladimir Carranza, Pedro Alonso
A simple method for the extraction of two major capsaicinoids from habanero peppers, using near-infrared irradiation, microwave irradiation or ultrasound as the energy source and ethanol as the solvent, was compared with Soxhlet extraction. The extraction processes were monitored by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new processes offer better overall yields and a higher ratio of capsaicin to dihydrocapsaicin than Soxhlet extraction. The physical effect of the different energy sources on the peppers was determined using scanning electron microscopy...
March 27, 2018: Natural Product Research
Koeun Han, Hea-Young Lee, Na-Young Ro, On-Sook Hur, Joung-Ho Lee, Jin-Kyung Kwon, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Capsaicinoids are unique compounds produced only in peppers (Capsicum spp.). Several studies using classical quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping and genomewide association studies (GWAS) have identified QTLs controlling capsaicinoid content in peppers; however, neither the QTLs common to each population nor the candidate genes underlying them have been identified due to the limitations of each approach used. Here, we performed QTL mapping and GWAS for capsaicinoid content in peppers using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations and one GWAS population...
February 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Justin Kirke, Noah Kaplan, Stephanie Velez, Xiao-Lu Jin, Paveena Vichyavichien, Xing-Hai Zhang
A promoter is an essential structural component of a gene that controls its transcription activity in different development stages and in response to various environmental stimuli. Knowledge of promoter functionality in heterologous systems is important in the study of gene regulation and biotechnological application. In order to explore the activity of the pepper capsaicin synthase gene (PUN1) promoter, gene constructs of pPUN1::GUS (for β-glucuronidase) and pPUN1::NtKED (for a tobacco wound-responsive protein) were introduced into tobacco and tomato, respectively, and their activities were examined...
March 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Christina M Hochkogler, Barbara Lieder, Daniel Schachner, Elke Heiss, Annett Schröter, Joachim Hans, Jakob P Ley, Gerhard E Krammer, Veronika Somoza
Capsaicin, the highly pungent principle of red pepper, has been demonstrated to have anti-obesity properties by affecting energy and lipid metabolism. Recent evidence from human intervention trials shows that also less pungent capsaicin analogs, like nonivamide, may help to reduce total body fat, although mechanistic data comparing the effects of capsaicin and nonivamide on outcome measures of energy metabolism are lacking. Here, the tissue-specific effects of capsaicin and nonivamide on parameters of mitochondrial energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells are investigated...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
N Jeeatid, S Techawongstien, B Suriharn, S Chanthai, P W Bosland, S Techawongstien
Although water stress reduces fruit yield, it also increases capsaicinoid accumulation in hot pepper. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different water regimes on capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. having different pungency levels. Four hot pepper (C. chinense) cultivars were planted with four water regimes after anthesis: daily irrigation (control; S1), every 2 days (S2), every 3 days (S3) and every 4 days (S4). The results found that Akanee Pirote with the S2 treatment gave the highest capsaicinoid yield, and the increase of capsaicinoid yield was attributed from increasing the absolute capsaicinoid content and reducing the dry fruit yield as compared to the control...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jamie R Friedman, Nicholas A Nolan, Kathleen C Brown, Sarah L Miles, Austin T Akers, Kate W Colclough, Jessica M Seidler, John M Rimoldi, Monica A Valentovic, Piyali Dasgupta
The nutritional compound capsaicin is the major spicy ingredient of chili peppers. Although traditionally associated with analgesic activity, recent studies have shown that capsaicin has profound antineoplastic effects in several types of human cancers. However, the applications of capsaicin as a clinically viable drug are limited by its unpleasant side effects, such as gastric irritation, stomach cramps, and burning sensation. This has led to extensive research focused on the identification and rational design of second-generation capsaicin analogs, which possess greater bioactivity than capsaicin...
March 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Manikharda, Makoto Takahashi, Mika Arakaki, Kaoru Yonamine, Fumio Hashimoto, Kensaku Takara, Koji Wada
Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Roozbeh Farhoudi, Mohammad Amin Mehrnia, Dong-Jin Lee
The present study was designed to evaluate the contents of different antioxidants compounds and their antioxidant activities in Jalopeno peppers (Capsicum annuum) cultivars (El Dorido, Grande, Tula, Sayula and El Rey) extracts. Free radical scavenging activity of Grande was recorded as high as 87% followed by El Dorido (83%). Results of reducing power (Fe3+ to Fe2+ ) showed that Grande (0.85%) and El Dorido (0.81%) fruit extract absorbance value were close to synthetic antioxidant BHT (0. 97%) obtained at100 μg/mL...
December 6, 2017: Natural Product Research
Pompy Patowary, Manash Pratim Pathak, Kamaruz Zaman, P S Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Capsaicin, a well known vanilloid, has shown evidence of an ample variety of biological effects which make it the target of extensive research ever since its identification. In spite of the fact that capsaicin causes health hazards in quite a few ways, yet, the verity cannot be ignored that capsaicin has several therapeutic implications. In patients with hypersensitive bladders, vesical instillation of 1 mM capsaicin markedly improved urinary frequency and urge incontinence. Again, administration of capsaicin favors an augmentation in lipid mobilization and a decrease in adipose tissue mass...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Oguzhan Ozdemir, Vijaya Juturu
Objective: Capsaicinoids (CAPs), most commonly found in chili peppers, have a multitude of pharmacological and physiological effects, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that CAPs mitigate obesity in rats and the possible mechanisms thereof. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into six groups, including control (±10 mg CAPs/kg body weight [BW]), low-fat-high-sucrose diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW), and high-fat diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW)...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
J Marc Simard, Xiaofeng Jia, Volodymyr Gerzanich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Tae Jin Kim, Jaehyuk Choi, Kil Won Kim, Soon Kil Ahn, Sun-Hwa Ha, Yongsoo Choi, Nam Il Park, Jae Kwang Kim
Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science
Rongwei Yan, Leilei Zhao, Junfei Tao, Yong Zou, Xinjun Xu
BACKGROUND: Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 (SFE-CO2 ) was utilized for extraction of capsaicin (CA) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCA) from Capsici Fructus, and then a two-step enrichment method about separating capsaicinoids from SFE-CO2 extracts was developed. The process involved extraction with aqueous methanol and crystallization by alkali-extraction and acid-precipitation. Finally, a consecutive high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) separation method was successfully applied in the purification of CA and DHCA from capsaicinoids crystal...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Wang-Kyun Ryu, Hee-Woong Kim, Geun-Dong Kim, Hae-Ik Rhee
Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid-liquid extraction and liquid-liquid extraction in test tubes followed by a colorimetric analysis on the capsaicinoids by a selective chromogenic reaction with Gibbs reagent (2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide)...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Muwen Lu, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang
Capsaicinoids are active constituents responsible for the pungent and spicy flavor in chili peppers. During the past few decades, various extraction methods of capsaicinoids from peppers have been developed with high yields. Through biological studies, pharmacological benefits have been reported such as pain relief, antiinflammation, anticancer, cardio-protection, as well as weight loss. In this paper, the extraction methods and bioavailability of capsaicinoids are reviewed and discussed. In addition, the pharmacological effects and their underlying mechanisms are also studied...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Tea Stipcovich, Gerardo F Barbero, Marta Ferreiro-González, Miguel Palma, Carmelo G Barroso
A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with a C18 reverse-phase fused-core column has been developed for the determination and quantification of the main capsaicinoids (nornordihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in Naga Jolokia peppers. A fused-core Kinetex™ C18 column (50×2.1mm i.d.; 2.6μm) was used for the analysis. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a gradient method in which the mobile phase was water (0...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
R Ananthan, K Subhash, T Longvah
The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
D Alvarez-Berdugo, L Rofes, V Arreola, A Martin, L Molina, P Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal sensory impairment is a potential target to treat swallowing dysfunction in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). AIM: To assess the therapeutic effect of stimulating oropharyngeal sensory afferents with TRPV1, TRPA1, or TRPM8 agonists vs increasing bolus viscosity in older and neurologic patients with OD by comparing four studies of similar experimental design. METHODS: Swallow function of 142 older patients with impaired safety of swallow at nectar ([50-350] mPa·s) viscosity was evaluated with videofluoroscopy (VFS) while treated with TRPV1 (150 μmol/L), TRPV1/A1 (150 μmol/L and 1 mmol/L), or TRPM8 (1 mmol/L or 10 mmol/L) agonists or modified starch (MS) at spoon thick viscosity (>1750 mPa·s)...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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