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Sarpras M, Rashmi Gaur, Vineet Sharma, Sushil Satish Chhapekar, Jharna Das, Ajay Kumar, Satish Kumar Yadava, Mukesh Nitin, Vijaya Brahma, Suresh K Abraham, Nirala Ramchiary
Bhut jolokia, commonly known as Ghost chili, a native Capsicum species found in North East India was recorded as the naturally occurring hottest chili in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2006. Although few studies have reported variation in pungency content of this particular species, no study till date has reported detailed expression analysis of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoids (pungency) biosynthesis pathway and other fruit metabolites. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the diversity of fruit morphology, fruiting habit, capsaicinoids and other metabolite contents in 136 different genotypes mainly collected from North East India...
2016: PloS One
Padma Nimmakayala, Venkata L Abburi, Thangasamy Saminathan, Suresh B Alaparthi, Aldo Almeida, Brittany Davenport, Marjan Nadimi, Joshua Davidson, Krittika Tonapi, Lav Yadav, Sridhar Malkaram, Gopinath Vajja, Gerald Hankins, Robert Harris, Minkyu Park, Doil Choi, John Stommel, Umesh K Reddy
Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. The study identified 1189 haplotypes containing 3413 SNPs. Length of individual linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks varied along chromosomes, with regions of high and low LD interspersed with an average LD of 139 kb. Principal component analysis (PCA), Bayesian model based population structure analysis and an Euclidean tree built based on identity by state (IBS) indices revealed that the clustering pattern of diverse accessions are in agreement with capsaicin content (CA) and fruit weight (FW) classifications indicating the importance of these traits in shaping modern pepper genome...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
N Sahin, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, V Juturu, K Sahin
1. To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from Capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n=180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22(o)C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34(o)C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kg for 12 weeks (2x3 factorial arrangement). 2. The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66...
November 21, 2016: British Poultry Science
Zi-Xin Zhang, Shu-Niu Zhao, Gao-Feng Liu, Zu-Mei Huang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Shan-Han Cheng, Shi-Sen Lin
The Indian pepper 'Guijiangwang' (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world's hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper's expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zahira Fernández-Bedmar, Angeles Alonso-Moraga
: The purpose of this study is to determine the nutraceutic potential of different Capsicum sp, capsaicin, capsanthin and lutein and provide data in order to clarify the conflicting results obtained for capsaicin by different authors. To achieve these objectives, in vivo (geno/antigenotoxicity and lifespan assays in the animal model Drosophila) and in vitro (cytotoxicity and DNA-fragmentation assays in HL60 promyelocytic cell line) assays were carried out. Results showed that i) none of the tested substances were genotoxic except green hot pepper and capsaicin at the highest tested concentration (5 mg/mL and 11...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Choon Yoong Cheok, Babak Sobhi, Noranizan Mohd Adzahan, Jamilah Bakar, Russly Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Shahrim Ab Karim, Zulkafli Ghazali
Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is an exotic traditional Southeast Asian condiment prepared using mainly fresh chilies and fermented shrimp paste (belacan) which attributed to strong pungent fishy odor. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation (EBI) exposure on CSP for microorganisms decontamination, and its physicochemical qualities changes. Changes in capsaicinoid contents and volatile compounds were analyzed using HPLC and GC-MS. Mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae decreased as irradiation dose increasing from 0 to 10kGy...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Rouven Heck, Sabrina Hermann, Dominique J Lunter, Rolf Daniels
The purpose of this study was to develop film-forming formulations facilitating long-term treatment of chronic pruritus with capsaicinoids. To this end, an oily solution of nonivamide was loaded into porous silica particles which were then suspended in the dispersion of a sustained release polymer. Such formulations form a film when applied to the skin and encapsulate the drug loaded silica particles in a dry polymeric matrix. Dermal delivery and permeation of the antipruritic drug nonivamide (NVA) are controlled by the matrix...
November 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Phitchan Sricharoen, Nattida Lamaiphan, Pongpisoot Patthawaro, Nunticha Limchoowong, Suchila Techawongstien, Saksit Chanthai
Due to its wide use in nutritional therapy, a capsicum oleoresin extraction from hot chilli pepper was optimized using ultrasound assisted extraction. Under optimal conditions, a 0.1g sample in 10mL of a 20% water in methanol solution was extracted at 50°C for 20min to remove phytochemicals consisting of oleoresin, phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids, capsaicinoids (pungency level), reducing sugars. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the crude extracts from 14 chilli pepper varieties were examined. The antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of some phenolic compounds were also tested individually...
August 12, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sebastiaan Bijttebier, Anastasia Van der Auwera, Kenn Foubert, Stefan Voorspoels, Luc Pieters, Sandra Apers
It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation...
September 7, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Angela M Chapa-Oliver, Laura Mejía-Teniente
Capsaicinoids are plant secondary metabolites, capsaicin being the principal responsible for the pungency of chili peppers. It is biosynthesized through two pathways involved in phenylpropanoid and fatty acid metabolism. Plant capsaicin concentration is mainly affected by genetic, environmental and crop management factors. However, its synthesis can be enhanced by the use of elicitors. Capsaicin is employed as food additive and in pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, it has been found that capsaicin can act as a cancer preventive agent and shows wide applications against various types of cancer...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gyu Min Lee, Dong Ho Suh, Eun Sung Jung, Choong Hwan Lee
To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste), metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice) and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens) affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gerardo F Barbero, Ana C de Aguiar, Ceferino Carrera, Ángel Olachea, Marta Ferreiro-González, Julian Martínez, Miguel Palma, Carmelo G Barroso
The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS...
August 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Fray M Baas-Espinola, Lizbeth A Castro-Concha, Felipe A Vázquez-Flota, María L Miranda-Ham
Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vijaya Juturu
Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
E K Lenzi, A Novatski, P V Farago, M A Almeida, S F Zawadzki, R Menechini Neto
We present a generalmodel based on fractional diffusion equation coupled with a kinetic equation through the boundary condition. It covers several scenarios that may be characterized by usual or anomalous diffusion or present relaxation processes on the surface with non-Debye characteristics. A particular case of this model is used to investigate the experimental data obtained from the drug release of the capsaicinoids-loaded Poly (ε-caprolactone) microparticles. These considerations lead us to a good agreement with experimental data and to the conjecture that the burst effect, i...
2016: PloS One
Khomendra Kumar Sarwa, Bhaskar Mazumder, Preeti K Suresh, Chanchal Deep Kaur
Semipurified capsaicinoids extract was isolated from Bhut Jolokia variety of capsicum indigenous to North East India and encapsulated into nanolipid vesicles. Formulation ingredients were selected with respect to topical application to treat various inflammation skeletomuscular disorders. Prepared formulation was tested on rat animal model and its acceptability was assessed on human volunteers. Prepared formulation passed all the requisite physical test parameters and exhibited good antiarthritic as well as analgesic properties...
June 14, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Ken G Sweat, Jennifer Broatch, Connie Borror, Kyle Hagan, Thomas M Cahill
The variability of capsaicinoid content of three common, commercially-available hot pepper varieties, namely Jalapeño, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia, was investigated. For each variety tested, ten peppers were acquired from each of ten different suppliers resulting in 100 peppers per variety that were individually analyzed. The results showed that different pepper varieties had different distribution types. The Habanero peppers showed a normal distribution; the Bhut Jolokia showed a skewed distribution and the Jalapeño peppers showed a very skewed distribution...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
A Tremblay, H Arguin, S Panahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
N R Fuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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