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Lipid transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666892/using-liprotides-to-deliver-cholesterol-to-the-plasma-membrane
#1
Henriette S Frislev, Janni Nielsen, Jesper Nylandsted, Daniel Otzen
Cholesterol (chol) is important in all mammalian cells as a modulator of membrane fluidity. However, its low solubility is a challenge for controlled delivery to membranes. Here we introduce a new tool to deliver chol to membranes, namely, liprotides, i.e., protein-lipid complexes composed of a fatty acid core decorated with partially denatured protein. We focus on liprotides prepared by incubating Ca2+ -depleted α-lactalbumin with oleic acid (OA) for 1 h at 20 °C (lip20) or 80 °C (lip80). The binding and membrane delivery properties of liprotides is compared to the widely chol transporter methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mBCD)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666397/insight-into-the-cold-adaptation-and-hemicellulose-utilization-of-cladosporium-neopsychrotolerans-from-genome-analysis-and-biochemical-characterization
#2
Rui Ma, Huoqing Huang, Yingguo Bai, Huiying Luo, Yunliu Fan, Bin Yao
The occurrence of Cladosporium in cold ecosystems has been evidenced long before, and most of the knowledge about nutrient utilization of this genus is sporadic. An alpine soil isolate C. neopsychrotolerans SL-16, showing great cold tolerance and significant lignocellulose-degrading capability, was sequenced to form a 35.9 Mb genome that contains 13,456 predicted genes. Functional annotation on predicted genes revealed a wide array of proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and lipid...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665429/autophagy-in-mammalian-neurodevelopment-and-implications-for-childhood-neurological-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Derek Marsh, Joanna M Dragich
Here we explore the neurodevelopmental aspects of macroautophagy (henceforth known as autophagy), the process by which cells remove and remodel their structure in a regulated and spatially restricted manner. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosolic substances, such as protein complexes, lipids, and organelles, are engulfed by an autophagic vesicle. Degradation occurs once an autophagosome fuses with a lysosome, allowing the macromolecular cargo sequestered within the autophagic vesicle to be recycled...
April 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665219/contactless-stimulation-and-control-of-biomimetic-nanotubes-by-calcium-ion-gradients
#4
Vladimir Kirejev, Baharan Ali Doosti, Mehrnaz Shaali, Gavin D M Jeffries, Tatsiana Lobovkina
Membrane tubular structures are important communication pathways between cells and cellular compartments. Studying these structures in their native environment is challenging, due to the complexity of membranes and varying chemical conditions within and outside of the cells. This work demonstrates that a calcium ion gradient, applied to a synthetic lipid nanotube, triggers lipid flow directed toward the application site, resulting in the formation of a bulge aggregate. This bulge can be translated in a contactless manner by moving a calcium ion source along the lipid nanotube...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664060/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-regulate-alveolar-fluid-clearance-during-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Song-Fan Yan, Yu Hao, Sheng-Wei Jin
Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute and lethal clinical syndrome that is characterized by the injury of alveolar epithelium, which impairs active fluid transport in the lung, and impedes the reabsorption of edema fluid from the alveolar space. This review aimed to discuss the role of pro-resolving mediators on the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ARDS. Data Sources: Articles published up to September 2017 were selected from the PubMed, with the keywords of "alveolar fluid clearance" or "lung edema" or "acute lung injury" or "acute respiratory distress syndrome", and "specialized pro-resolving mediators" or "lipoxin" or "resolvin" or "protectin" or "maresin" or "alveolar epithelial cells" or "aspirin-triggered lipid mediators" or "carbon monoxide and heme oxygenase" or "annexin A1"...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661875/hc2091-kills-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-targeting-the-mmpl3-mycolic-acid-transporter
#6
Huiqing Zheng, John T Williams, Garry B Coulson, Elizabeth R Haiderer, Robert B Abramovitch
Tuberculosis, caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a deadly disease that requires a long course of treatment. The emergence of drug resistant strains has driven efforts to discover new small molecules that can kill the bacterium. Here we report characterizations of the compound HC2091 that kills Mtb in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro , as well as inhibiting Mtb growth in macrophages. Whole genome sequencing of spontaneous resistant mutants to HC2091 identified single nucleotide variants in the mmpL3 mycolic acid transporter gene...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661132/transcriptional-development-of-phospholipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-different-intestinal-regions-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-fry
#7
Yang Jin, Rolf Erik Olsen, Mari-Ann Østensen, Gareth Benjamin Gillard, Sven Arild Korsvoll, Nina Santi, Arne Bjørke Gjuvsland, Jon Olav Vik, Jacob Seilø Torgersen, Simen Rød Sandve, Yngvar Olsen
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the high phospholipid (PL) requirement in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry is due to insufficient intestinal de-novo synthesis causing low lipoprotein (LP) production and reduced transport capacity of dietary lipids. However, in-depth ontogenetic analysis of intestinal PL and LP synthesis with the development of salmon has yet to be performed. Therefore, in this paper we used RNA-Seq technology to investigate the expression of genes involved in PL synthesis and LP formation throughout early developmental stages and associate insufficient expression of synthesis pathways in salmon fry with its higher dietary PL requirement...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661000/regulation-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#8
Marcel Mettlen, Ping-Hung Chen, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Gaudenz Danuser, Sandra L Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. It is responsible for the uptake of transmembrane receptors and transporters, for remodeling plasma membrane composition in response to environmental changes, and for regulating cell surface signaling. CME occurs via the assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits that concentrate cargo as they invaginate and pinch off to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition to the major coat proteins, clathrin triskelia and adaptor protein complexes, CME requires a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660940/age-dependent-changes-to-sphingolipid-balance-in-the-human-hippocampus-are-gender-specific-and-may-sensitize-to-neurodegeneration
#9
Timothy A Couttas, Nupur Kain, Collin Tran, Zac Chatterton, John B Kwok, Anthony S Don
The greatest risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is aging. The major genetic risk factor for AD is the ɛ4 allele of the APOE gene, encoding the brain's major lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (ApoE). The research community is yet to decipher why the ApoE4 variant pre-disposes to AD, and how aging causes the disease. Studies have shown deregulated levels of sphingolipids, including decreased levels of the neuroprotective signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and increased ceramide content, in brain tissue and serum of people with pre-clinical or very early AD...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660922/triglycerides-as-indicators-of-erythrocyte-hemoglobin-oxygen-binding-properties1
#10
Maria Fornal, Natalia Piergies, Ewa Pięta, Tomasz P Wrobel, Wojciech M Kwiatek, Czesława Paluszkiewicz, Jarosław Królczyk, Tomasz Grodzicki
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationships of clinical and laboratory parameters, with erythrocyte oxygen concentration. METHODS: The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults out of which 16 showed slightly higher blood pressure and were classified as individuals with prehypertension. For each individual, data were obtained on: systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), blood morphology, lipids profile, fibrinogen, hs-CRP. The erythrocyte oxygen concentration was assessed with the Raman spectroscopy technique...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660629/fatty-acid-profile-of-blood-plasma-and-oviduct-and-uterine-fluid-during-early-and-late-luteal-phase-in-the-horse
#11
B Drews, V Milojevic, K Giller, S E Ulbrich
During early pregnancy, the secretome of both oviduct and uterus serves as exchange medium for signaling factors between embryo and mother and provides the embryo with nutrients. The preimplantation embryo can utilize the fatty acids (FA) therein via direct incorporation into cell membrane lipid bilayers and for energy production via β-oxidation. The FA concentration and composition of the oviduct (OF) and uterine fluid (UF) might be regulated by ovarian hormones to meet the changing needs of the growing embryo...
April 7, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660280/comparison-of-linear-and-hyperbranched-polyether-lipids-for-liposome-shielding-by-18f-radiolabeling-and-positron-emission-tomography
#12
Karolin Wagener, Matthias Worm, Stefanie Pektor, Meike Schinnerer, Raphael Thiermann, Matthias Miederer, Holger Frey, Frank Rösch
Multifunctional and highly biocompatible polyether structures play a key role in shielding liposomes from degradation in the bloodstream, providing also multiple functional groups for further attachment of targeting moieties. In this work hyperbranched polyglycerol (hbPG) bearing lipids with long alkyl chain anchor are evaluated with respect to steric stabilization of liposomes. The branched polyether lipids possess a hydrophobic bis(hexadecyl)glycerol membrane anchor for the liposomal membrane. hbPG was chosen as a multifunctional alternative to PEG, enabling the eventual linkage of multiple targeting vectors...
April 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659562/organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-modulates-multiple-cardiometabolic-traits-through-effects-on-hepatic-thiamine-content
#13
Xiaomin Liang, Sook Wah Yee, Huan-Chieh Chien, Eugene C Chen, Qi Luo, Ling Zou, Meiling Piao, Arias Mifune, Ligong Chen, Meredith E Calvert, Sarah King, Frode Norheim, Janna Abad, Ronald M Krauss, Kathleen M Giacomini
A constellation of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dysregulated lipids, and elevations in blood glucose levels, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Analysis of data from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated that reduced-function polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter, OCT1 (SLC22A1), are significantly associated with higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the mechanism linking OCT1 to these metabolic traits remains puzzling...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658375/pharmacokinetic-alterations-in-poloxamer-407-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#14
Unji Lee, Mi Hye Kwon, Hee Eun Kang
1. Plasma lipid profile abnormalities in hyperlipidemia can potentially alter the pharmacokinetics of a drug in a complex manner. To evaluate these pharmacokinetic alterations in hyperlipidemia and to determine the underlying mechanism(s), poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemic rats (HL rats), a well-established animal model of hyperlipidemia have been used. 2. In this review, we summarize findings on the pathophysiological and gene expression changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in HL rats. We discuss pharmacokinetic changes in drugs metabolized primarily via hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in terms of alterations in hepatic intrinsic clearance (CL'int ), free fraction in plasma (fu ), and hepatic blood flow rate (QH ), depending on the hepatic excretion ratio, as well as drugs eliminated primarily by mechanisms other than hepatic CYPs...
April 16, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655867/short-term-sleep-deprivation-with-exposure-to-nocturnal-light-alters-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-drosophila
#15
Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Karen Kich Gomes, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Thaís Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Many studies have shown the effects of sleep deprivation in several aspects of health and disease. However, little is known about how mitochondrial bioenergetics function is affected under this condition. To clarify this, we developed a simple model of short-term sleep deprivation, in which fruit-flies were submitted to a nocturnal light condition and then mitochondrial parameters were assessed by high resolution respirometry (HRR). Exposure of flies to constant light was able to alter sleep patterns, causing locomotor deficits, increasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation, affecting mitochondrial activity, antioxidant defense enzymes and caspase activity...
April 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653287/detecting-the-functional-complexities-between-high-density-lipoprotein-mimetics
#16
Yoshitaka J Sei, Jungho Ahn, Taeyoung Kim, Eunjung Shin, Angel J Santiago-Lopez, Seung Soon Jang, Noo Li Jeon, Young C Jang, YongTae Kim
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis through its native roles like reverse cholesterol transport. The reconstitution of this natural nanoparticle (NP) has become a nexus between nanomedicine and multi-disease therapies, for which a major portion of HDL functionality is attributed to its primary scaffolding protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). ApoA1-mimetic peptides were formulated as cost-effective alternatives to apoA1-based therapies; reverse-4F (r4F) is one such peptide used as part of a nanoparticle platform...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651895/structural-biology-of-solute-carrier-slc-membrane-transport-proteins
#17
Xiaoyun Bai, Trevor F Moraes, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
The human solute carriers (SLCs) comprise over 400 different transporters, organized into 65 families ( http://slc.bioparadigms.org/ ) based on their sequence homology and transport function. SLCs are responsible for transporting extraordinarily diverse solutes across biological membranes, including inorganic ions, amino acids, lipids, sugars, neurotransmitters and drugs. Most of these membrane proteins function as coupled symporters (co-transporters) utilizing downhill ion (H+ or Na+ ) gradients as the driving force for the transport of substrate against its concentration gradient into cells...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650752/lipid-transfer-proteins-in-the-assembly-of-apob-containing-lipoproteins
#18
Alaa Sirwi, M Mahmood Hussain
A better understanding of intracellular lipoprotein assembly may help identify proteins with important roles in lipid disorders. ApoB-containing lipoproteins are macromolecular lipid and protein micelles that act as specialized transport vehicles for hydrophobic lipids. They are assembled predominantly in enterocytes and hepatocytes to transport dietary and endogenous fat, respectively, to different tissues. Assembly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and is dependent on lipid re-synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum and on a chaperone, namely microsomal triglyceride transfer protein...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649689/high-fat-diet-alters-pas-kinase-regulation-by-fasting-and-feeding-in-liver
#19
Ana Pérez-García, Pilar Dongil, Verónica Hurtado-Carneiro, Enrique Blázquez, Carmen Sanz, Elvira Álvarez
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population, along with their associated complications, is a major factor contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The liver is a vital organ for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, especially in the adjustment periods in fasting and feeding. Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK) controls glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism in response to nutritional status. PASK-deficient mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) resist the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis, with improved insulin sensitivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649335/molecular-characterization-of-the-lipophorin-receptor-in-the-crustacean-ectoparasite-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#20
Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Sussie Dalvin, Qaiser Waheed, Frank Nilsen, Rune Male
The Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a marine ectoparasite of salmonid fish in the Northern Hemisphere and considered as a major challenge in aquaculture and a threat to wild populations of salmonids. Adult female lice produce a large number of lipid-rich eggs, however, the mechanism of maternal lipid transport into developing eggs during salmon louse reproduction has not been described. In the present study, a full-length L. salmonis lipophorin receptor (LsLpR) consisting of 16 exons was obtained by RACE and RT-PCR...
2018: PloS One
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