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Lipid transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913621/identification-of-hepatic-lysophosphatidylcholine-acyltransferase-3-as-a-novel-target-gene-regulated-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE
#1
Amar Bahadur Singh, Jingwen Liu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) regulates many genes involved in lipid metabolism. Hepatic lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) has critical functions in triglycerides transport and ER stress response due to its unique ability to catalyze the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids. Previous studies identified liver X receptor as the transcription factor controlling LPCAT3 expression in mouse liver tissue. Here we show that the hepatic LPCAT3 gene is transcriptionally regulated by PPARδ...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913585/the-influence-of-placental-metabolism-on-fatty-acid-transfer-to-the-fetus
#2
Simone Perazzolo, Birgit Hirschmugl, Christian Wadsack, Gernot Desoye, Rohan M Lewis, Bram G Sengers
The factors determining Fatty acid transfer across the placenta are not fully understood. This study used a combined experimental and computational modelling approach to explore placental transfer of non-esterified fatty acids and identify rate-determining processes. The isolated perfused human placenta was used to study the uptake and transfer of [(13)C]-fatty acids and the release of endogenous fatty acids. Only 6.2 ± 0.8% of the maternal (13)C-fatty acids taken up by the placenta was delivered to the fetal circulation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913277/specific-stabilization-of-cftr-by-phosphatidylserine
#3
Ellen Hildebrandt, Netaly Khazanov, John C Kappes, Qun Dai, Hanoch Senderowitz, Ina L Urbatsch
The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, ABCC7) is a plasma membrane chloride ion channel in the ABC transporter superfamily. CFTR is a key target for cystic fibrosis drug development, and its structural elucidation would advance those efforts. However, the limited in vivo and in vitro stability of the protein, particularly its nucleotide binding domains, has made structural studies challenging. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylserine uniquely stimulates and thermally stabilizes the ATP hydrolysis function of purified human CFTR...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911896/different-mutations-in-a-p-type-atpase-transporter-in-leishmania-parasites-are-associated-with-cross-resistance-to-two-leading-drugs-by-distinct-mechanisms
#4
Christopher Fernandez-Prada, Isabel M Vincent, Marie-Christine Brotherton, Mathew Roberts, Gaétan Roy, Luis Rivas, Philippe Leprohon, Terry K Smith, Marc Ouellette
Leishmania infantum is an etiological agent of the life-threatening visceral form of leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) followed by a short administration of miltefosine (MF) is a drug combination effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions of India. Resistance to MF can be due to point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (MT). Here we show that mutations in MT are also observed in Leishmania AmB-resistant mutants. The MF-induced MT mutations, but not the AmB induced mutations in MT, alter the translocation/uptake of MF...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910983/investigation-and-intervention-of-autophagy-to-guide-cancer-treatment-with-nanogels
#5
Xudong Zhang, Xin Liang, Jianjun Gu, Danfeng Chang, Jinxie Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Yanqi Ye, Chao Wang, Wei Tao, Xiaowei Zeng, Gan Liu, Yongjun Zhang, Lin Mei, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells use autophagy to resist poor survival environmental conditions such as low PH, poor nutrients as well as chemical therapy. Nanogels have been used as efficient chemical drug carriers for cancer treatment. However, the effect of nanogels on autophagy is still unknown. Here, we used Rab proteins as the marker of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis and LC3 as the marker of autophagy to investigate the intracellular trafficking network of Rhodamine B (Rho)-labeled nanogels. The nanogels were internalized by the cells through multiple protein dependent endocytosis and micropinocytosis...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910773/giant-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-giganteus-agaricomycetes-enhances-adipocyte-differentiation-and-glucose-uptake-via-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-glucose-transporters-1-and-4-in-3t3-l1-cells
#6
Puvaneswari Paravamsivam, Chua Kek Heng, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Ravishankar Ram M, Umah Rani Kuppusamy
The edible mushroom Pleurotus giganteus was tested for its effect on adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. The basidiocarps of P. giganteus were soaked in methanol to obtain a crude methanol extract and then fractionated to obtain an ethyl acetate extract. In this study, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay, lipid accumulation using an Oil Red O assay, and glucose uptake using a fluorescence glucose uptake assay. Gene expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis with TaqMan primer...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908668/associations-between-urinary-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-and-air-pollutants-observed-in-a-randomized-crossover-exposure-to-steel-mill-emissions
#7
Guillaume Pelletier, Marc Rigden, Lisa Marie Kauri, Robin Shutt, Mamun Mahmud, Sabit Cakmak, Premkumari Kumarathasan, Errol M Thomson, Renaud Vincent, Gayle Broad, Ling Liu, Robert Dales
The effects of industrial air pollution on human health have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of urban air pollution which originates mostly from automotive transport. To better assess the health impacts of point sources of industrial air pollution, a randomized crossover exposure study was conducted. Sixty one young and healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to spend five consecutive eight-hour days near a steel mill or at a location five kilometres away. After a nine or sixteen-day washout period, volunteers spent another five consecutive days at the second site...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908266/is-metformin-a-perfect-drug-updates-in-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#8
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Kristiina Maria Huttunen, Łukasz Mateusiak, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Joanna Sikora
Metformin, a synthetic biguanide, is currently one of the most frequently recommended medications for type 2 diabetes treatment around the world. In this review, we present the latest discoveries in the pharmacokinetics of metformin, especially the role of transporters (e.g. Organic Cation Transporters OCTs, Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion transporters MATE) in oral absorption, distribution, elimination and biochemical effects of metformin in humans. We also review the associations between genetic variations of metformin transporters, their pharmacokinetics and drug efficacy or drug responses...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908258/neurotoxicity-induced-by-mephedrone-an-up-to-date-review
#9
Flaminia Pantano, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Roberta Pacifici, Alessandro di Luca, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Enrico Marinelli
Mephedrone is a β-ketoamphetamine belonging to the family of synthetic cathinones, an emerging class of designer drugs known for their hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties as well as for their abuse potential. The aim of this review was to examine the emerging scientific literature on the possible mephedrone-induced neurotoxicity, yet not well defined due to the limited number of experimental studies, mainly carried on animal models. Relevant scientific articles were identified from international literature databases (Medline, Scopus, etc...
November 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906712/inflammation-remodeling-and-other-factors-affecting-hdl-cholesterol-efflux
#10
Graziella E Ronsein, Tomáš Vaisar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a predictor of cardiovascular risk independent of HDL cholesterol levels. However, the molecular determinants of HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) are largely unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: The term HDL defines a heterogeneous population of particles with distinct size, shape, protein, and lipid composition. Cholesterol efflux is mediated by multiple pathways that may be differentially modulated by HDL composition...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#11
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903609/protein-sorting-at-the-er-golgi-interface
#12
REVIEW
Natalia Gomez-Navarro, Elizabeth Miller
Protein traffic is of critical importance for normal cellular physiology. In eukaryotes, spherical transport vesicles move proteins and lipids from one internal membrane-bound compartment to another within the secretory pathway. The process of directing each individual protein to a specific destination (known as protein sorting) is a crucial event that is intrinsically linked to vesicle biogenesis. In this review, we summarize the principles of cargo sorting by the vesicle traffic machinery and consider the diverse mechanisms by which cargo proteins are selected and captured into different transport vesicles...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902924/simple-mechanisms-of-early-life-simulation-model-on-the-origin-of-semi-cells
#13
Adrian Klein, Martin Bock, Wolfgang Alt
The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions...
November 27, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901065/pharmacological-characterization-of-a-high-affinity-p-tyramine-transporter-in-rat-brain-synaptosomes
#14
Mark D Berry, Shannon Hart, Anthony R Pryor, Samantha Hunter, Danielle Gardiner
p-Tyramine is an archetypal member of the endogenous family of monoamines known as trace amines, and is one of the endogenous agonists for trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR)1. While much work has focused on the function of TAAR1, very little is known about the regulation of the endogenous agonists. We have previously reported that p-tyramine readily crosses lipid bilayers and that its release from synaptosomes is non-exocytotic. Such release, however, showed characteristics of modification by one or more transporters...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898882/genome-scan-for-postmortem-carcass-traits-in-nellore-cattle
#15
G A Fernandes Júnior, R B Costa, G M F de Camargo, R Carvalheiro, G J M Rosa, F Baldi, D A Garcia, D G M Gordo, R Espigolan, L Takada, A F B Magalhães, T Bresolin, F L B Feitosa, L A L Chardulo, H N de Oliveira, L G de Albuquerque
Carcass traits measured after slaughter are economically relevant traits in beef cattle. In general, the slaughter house payment system is based on HCW. Ribeye area (REA) is associated with the amount of the meat in the carcass, and a minimum of backfat thickness (BFT) is necessary to protect the carcass during cooling. The aim of this study was to identify potential genomic regions harboring candidate genes affecting those traits in Nellore cattle. The data set used in the present study consisted of 1,756 Nellore males with phenotype records...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897980/protective-effects-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-tocopherol-and-oleic-acid-three-compounds-of-olive-oils-and-no-effect-of-trolox-on-7-ketocholesterol-induced-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-dysfunction-in-microglial-bv-2-cells
#16
Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Amira Zarrouk, Nadia Mekahli, Maryem Bezine, Randa Sghaier, Stéphane Grégoire, Lucy Martine, Philippe Durand, Emmanuelle Camus, Anne Vejux, Aymen Jabrane, Lionel Bretillon, Michel Prost, Thibault Moreau, Sofien Ben Ammou, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Lipid peroxidation products, such as 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), may be increased in the body fluids and tissues of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and trigger microglial dysfunction involved in neurodegeneration. It is therefore important to identify synthetic and natural molecules able to impair the toxic effects of 7KC. We determined the impact of 7KC on murine microglial BV-2 cells, especially its ability to trigger mitochondrial and peroxisomal dysfunction, and evaluated the protective effects of α- and γ-tocopherol, Trolox, and oleic acid (OA)...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895934/liposomal-delivery-systems-for-intestinal-lymphatic-drug-transport
#17
REVIEW
Hyeji Ahn, Ji-Ho Park
Intestinal lymphatic drug delivery has been widely studied because drugs can bypass the first-pass metabolism in the liver via the lymphatic route, which increases oral bioavailability. Various lipid-based nanoparticles have been used to deliver hydrophobic drugs to the lymphatic pathway. This review focuses on the liposomal delivery systems used for intestinal lymphatic drug transport. Liposomal formulations have attracted particular attention because they can stimulate the production of chylomicrons and the incorporated drugs readily associate with enterocyte-derived chylomicrons, enhancing lymphatic drug transport...
2016: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895225/loss-of-inositol-phosphorylceramide-sphingolipid-mannosylation-induces-plant-immune-responses-and-reduces-cellulose-content-in-arabidopsis
#18
Lin Fang, Toshiki Ishikawa, Emilie A Rennie, Gosia M Murawska, Jeemeng Lao, Jingwei Yan, Alex Yl Tsai, Edward E K Baidoo, Jun Xu, Jay D Keasling, Taku Demura, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Henrik Vibe Scheller, Jenny C Mortimer
Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ~25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase (GT) family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1 (EPC1), is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1)...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894594/alterations-of-golgi-organization-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cause-or-a-consequence
#19
REVIEW
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle of the secretory pathway involved in the post-translational modification and sorting of lipids and proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus is composed of stacks of cisternae organized in polarized manner, which are interconnected by membrane tubules to constitute the Golgi ribbon, located in the proximity of the centrosome. Besides the processing and transport of cargo, the Golgi complex is actively involved in the regulation of mitotic entry, cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis, representing a signalling platform for the control of several cellular functions, including signalling initiated by receptors located at the plasma membrane...
November 19, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894086/the-anti-tumor-drug-2-hydroxyoleic-acid-minerval-stimulates-signaling-and-retrograde-transport
#20
Maria L Torgersen, Tove Irene Klokk, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
2-hydroxyoleic acid (OHOA, Minerval®) is an example of a substance used for membrane lipid therapy, where the cellular membranes rather than specific proteins constitute the therapeutical target. OHOA is thought to mediate its anti-tumor effect by affecting the biophysical properties of membranes, which leads to altered recruitment and activation of amphitropic proteins, altered cellular signaling, and eventual cell death. Little is known about the initial signaling events upon treatment with OHOA, and whether the altered membrane properties would have any impact on the dynamic intracellular transport system...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
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