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Lipid transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036927/chinese-olive-canarium-album-l-fruit-extract-attenuates-metabolic-dysfunction-in-diabetic-rats
#1
Yu-Te Yeh, An-Na Chiang, Shu-Chen Hsieh
Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. CO-EtOAc, rich in gallic acid and ellagic acid, could markedly decreased the body weight and epididymal adipose mass. In addition, CO-EtOAc increased serum HDL-C levels, hepatic GSH levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities; lowered blood glucose, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), bile acid, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα); and reduced TC and TG in liver...
October 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035931/bioactive-lipids-in-osteoarthritis-risk-or-benefit
#2
Andreea Ioan-Facsinay, Margreet Kloppenburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipids are bioactive molecules that can affect several biological functions. Technological developments allowing identification of novel lipid species and the study of their function have led to a significant advance in our understanding of lipid biology and their involvement in various diseases. This is particularly relevant for diseases associated with obesity in which lipid accumulation could be involved in pathogenesis. Here, we focus on osteoarthritis, a chronic joint disease aggravated by obesity, and will present the latest findings regarding the involvement of lipids in disease development and progression...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035781/lack-of-myeloid-fatp1-increases-atherosclerotic-lesion-size-in-ldlr-mice
#3
Liyang Zhao, Alyssa J Cozzo, Amy R Johnson, Taylor Christensen, Alex J Freemerman, James E Bear, Jeremy D Rotty, Brian J Bennett, Liza Makowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Altered metabolism is an important regulator of macrophage (MΦ) phenotype, which contributes to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Broadly, pro-inflammatory, classically-activated MΦs (CAM) are glycolytic while alternatively-activated MΦs (AAM) oxidize fatty acids, although overlap exists. We previously demonstrated that MΦ fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1, Slc27a1) was necessary to maintain the oxidative and anti-inflammatory AAM phenotype in vivo in a model of diet-induced obesity...
October 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035751/intercellular-transfer-of-pathogenic-%C3%AE-synuclein-by-extracellular-vesicles-is-induced-by-the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxynonenal
#4
Shi Zhang, Erez Eitan, Tsung-Yu Wu, Mark P Mattson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by accumulations of toxic α-synuclein aggregates in vulnerable neuronal populations in the brainstem, midbrain, and cerebral cortex. Recent findings suggest that α-synuclein pathology can be propagated transneuronally, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Advances in the genetics of rare early-onset familial PD indicate that increased production and/or reduced autophagic clearance of α-synuclein can cause PD. The cause of the most common late-onset PD is unclear, but may involve metabolic compromise and oxidative stress upstream of α-synuclein accumulation...
September 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035735/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-genes-pathways-associated-with-experimental-resistance-to-paromomycin-in-leishmania-donovani
#5
Aditya Verma, Vasundhra Bhandari, Deepak Kumar Deep, Shyam Sundar, Jean Claude Dujardin, Ruchi Singh, Poonam Salotra
Widespread resistance towards antimony and reports of relapses following miltefosine treatment has severely affected the management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin (PMM), an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been licensed for VL treatment in India in 2007. Although its use is still restricted in the field, unraveling the molecular mechanism of resistance towards PMM is the key to preserve the drug. In this study, PMM resistant lines were selected up to 100 μM of PMM in three distinct field isolates of Leishmania donovani at promastigote stage...
October 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administrated-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-ob-ob-mice
#6
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be anti-diabetic. Herein, further study on the effect of orally administrated BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032359/nanodisc-based-kinetic-assays-reveal-distinct-effects-of-phospholipid-head-groups-on-the-phosphoenzyme-transition-of-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-atpase
#7
Kazuo Yamasaki, Takashi Daiho, Stefania Danko, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroshi Suzuki
Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase catalyzes ATP-driven Ca(2+) transport from the cytoplasm to the lumen and is critical for a range of cell functions including muscle relaxation. Here, we investigated the effects of the head groups of the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl glycerophospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase embedded into a nanodisc, a lipid-bilayer construct harboring the specific lipid...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032333/glucagon-like-peptide-1-improves-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-by-suppressing-the-mir-27a-induced-downregulation-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a1
#8
Yue Yao, Yi Xu, Wei Wang, Jinchao Zhang, Qiang Li
Lipotoxicity is considered one of the main causes of deterioration in β-cells function. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been revealed to protect and improve pancreatic β-cell function against lipotoxicity. However, the mechanism behind these is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced lipotoxicity in INS-1 cells and examine the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was determined, and caspase-3 was used to assess the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced apoptosis...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031774/the-evolution-of-apolipoprotein-b-and-its-mrna-editing-complex-does-the-lack-of-editing-contribute-to-hypertriglyceridemia
#9
L Damsteegt Erin, Andrew Davie, P Mark Lokman
The evolution of apolipoprotein B (Apob) has been intensely researched due to its importance during lipid transport. Mammalian full-length apob100 can be post-transcriptionally edited by the enzyme apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like complex-one (Apobec1) resulting in a truncated Apob, known as Apob48. Whilst both full-length and truncated forms of Apob are important for normal lipid homeostasis in mammals, there is no evidence for the presence of apob mRNA editing prior to the divergence of the mammals, yet, non-mammalian vertebrates appear to function normally with only Apob100...
October 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031613/pathogenic-mutations-of-the-human-mitochondrial-citrate-carrier-slc25a1-lead-to-impaired-citrate-export-required-for-lipid-dolichol-ubiquinone-and-sterol-synthesis
#10
Homa Majd, Martin S King, Anthony C Smith, Edmund R S Kunji
Missense mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier, encoded by the SLC25A1 gene, lead to an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterised by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development, often resulting in early death. Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate by more than 70%, indicating that impaired citrate transport is the most likely primary cause of the disease...
October 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031588/swertisin-rich-fraction-from-enicostema-littorale-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-fed-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotacin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#11
Priyanka Mokashi, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
INTRODUCTION: Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. A lot of research has been done on this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, there are no reports on flavonoids from E. littorale for its antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Swertisin rich flavonoid fraction (SRF) from Enicostema littorale blume and their mechanism of action...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030613/lipopolysaccharide-enters-the-rat-brain-by-a-lipoprotein-mediated-transport-mechanism-in-physiological-conditions
#12
Alejandra Vargas-Caraveo, Aline Sayd, Sandra R Maus, Javier R Caso, José L M Madrigal, Borja García-Bueno, Juan C Leza
Physiologically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is present in the bloodstream and can be bound to several proteins for its transport (i.e.) LPS binding protein (LBP) and plasma lipoproteins). LPS receptors CD14 and TLR-4 are constitutively expressed in the Central Nervous System (CNS). To our knowledge, LPS infiltration in CNS has not been clearly demonstrated. A naturalistic experiment with healthy rats was performed to investigate whether LPS is present with its receptors in brain. Immunofluorescences showed that lipid A and core LPS were present in circumventricular organs, choroid plexus, meningeal cells, astrocytes, tanycytes and endothelial cells...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030588/impaired-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-may-underlie-the-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-like-pathology-of-neonatal-testosterone-treated-female-rats
#13
Álvaro Anzai, Rodrigo R Marcondes, Thiago H Gonçalves, Kátia C Carvalho, Manuel J Simões, Natália Garcia, José M Soares, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Edmund C Baracat, Ismael D C G da Silva, Gustavo A R Maciel
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms involved in the development of NAFLD in PCOS are not well known. We investigated histological changes and metabolomic profile in the liver of rat models of PCOS phenotype induced by testosterone or estradiol. Two-day old female rats received sc injections of 1.25 mg testosterone propionate (Testos; n = 10), 0.5 mg estradiol benzoate (E2; n = 10), or vehicle (control group, CNT; n = 10)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030482/membrane-scission-driven-by-the-proppin-atg18
#14
Navin Gopaldass, Bruno Fauvet, Hilal Lashuel, Aurélien Roux, Andreas Mayer
Sorting, transport, and autophagic degradation of proteins in endosomes and lysosomes, as well as the division of these organelles, depend on scission of membrane-bound tubulo-vesicular carriers. How scission occurs is poorly understood, but family proteins bind these membranes. Here, we show that the yeast PROPPIN Atg18 carries membrane scission activity. Purified Atg18 drives tubulation and scission of giant unilamellar vesicles. Upon membrane contact, Atg18 folds its unstructured CD loop into an amphipathic α-helix that inserts into the bilayer...
October 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030479/lipids-at-membrane-contact-sites-cell-signaling-and-ion-transport
#15
REVIEW
Shmuel Muallem, Woo Young Chung, Archana Jha, Malini Ahuja
Communication between organelles is essential to coordinate cellular functions and the cell's response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Organellar communication occurs at membrane contact sites (MCSs), where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is tethered to cellular organelle membranes by specific tether proteins and where lipid transfer proteins and cell signaling proteins are located. MCSs have many cellular functions and are the sites of lipid and ion transfer between organelles and generation of second messengers...
October 13, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029577/a-novel-core-shell-lipid-nanoparticle-for-improving-oral-administration-of-water-soluble-chemotherapeutic-agents-inhibited-intestinal-hydrolysis-and-enhanced-lymphatic-absorption
#16
Tao Wang, Liao Shen, Zhen Zhang, Haiyan Li, Ri Huang, Yadan Zhang, Dongqin Quan
The oral administration of water-soluble chemotherapeutical agents is limited by their serious gastrointestinal side effects, instability at intestinal pH, and poor absorption. Aiming to solve these problems, we chose topotecan (TPT) as a model drug and developed a novel lipid formulation containing core-shell lipid nanoparticle (CLN) that makes the water-soluble drug to 'dissolve' in oil. TPT molecules can be encapsulated into nanoparticles surrounded by oil barrier while avoiding the direct contact with intestinal environment, thus easing the intestinal hydrolytic degradation and gastrointestinal (GI) irritation...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029205/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-integument
#17
Gustavo M Calderón-Fernández, Débora E Moriconi, Andrea B Dulbecco, M Patricia Juárez
The insect integument, formed by the cuticle and the underlying epidermis, is essential for insect fitness, regulation of lipid biosynthesis and storage, insect growth and feeding, together with development progress. Its participation in insecticide resistance has also been outlined. Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in South America; however, genomic data are scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the nymph integument in order to identify which genes are expressed and their putative role...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028831/short-term-vitamin-e-treatment-impairs-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-required-for-adipose-tissue-expansion-resulting-in-fatty-liver-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#18
Martin Alcala, Maria Calderon-Dominguez, Dolors Serra, Laura Herrero, Maria P Ramos, Marta Viana
OBJECTIVES: The use of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity remains controversial. Our aim is to demonstrate that antioxidant supplementation may promote negative effects if used before the establishment of oxidative stress due to a reduced ROS generation under physiological levels, in a mice model of obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 14 weeks, with (OE group) or without (O group) vitamin E supplementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026539/the-regulation-of-imf-deposition-in-pectoralis-major-of-fast-and-slow-growing-chickens-at-hatching
#19
Lu Liu, Huanxian Cui, Ruiqi Fu, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: The lipid from egg yolk is largely consumed in supplying the energy for embryonic growth until hatching. The remaining lipid in the yolk sac is transported into the hatchling's tissues. The gene expression profiles of fast- and slow-growing chickens, Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY), were determined to identify global differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways related to lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major at hatching. RESULTS: Between these two breeds, the absolute and weight-specific amounts of total yolk energy (TYE) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pectoralis major of fast-growing chickens were significantly higher (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026149/the-folding-stability-and-function-of-lactose-permease-differ-in-their-dependence-on-bilayer-lipid-composition
#20
Heather E Findlay, Paula J Booth
Lipids play key roles in Biology. Mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer influence their neighbouring membrane proteins, however it is unknown whether different membrane protein properties have the same dependence on membrane mechanics, or whether mechanics are tuned to specific protein processes of the protein. We study the influence of lipid lateral pressure and electrostatic effects on the in vitro reconstitution, folding, stability and function of a representative of the ubiquitous major facilitator transporter superfamily, lactose permease...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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