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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735500/adherence-to-copd-management-guidelines-in-general-practice-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
J Sehl, J O'Doherty, R O'Connor, B O'Sullivan, A O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive illness that is mostly managed in the general practice setting. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines are the international gold standard, and it is important to understand how these are being applied in general practice. AIMS: This review aimed to assess the current level of adherence to international best practice guidelines among general practitioners in relation to COPD...
July 22, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735461/pneumonia-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-vaccine
#2
REVIEW
Gyu-Lee Kim, Seung-Han Seon, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Pneumonia is an inflammatory disease of the lung, responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms. Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive bacterium with over 90 serotypes, is the most common causative agent. Moreover, comorbid factors including heart failure, renal disease, and pulmonary disease could increase the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. Since the advent of the pneumococcal vaccine in the 1980s, the incidence of pneumonia has decreased significantly...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734822/icotinib-versus-whole-brain-irradiation-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-multiple-brain-metastases-brain-a-multicentre-phase-3-open-label-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Jin-Ji Yang, Caicun Zhou, Yisheng Huang, Jifeng Feng, Sun Lu, Yong Song, Cheng Huang, Gang Wu, Li Zhang, Ying Cheng, Chengping Hu, Gongyan Chen, Li Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hong Hong Yan, Fen Lai Tan, Wenzhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734808/-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-manifesting-as-neonatal-respiratory-distress-in-an-hiv-exposed-uninfected-newborn
#4
A Pham, H El Mjati, N Nathan, F Kieffer, D Mitanchez
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common intrauterine infections, affecting approximately 1% of all live births. There are few reports on congenital CMV infections manifesting as isolated pneumonitis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of congenital CMV with neonatal respiratory distress affecting an HIV-exposed uninfected infant. This infant required noninvasive ventilation beginning within the first 15min of life. The initial chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacifications...
July 19, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734731/postnatal-corticosteroids-to-prevent-or-treat-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-who-might-benefit
#5
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
Newborn infants born very preterm are at high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which is associated with not only mortality but also adverse long-term neurological and respiratory outcomes in survivors. Postnatal corticosteroids might reduce the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or reduce its severity. However, it is important to minimize exposure to the potentially harmful effects of corticosteroids, particularly on the developing brain. Systemic corticosteroids started after the first week of life have shown the most benefit in infants at highest risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, whereas inhaled corticosteroids have little effect in children with established lung disease...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734185/primary-small-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-breast-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Abigail Tremelling, Selyne Samuel, Mary Murray
INTRODUCTION: Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (SCNCB) is a very uncommon type of breast cancer. Histology and morphology are virtually indistinguishable from small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung (SCNCL), mandating a search for a primary site elsewhere in the body. There is no standard approach to treatment as there are only a limited number of cases reported in the literature. This report summarizes a case of primary SCNCB and presents a review of the literature...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733892/comparison-of-recist-to-immune-related-response-criteria-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#7
Hee Kyung Kim, Mi Hwa Heo, Han Sang Lee, Jong-Mu Sun, Se-Hoon Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Keunchil Park, Myung-Ju Ahn
PURPOSE: Given that immune-related response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well evaluated, we assessed tumor response using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1) and immune-related response criteria (irRC) to identify atypical responses in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with immunotherapeutic agents. METHODS: Patients received immune-checkpoint inhibitors (pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, nivolumab, and durvalumab plus tremelimumab) to treat metastatic or recurrent NSCLC after failed platinum-based chemotherapy...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733840/identification-of-a%C3%A2-rare-coch-mutation-by-whole-exome-sequencing-implications-for-personalized-therapeutic-rehabilitation-in-an-austrian-family-with-non-syndromic-autosomal-dominant-late-onset-hearing-loss
#8
Thomas Parzefall, Alexandra Frohne, Martin Koenighofer, Andreas Kirchnawy, Berthold Streubel, Christian Schoefer, Wolfgang Gstoettner, Klemens Frei, Trevor Lucas
BACKGROUND: Non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing impairment is characteristically postlingual in onset. Genetic diagnostics are essential for genetic counselling, disease prognosis and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease. To date, 36 causative genes have been identified, many in only individual families. Gene selection for genetic screening by traditional methods and genetic diagnosis in autosomal dominant patients has therefore been fraught with difficulty. Whole-exome sequencing provides a powerful tool to analyze all protein-coding genomic regions in parallel, thus allowing the comprehensive screening of all known genes and associated alterations...
July 21, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733559/dynamics-of-egfr-mutations-in-plasma-recapitulates-the-clinical-response-to-egfr-tkis-in-nsclc-patients
#9
Liwen Xiong, Shaohua Cui, Jingyan Ding, Yun Sun, Longfu Zhang, Yizhuo Zhao, Aiqin Gu, Tianqing Chu, Huimin Wang, Hua Zhong, Xin Ye, Yi Gu, Xin Zhang, Min Hu, Liyan Jiang
OBJECTIVES: Genomic profiling using plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) represents a non-invasive alternative to tumor re-biopsy, which is challenging in clinical practice. The feasibility of dynamically monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status using serial plasma samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and its application in tracking clinical response and detection of resistance were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation-positive pre-TKI plasma and at least two post-TKI plasma collections were recruited to this study...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733428/tcr-repertoire-intratumor-heterogeneity-in-localized-lung-adenocarcinomas-an-association-with-predicted-neoantigen-heterogeneity-and-postsurgical-recurrence
#10
Alexandre Reuben, Rachel M Gittelman, Jianjun Gao, Jiexin Zhang, Erik Yusko, Chang-Jiun Wu, Ryan Emerson, Jianhua Zhang, Christopher M Tipton, Jun Li, Kelly Quek, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Runzhe Chen, Luis Vence, Tina Cascone, Marissa Vignali, Junya Fujimoto, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Edwin R Parra, Latasha D Little, Curtis Gumbs, Marie-Andrée Forget, Lorenzo Federico, Cara Haymaker, Carmen Behrens, Sharon Benzeno, Chantale Bernatchez, Boris Sepesi, Don L Gibbons, Jennifer A Wargo, William N William, Stephen G Swisher, John Heymach, Harlan Robins, J Jack Lee, Padmanee Sharma, James P Allison, P Andrew Futreal, Ignacio I Wistuba, Jianjun Zhang
Genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may be associated with postsurgical relapse of localized lung adenocarcinomas. Recently, mutations, through generation of neoantigens were shown to alter tumor immunogenicity through T cell responses. Here, we performed sequencing of the T cell receptor (TCR) in 45 tumor regions from 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas and observed substantial intratumor differences in T cell density and clonality with the majority of T cell clones restricted to individual tumor regions...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733270/evaluating-a-web-based-coaching-program-using-electronic-health-records-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-china-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Lan Wang, Lin He, Yanxia Tao, Li Sun, Hong Zheng, Yashu Zheng, Yuehao Shen, Suyan Liu, Yue Zhao, Yaogang Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and it continues to increase in developing countries. The World Health Organization expects COPD to be the third most common cause of death in the world by 2020. Effective and continuous postdischarge care can help patients to maintain good health. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) as an element of community health care is new technology in China. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Web-based coaching program using EHRs for physical function and health-related quality of life for patients with COPD in China...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733269/the-current-role-of-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#12
REVIEW
Gokoulakrichenane Loganadane, Lizza Hendriks, Cécile Le Péchoux, Antonin Levy
The incidence of brain metastases (BM) has increased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as a result of better systemic disease control and advances in imaging modalities. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been the mainstay treatment of multiple symptomatic brain metastases for years. A number of recent publications questioned its place in absence of survival and quality of life benefit (QoL) and the possible risk of long-term neurotoxicity. Omission or deferral of WBRT, alongside with strategies consisting of radiosurgery (SRS) or the delivery of systemic therapies alone, are more and more proposed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733185/fdg-pet-parameters-as-predictors-of-pathologic-response-and-nodal-clearance-in-patients-with-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemoradiation-and-surgery
#13
Andrea L Arnett, Ann T Packard, Kristin Mara, Aaron S Mansfield, Dennis A Wigle, Michael G Haddock, Sean S Park, Kenneth R Olivier, Yolanda I Garces, Kenneth W Merrell
OBJECTIVE: Pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is associated with improved outcomes in stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Conflicting results exist regarding the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting pCR. This study evaluated the association between post-CRT FDG-PET and pCR using novel FDG-PET parameters. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study included patients treated with CRT and resection...
April 19, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733103/broadband-diffuse-optical-characterization-of-elastin-for-biomedical-applications
#14
Sanathana Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Joo Sin Beh, Andrea Farina, Alberto Dalla Mora, Antonio Pifferi, Paola Taroni
Elastin is a key structural protein of dynamic connective tissues widely found in the extracellular matrix of skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. It is responsible for a range of diseases related to aging of biological tissues. The optical characterization of elastin can open new opportunities for its investigation in biomedical studies. In this work, we present the absorption spectra of elastin using a broadband (550-1350nm) diffuse optical spectrometer. Distortions caused by fluorescence and finite bandwidth of the laser source on estimated absorption were effectively accounted for in measurements and data analysis and compensated...
July 14, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732434/effects-of-intraperitoneal-injection-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-bronchiolitis-obliterans-in-mice-model
#15
Sakine Işık, Nevin Uzuner, Meral Karaman, Özkan Karaman, Müge Kıray, İlknur Kozanoğlu, Hüsnü Alper Bağrıyanık, Zeynep Arıkan-Ayyıldız, Melis Kartal Yandım, Yusuf Baran
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can ameliorate a variety of lung diseases such as asthma, lung fibrosis, and acute lung injury by its anti-inflammatory and immunmodulatory effects. In this study, we developed a mouse model of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and evaluated the effects of the intraperitoneal administration of BMSCs on lung histopathology and cytokine levels. 25 BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; control group (Group I), BO developed and 1x106 BMSCs-injected group (Group II), non-BO, 1x106 BMSCs-injected group (Group III), and BO developed and saline-injected group (Group IV)...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732380/characteristics-survival-and-risk-factors-of-chinese-young-lung-cancer-patients-the-experience-from-two-institutions
#16
Jianjie Li, Fan Yang, Xiao Li, Min Zhang, Ruozi Fu, Xiaodan Yin, Jun Wang
Limited data is available regarding lung cancer in Chinese young adults. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics, survival, and prognostic factors of young lung cancer patients in China. We reviewed demographic and clinical data, and survival information of 420 young patients (20-45 years old) diagnosed with lung cancer in two Chinese hospitals between 2000 and 2013. The results showed that lung cancer occurred more frequently (70%) and affected more males than females (43.8% vs 26.7%) in patients older than 36; whereas, more females were affected under age 35 (16...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732370/silibinin-an-old-drug-for-hematological-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Hai Zou, Xing-Xing Zhu, Guo-Bing Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yi Wu, Dong-Sheng Huang
Silibinin (silybin), a non-toxic natural polyphenolic flavonoid, is the principal and the most biologically active component of silymarin. It is efficient in the treatment of acute and chronic liver disorders caused by toxins, drug, alcohol, hepatitis, and gall bladder disorders. Further, in our previous studies, we explored the anti-cancer efficacy in common cancers, such as lung, prostatic, colon, breast, bladder, as well as, hepatocellular carcinoma. Interestingly, silibinin is still not solely limited to the treatment of these diseases...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#18
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732044/the-prognostic-impact-of-human-papillomavirus-status-following-treatment-failure-in-oropharyngeal-cancer
#19
Eesha Dave, Umut Ozbek, Vishal Gupta, Eric Genden, Brett Miles, Marita Teng, Marshall Posner, Krzysztof Misiukiewicz, Richard L Bakst
INTRODUCTION: Despite the human papillomavirus conferring a better prognosis in the primary treatment setting, the prognostic impact of viral status after treatment failure in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients is poorly understood. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 33 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC) patients with local and/or distant disease recurrence post-treatment, and looked at metastatic patterns, time to failure and survival patterns by HPV status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732018/carboplatin-with-intravenous-and-subsequent-oral-administration-of-vinorelbine-in-resected-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-real-world-set-up
#20
Vítězslav Kolek, Ivona Grygárková, Leona Koubková, Jana Skřičková, Jiřina Švecová, Dimka Sixtová, Jiří Bartoš, Aleš Tichopád
OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy is recommended for routine use in patients with Stage IIA, IIB or IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after complete resection. Results obtained for Stage IB were not conclusive. While vinorelbine plus cisplatin is the preferred choice after resection, combining vinorelbine with carboplatin promises improved compliance and delivery of drugs due to lower toxicity. We evaluated the impact of this option on treatment compliance and survival under real-world conditions...
2017: PloS One
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