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Njogu M Kimani, Josphat C Matasyoh, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Thomas J Schmidt
Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) threatening millions of peoples' lives with thousands infected. The disease is endemic in poorly developed regions of sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the kinetoplastid "protozoan" parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of infected tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. The few available drugs for treatment of this disease are highly toxic, difficult to administer, costly and unavailable to poor rural communities bearing the major burden of this infection...
April 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jing Lv, Yu Pan, Huijun Ju, Jinxin Zhou, Dengfeng Cheng, Hongcheng Shi, Yifan Zhang
Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is an attractive tool in stable transgene integration both in vitro and in vivo; and we introduced SB transposon into recombinant sodium-iodide symporter baculovirus system (Bac-NIS system) to facilitate long-term expression of recombinant sodium-iodide symporter. In our study, two hybrid baculovirus systems (Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR and Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) were successfully constructed and used to infect U87 glioma cells. After G418 selection screening, the Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR-U87 cells remained eGFP positive, at the 18(th) and 196(th) day post transfection (96...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Heeren M Gordhan, Stephen L Patrick, Maria I Swasy, Amber L Hackler, Mark Anayee, Jennifer E Golden, James C Morris, Daniel C Whitehead
Human African trypanosomiasis is a disease of sub-Saharan Africa, where millions are at risk for the illness. The disease, commonly referred to as African sleeping sickness, is caused by an infection by the eukaryotic pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei. Previously, a target-based high throughput screen revealed ebselen (EbSe), and its sulfur analog, EbS, to be potent in vitro inhibitors of the T. brucei hexokinase 1 (TbHK1). These molecules also exhibited potent trypanocidal activity in vivo. In this manuscript, we synthesized a series of sixteen EbSe and EbS derivatives bearing electron-withdrawing carboxylic acid and methyl ester functional groups, and evaluated the influence of these substituents on the biological efficacy of the parent scaffold...
February 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M F Bastida-Pozuelo, M M Sánchez-Ortuño
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Paediatric sleep problems are clinical conditions that often coexist with other mental health problems and meet criteria that warrant the implementation of screening procedures, including high prevalence, and significant clinical impact. Researchers have designed the BEARS, a user-friendly paediatric sleep screening tool that seems to increase the amount of sleep information recorded, as well as the likelihood of identifying sleep problems during routine health encounters. Nonetheless, there are no studies using the BEARS in Spanish-speaking samples...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Craig L Hanis, Susan Redline, Brian E Cade, Graeme I Bell, Nancy J Cox, Jennifer E Below, Eric L Brown, David Aguilar
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing appreciation for a series of less traditional risk factors that should not be ignored when considering type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. These include aortic stiffness, cardiac structure, impaired endothelial function and obstructive sleep apnea. They are associated to varying degrees with each disease categorization and with each other. It is not clear whether they represent additional complications, concomitants or antecedents of disease...
June 8, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Shahla Afsharpaiman, Ali Bagheri Hagh, Mohammad Kolbadi Nejad, Susan Amirsalari, Mohammad Torkaman
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross-sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child...
2015: Acta Medica Iranica
Sungano Mharakurwa, Mavis Sialumano, Kun Liu, Alan Scott, Philip Thuma
BACKGROUND: The emergence of parasite drug resistance, especially Plasmodium falciparum, persists as a major obstacle for malaria control and elimination. To develop effective public health containment strategies, a clear understanding of factors that govern the emergence and spread of resistant parasites in the field is important. The current study documents selection for chloroquine-sensitive malaria parasites by wild Anopheles arabiensis in southern Zambia. METHODS: In a 2,000-sq km region, mosquitoes were collected from human sleeping rooms using pyrethrum spray catches during the 2006 malaria transmission season...
2013: Malaria Journal
Amintehran Ebarhim, Ghalehbaghi Babak, Asghari Alimohammad, Jalilolghadr Shabnam, Ahmadvand Alireza, Foroughi Forough
OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems are experienced by 25-30 percent of children and adolescents, regardless of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is any relationship between gender or school entrance and sleep complaints. METHODS: From June 2008 to May 2009 children aged 2 to 12 years were selected by clustered randomization of families. The Persian version of the BEARS questionnaire (Bedtime problems, Excessive sleepiness, Awakenings during the night, Regularity of sleep, Snoring) with five domains was filled out by general pediatricians...
February 2013: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Salvatore P Insana, Martica Hall, Daniel J Buysse, Anne Germain
Sleep disturbances are core symptoms of posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), yet they bear less stigma than other PTSD symptoms. Given the growing number of returning military veterans, brief, valid assessments that identify PTSD in a minimally stigmatizing way may be useful in research and clinical practice. The study purpose was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A), and to examine its ability to identify PTSD cases among U.S. male military veterans...
April 2013: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Bhavneet Bharti, Ankit Mehta, Prahbhjot Malhi
Sleep problems are commonly encountered in children with a prevalence of 20-42 %. Sleep problem usually entails a sleep pattern that is unsatisfactory or cause of concern to the parent, child or physician. Children present to primary care physicians or pediatricians with mainly three types of sleep related problems-first group has disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (dyssomnias); second category (hypersomnias) is characterized by excessive sleepiness and third section represents abnormal activity or behavior during sleep, also classified as parasomnias...
June 2013: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Johannes Mathis
Daytime sleepiness is a complaint of about 5-10% in a normal population. The consequences, such as impaired performance and accidents at the workplace and while driving, have major impact on the affected and on society. According to Swiss federal statistics only 1-3% of all motor vehicle accidents are due to excessive daytime sleepiness, which is in great contrast to a figure of 10 to 20% of all accidents derived from scientific studies. Due to the inadequate statistical representation of the problem, insufficient countermeasures have been realized, and the state of drivers breaching traffic regulations is not adequately investigated in this respect...
May 2011: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
S R Ravikiran, P M Jagadeesh Kumar, K S Latha
We assessed 513 children (2-6 y = 252; 7-12 y = 261) who visited the pediatric outpatient of a rural medical college hospital, for sleep problems using BEARS tool. Sleep problems detected in the BEARS domains for preschool (2-6 years, n=252) and school children (7-12 years, n=261) were as follows: bedtime problems (33.3%vs 14.9% P< 0.001), excessive daytime sleepiness (32.5%vs 1.9% P<0.001), awakening during night (25%vs 11.87% P< 0.001), regularity and duration of sleep (19.84% vs 4.98% P< 0.001), and sleep disordered breathing (4...
March 2011: Indian Pediatrics
Maria Czarina Acelajado, David A Calhoun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resistant hypertension is found in an important and rapidly growing subset of the hypertensive population, and data characterizing this group of patients are limited. The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence on resistant hypertension, its risk factors, patient characteristics, and approach to diagnosis. We focus on important associations between resistant hypertension and primary aldosteronism and with obstructive sleep apnea. RECENT FINDINGS: Resistant hypertension comprises 20-35% of the general hypertensive population...
July 2009: Current Opinion in Cardiology
S W Bethea, J E Nestler
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of child-bearing age, and the diagnosis carries with it associated metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors that are likely linked to insulin resistance. Consequently, women affected by PCOS are at significant risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Aggressive screening for glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk factors should be performed in all PCOS patients, and, when indicated by symptomatology, affected women should be screened for sleep apnea...
December 2008: Panminerva Medica
Emmanuel O Ogbadoyi, Akinsunbo O Abdulganiy, Theophilus Z Adama, Joseph I Okogun
Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory. There is the urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. Root preparations of Annona senegalensis Pers. is claimed by traditional medicine practitioners to be effective in the treatment of sleeping sickness. Validation of this claim, evaluation of the therapeutic effects of other parts of the plant, and standardization of the preparations are necessary in order to fully exploit the chemotherapeutic potentials of this plant...
May 30, 2007: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Angela Roth-Isigkeit, Ute Thyen, Hartmut Stöven, Johanna Schwarzenberger, Peter Schmucker
OBJECTIVES: Pain among children and adolescents has been identified as an important public health problem. Most studies evaluating recurrent or chronic pain conditions among children have been limited to descriptions of pain intensity and duration. The effects of pain states and their impact on daily living have rarely been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived pain on the daily lives and activities of children and adolescents. In addition, we sought to delineate self-perceived triggers of pain among children and adolescents...
February 2005: Pediatrics
Judith A Owens, Victoria Dalzell
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a simple, 5-item pediatric sleep screening instrument, the BEARS (B=Bedtime Issues, E=Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, A=Night Awakenings, R=Regularity and Duration of Sleep, S=Snoring) in obtaining sleep-related information and identifying sleep problems in the primary care setting. SETTING: Pediatric residents' continuity clinic in a tertiary care children's hospital. METHODS: BEARS forms were placed in the medical records of a convenience sample of 2 to 12 year old children presenting for well child visits over the 5 month study period...
January 2005: Sleep Medicine
R Cartwright, A Luten, M Young, P Mercer, M Bears
To test that REM sleep and/or dreaming aid in the overnight regulation of negative mood, 60 student subjects, selected to have no current or past episodes of depression, were tested with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after two nights of laboratory sleep. There was a significant overnight effect of sleep on the Depression scale (Dep) both on a sleep-through night and a night of REM awakenings for dream recall. Pre-sleep Dep was significantly correlated with the affect in the first REM report. Although Dep scores were truncated due to the screening criteria, a subgroup of the 10 highest scorers differed from the 50 low scorers in the distribution of dream affect categories across the night...
October 19, 1998: Psychiatry Research
D W Robertson, E E Beedle, R Lawson, J D Leander
The [(biphenylyloxy)alkyl]imidazoles were found to be potent anticonvulsants. The most potent compound of the series, 1-[2- ([1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yloxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (4), had an ED50 of 15.5 mg/kg against maximal-electroshock-induced seizures in mice after oral administration; the horizontal screen ED50 was 320 mg/kg, revealing that the compound has a protective index of 21. Homologues bearing three- and four-carbon tethers between the imidazole and biphenylyloxy moieties were also active, but their potency was attenuated relative to 4...
May 1987: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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