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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132379/effects-of-somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-on-motor-function-and-cortical-oscillations
#1
Adelyn P Tu-Chan, Nikhilesh Natraj, Jason Godlove, Gary Abrams, Karunesh Ganguly
BACKGROUND: Few patients recover full hand dexterity after an acquired brain injury such as stroke. Repetitive somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) is a promising method to promote recovery of hand function. However, studies using SES have largely focused on gross motor function; it remains unclear if it can modulate distal hand functions such as finger individuation. OBJECTIVE: The specific goal of this study was to monitor the effects of SES on individuation as well as on cortical oscillations measured using EEG, with the additional goal of identifying neurophysiological biomarkers...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024709/caffeine-administration-alters-the-behaviour-and-development-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae
#2
Ronan Maguire, Martin Kunc, Pavel Hyrsl, Kevin Kavanagh
The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6...
October 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020648/ambient-black-carbon-particulate-matter-in-the-coal-region-of-dhanbad-india
#3
S Singh, S Tiwari, P K Hopke, C Zhou, J R Turner, A S Panicker, P K Singh
Light-absorbing, atmospheric particles have gained greater attention in recent years because of their direct and indirect impacts on regional and global climate. Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosol is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties in the global direct aerosol radiative forcing remain large. Based on a year of aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths, BC concentrations were investigated in Dhanbad, the coal capital of India. Coal is routinely burned for cooking and residential heat as well as in small industries...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983087/climate-of-doubt-a-re-evaluation-of-b%C3%A3-ntgen-and-di-cosmo-s-environmental-hypothesis-for-the-mongol-withdrawal-from-hungary-1242-ce
#4
Zsolt Pinke, László Ferenczi, Beatrix F Romhányi, József Laszlovszky, Stephen Pow
In their recent article published in the journal Scientific Reports, Büntgen and Di Cosmo have attempted to solve the historical mystery of the sudden Mongol withdrawal from Hungary after a year-long occupation. We cannot share the authors' viewpoint that environmental circumstances contributed to the decision of the Mongols to abandon Hungary since the hypothesis lacks support from environmental, archaeological and historical evidence. Historical source material in particular suggests that the Mongols were able to settle and sustain their herds in Hungary as is clearly stated in a letter by King Bela IV to the pope...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951736/classification-of-hand-grasp-kinetics-and-types-using-movement-related-cortical-potentials-and-eeg-rhythms
#5
Mads Jochumsen, Cecilie Rovsing, Helene Rovsing, Imran Khan Niazi, Kim Dremstrup, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako
Detection of single-trial movement intentions from EEG is paramount for brain-computer interfacing in neurorehabilitation. These movement intentions contain task-related information and if this is decoded, the neurorehabilitation could potentially be optimized. The aim of this study was to classify single-trial movement intentions associated with two levels of force and speed and three different grasp types using EEG rhythms and components of the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) as features. The feature importance was used to estimate encoding of discriminative information...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940011/guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-in-critically-ill-patients-part-i-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm-2017
#6
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Bram Rochwerg, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Sophia Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients. PARTICIPANTS: A multispecialty task force of 16 international experts in Critical Care Medicine, endocrinology, and guideline methods, all of them members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and/or the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DESIGN/METHODS: The recommendations were based on the summarized evidence from the 2008 document in addition to more recent findings from an updated systematic review of relevant studies from 2008 to 2017 and were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
September 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938253/guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-in-critically-ill-patients-part-i-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm-2017
#7
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Bram Rochwerg, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients. PARTICIPANTS: A multispecialty task force of 16 international experts in critical care medicine, endocrinology, and guideline methods, all of them members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and/or the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DESIGN/METHODS: The recommendations were based on the summarized evidence from the 2008 document in addition to more recent findings from an updated systematic review of relevant studies from 2008 to 2017 and were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
December 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844812/antidepressant-like-effects-of-3-carboxamido-seco-nalmefene-3cs-nalmefene-a-novel-opioid-receptor-modulator-in-a-rat-ifn-%C3%AE-induced-depression-model
#8
Charlotte K Callaghan, Jennifer Rouine, Reginald L Dean, Brian I Knapp, Jean M Bidlack, Daniel R Deaver, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving the cytokine immunotherapy, interferon-alpha (IFN-α) frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments. Patients (25-80%) report symptoms of depression, including, anhedonia, irritability, fatigue and impaired motivation. Our lab has previously demonstrated treatment (170,000IU/kg sc, 3 times per week for 4weeks) of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IFN-α, induced a depressive phenotype in rats in the forced swim test (FST). Here, we examine the biological mechanisms underlying behavioral changes induced by IFN-α, which may be reflective of mechanisms underlying inflammation associated depression...
January 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818004/identification-and-treatment-of-augmentation-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome-practical-recommendations
#9
REVIEW
James Geyer, Richard Bogan
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic disorder causing clinically significant discomfort to approximately 3% of adults. Although RLS was first identified centuries ago, our understanding of this disorder, its causes, and its treatments is still evolving. In particular, our knowledge of the potential negative effects of RLS treatments, including dopaminergic augmentation, continues to expand. Augmentation, which refers to a paradoxical treatment-related increase in RLS symptoms, has been associated with all three dopamine agonists approved for the treatment of RLS - rotigotine, pramipexole, and ropinirole...
September 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812206/differences-in-femoral-neck-structure-between-elderly-caucasian-and-chinese-populations-a-cross-sectional-study-of-perth-beijing-cohorts
#10
L Wang, B C C Khoo, X G Cheng, K Brown, J R Lewis, Y B Su, Z Guo, K Li, R L Prince
Structural skeletal differences of the femoral neck of older Beijing-Chinese and Perth-Caucasian women were compared; adjusting for frame size-related differences, Beijing-Chinese have lower periosteal width; however, indices of internal bone distribution suggest that Beijing-Chinese may exhibit increased resistance to fracture that may relate to the reduced hip fracture incidence. INTRODUCTION: Ethnic differences in skeletal structure may relate to differences in hip fracture risk in Chinese and Caucasian populations...
August 15, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797108/natural-disease-history-of-mouse-models-for-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-types-2d-and-2f
#11
S Pasteuning-Vuhman, K Putker, C L Tanganyika-de Winter, J W Boertje-van der Meulen, L van Vliet, M Overzier, J J Plomp, A Aartsma-Rus, M van Putten
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F (LGMD 2D and 2F) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the alpha- and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively, leading to severe muscle weakness and degeneration. The cause of the disease has been well characterized and a number of animal models are available for pre-clinical studies to test potential therapeutic interventions. To facilitate transition from drug discovery to clinical trials, standardized procedures and natural disease history data were collected for these mouse models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736006/advantages-of-epidural-analgesia-on-pulmonary-functions-in-liver-transplant-donors
#12
H K Atalan, B Gucyetmez, R Donmez, A Kargi, K Y Polat
OBJECTIVE: Epidural analgesia (EA) has positive effects on anesthetic requirement, blood loss, postoperative analgesia, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of EA on postoperative PFTs in liver transplant donors (LTDs). METHODS: In the present study, 66 LTDs were classified as total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and TIVA+EA groups. Patient's age, sex, body mass index, induction and maintenance dose of propofol (IDP and MDP), operation duration, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, visual analog scale (VAS), atelectasis scores, and lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays were recorded...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644883/effects-of-dietary-inclusion-of-high-concentrations-of-crude-glycerin-on-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-feedlot-fed-nellore-bulls
#13
Eric H C B van Cleef, André P D'Áurea, Vanessa R Fávaro, Flavia O S van Cleef, Robson S Barducci, Marco T C Almeida, Otávio R Machado Neto, Jane M B Ezequiel
Crude glycerin, the main by-product of biodiesel production, can replace dietary energy sources, such as corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% of crude glycerin in dry matter (DM) of the total diets, and its effects on meat quality parameters of feedlot Nellore bulls. Thirty animals (227.7 ± 23.8 kg body weight; 18 months old) were housed in individual pens and fed 5 experimental diets, containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30% crude glycerin (DM basis). After 103 d (21 d adaptation) animals were slaughtered and the Longissimus muscle was collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579770/proteasome-activity-related-with-the-daily-physical-activity-of-copd-patients
#14
Kang-Yun Lee, Tzu-Tao Chen, Ling-Ling Chiang, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Po-Hao Feng, Wen-Te Liu, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Shu-Chuan Ho
BACKGROUND: COPD is a debilitating disease that affects patients' daily lives. One's daily physical activity (DPA) decreases due to multifactorial causes, and this decrease is correlated with a poor prognosis in COPD patients. Muscle wasting may at least be partly due to increased activity of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and apoptosis. METHODS: This study investigated the relationships among DPA, circulating proteasome activity, and protein carbonyl in COPD patients and healthy subjects (HSs)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555126/altered-motor-unit-discharge-coherence-in-paretic-muscles-of-stroke-survivors
#15
Chenyun Dai, Nina L Suresh, Aneesha K Suresh, William Zev Rymer, Xiaogang Hu
After a cerebral stroke, a series of changes at the supraspinal and spinal nervous system can alter the control of muscle activation, leading to persistent motor impairment. However, the relative contribution of these different levels of the nervous system to impaired muscle activation is not well understood. The coherence of motor unit (MU) spike trains is considered to partly reflect activities of higher level control, with different frequency band representing different levels of control. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to quantify the different sources of contribution to altered muscle activation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513598/yap-taz-link-cell-mechanics-to-notch-signalling-to-control-epidermal-stem-cell-fate
#16
Antonio Totaro, Martina Castellan, Giusy Battilana, Francesca Zanconato, Luca Azzolin, Stefano Giulitti, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
How the behaviour of somatic stem cells (SCs) is influenced by mechanical signals remains a black-box in cell biology. Here we show that YAP/TAZ regulation by cell shape and rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) dictates a pivotal SC decision: to remain undifferentiated and grow, or to activate a terminal differentiation programme. Notably, mechano-activation of YAP/TAZ promotes epidermal stemness by inhibition of Notch signalling, a key factor for epidermal differentiation. Conversely, YAP/TAZ inhibition by low mechanical forces induces Notch signalling and loss of SC traits...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376622/mechanical-loading-influences-the-viscoelastic-performance-of-the-resin-carious-dentin-complex
#17
Manuel Toledano, Raquel Osorio, Modesto T López-López, Fátima S Aguilera, Franklin García-Godoy, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Estrella Osorio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the mechanical behavior and bonding capability of Zn-doped resin-infiltrated caries-affected dentin interfaces. Dentin surfaces were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (PA) followed by application of a dentin adhesive, single bond (SB) (PA+SB) or by 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by SB (EDTA+SB). ZnO microparticles of 10 wt. % or 2 wt. % ZnCl2 was added into SB, resulting in the following groups: PA+SB, PA+SB-ZnO, PA+SB-ZnCl2, EDTA+SB, EDTA+SB-ZnO, EDTA+SB-ZnCl2...
April 4, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363171/severe-soft-tissue-injuries-of-the-upper-extremity-in-motor-vehicle-crashes-involving-partial-ejection-the-protective-role-of-side-curtain-airbags
#18
Robert Kaufman, Laura Fraade-Blanar, Angelo Lipira, Jeffrey Friedrich, Eileen Bulger
INTRODUCTION: Partial ejection (PE) of the upper extremity (UE) can occur in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) resulting in complex and severe soft tissue injuries (SSTI). This study evaluated the relationship between partial ejection and UE injuries, notably SSTIs, in MVCs focusing on crash types and characteristics, and further examined the role of side curtain airbags (SCABs) in the prevention of partial ejection and reducing SSTI of the UE. METHODS: Weighted data was analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) from 1993 to 2012...
May 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357395/new-insights-into-the-function-of-a-versatile-class-of-membrane-molecular-motors-from-studies-of-myxococcus-xanthus-surface-gliding-motility
#19
COMMENT
Tâm Mignot, Marcelo Nöllmann
Cell motility is a central function of living cells, as it empowers colonization of new environmental niches, cooperation, and development of multicellular organisms. This process is achieved by complex yet precise energy-consuming machineries in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Bacteria move on surfaces using extracellular appendages such as flagella and pili but also by a less-understood process called gliding motility. During this process, rod-shaped bacteria move smoothly along their long axis without any visible morphological changes besides occasional bending...
March 2, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346344/increased-force-variability-is-associated-with-altered-modulation-of-the-motorneuron-pool-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#20
Zheng Wang, Minhyuk Kwon, Suman Mohanty, Lauren M Schmitt, Stormi P White, Evangelos A Christou, Matthew W Mosconi
Force control deficits have been repeatedly documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). They are associated with worse social and daily living skill impairments in patients suggesting that developing a more mechanistic understanding of the central and peripheral processes that cause them may help guide the development of treatments that improve multiple outcomes in ASD. The neuromuscular mechanisms underlying force control deficits are not yet understood. Seventeen individuals with ASD and 14 matched healthy controls completed an isometric index finger abduction test at 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during recording of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to determine the neuromuscular processes associated with sustained force variability...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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