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Lipid transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454087/multi-step-splicing-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-linear-and-circular-rnas
#1
Ivan B Filippenkov, Olga Yu Sudarkina, Svetlana A Limborska, Lyudmila V Dergunova
The SGMS1 gene encodes the enzyme sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1), which is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, apoptosis, intracellular vesicular transport and other significant processes. The SGMS1 gene is located on chromosome 10 and has a size of 320 kb. Previously, we showed that dozens of alternative transcripts of the SGMS1 gene are present in various human tissues. In addition to mRNAs that provide synthesis of the SMS1 protein, this gene participates in the synthesis of non-coding transcripts, including circular RNAs (circRNAs), which include exons of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and are highly represented in the brain...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453982/glucagon-like-peptide-1-contributes-to-increases-abca1-expression-by-downregulating-mir-758-to-regulate-cholesterol-homeostasis
#2
Yue Yao, Qiang Li, Ping Gao, Wei Wang, Lili Chen, Jinchao Zhang, Yi Xu
Abnormal regulation of lipid metabolism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 as a new treatment for T2DM, has unique effects in modulating cholesterol homeostasis. However, the mechanism of this effect is largely missing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and examine the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was determined, and caspase-3 was used to detect the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced apoptosis...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453923/magnesium-upregulates-insulin-receptor-and-glucose-transporter-4-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Daniel Abiodun Adekunbi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of magnesium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress as well as the concentration of insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups designated as: 1) control (CTR); 2) diabetic untreated (DU); 3) diabetic treated with 1 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg1-D); and 4) diabetic treated with 2 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg2-D)...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452209/prolactin-improves-hepatic-steatosis-via-cd36-pathway
#4
Pengzi Zhang, Zhijuan Ge, Hongdong Wang, Wenhuan Feng, Xitai Sun, Xuehui Chu, Can Jiang, Yan Wang, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional polypeptide with effects on metabolism; however, little is known about its effect on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: The serum PRL levels of 456 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and 403 non-NAFLD controls diagnosed by ultrasound, and 85 subjects with liver histology obtained during metabolic surgery (44 female and 30 male NAFLD patients and 11 age-matched non-NAFLD female subjects) were evaluated...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451807/coenzyme-q-10-from-bench-to-clinic-in-aging-diseases-a-translational-review
#5
Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Jose M Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ 10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ 10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450934/imaging-proton-transport-in-giant-vesicles-through-cyclic-peptide-polymer-conjugate-nanotube-transmembrane-ion-channels
#6
Jason G Binfield, Johannes C Brendel, Neil R Cameron, Ahmed M Eissa, Sébastien Perrier
Since their discovery in 1993, interest in various aspects of cyclic peptides (CPs) has expanded rapidly. Of particular note is their potential to form artificial ion channels in lipid membranes, an attractive characteristic in supramolecular chemistry and biological research. The design and synthesis of cyclic peptide-polymer conjugates (CPPCs) that can self-assemble within lipid bilayers into nanotubes, mimicking naturally occurring membrane channels and pores, has been reported. However, methods that allow direct detection of the transport process with high levels of certainty are still lacking...
February 16, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450829/artificial-lipid-membrane-permeability-method-for-predicting-intestinal-drug-transport-probing-the-determining-step-in-the-oral-absorption-of-sulfadiazine-influence-of-the-formation-of-binary-and-ternary-complexes-with-cyclodextrins
#7
Alicia Delrivo, Carolina Aloisio, Marcela R Longhi, Gladys Granero
We propose an in vitro permeability assay by using a modified lipid membrane to predict the in vivo intestinal passive permeability of drugs. Two conditions were tested, one with a gradient pH (pH 5.5 donor/pH 7.4 receptor) and the other with an iso-pH 7.4. The predictability of the method was established by correlating the obtained apparent intestinal permeability coefficients (P app ) and the oral dose fraction absorbed in humans (f a ) of 16 drugs with different absorption properties. The P app values correlated well with the absorption rates under the two conditions, and the method showed high predictability and good reproducibility...
February 15, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450657/in-silico-identification-of-small-molecules-as-novel-lxr-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer
#8
Xin Wang, Kaimin Lu, Hao Luo, Danfeng Liang, Xin Long, Yuan Yuan, Chuanfang Wu, Jinku Bao
Liver X receptor (LXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, mainly serves as a reverse cholesterol transporter in lipid metabolism. It has been demonstrated that LXR is a promising target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. LXR is also involved in cancer metabolism, glucose homeostasis, immunity, and various physiological processes. The antitumor function of LXR has become of great interest to researchers in recent years. However, while it is believed that activating LXR with small molecules could be a promising approach to cancer treatment, effective drugs that target LXR are yet to be reported...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448196/bisphenol-s-induces-obesogenic-effects-through-deregulating-lipid-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#9
Weiwei Wang, Xiaona Zhang, Zihao Wang, Jingyu Qin, Wei Wang, Hua Tian, Shaoguo Ru
It has been suggested that dramatic increase in obesity may be caused by growing exposure to environmental chemicals. In vitro data has suggested bisphenol S (BPS), a compound widely used in polycarbonate plastic production, can induce lipid accumulation in preadipocytes. However, the mechanisms responsible for BPS-induced obesity in vivo remain unclear. In this study, we used translucent zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant BPS exposure (1, 10, and 100 μg/L from 2 h to 15 d post fertilization) on lipid accumulation, triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipoproteins content, and mRNA expression of genes involved in the regulation of lipid synthesis, transport, degradation, and storage...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447197/shotgun-proteomics-deciphered-age-division-of-labor-related-functional-specification-of-three-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l-exocrine-glands
#10
Toshiyuki Fujita, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Yutaro Hori, Jun Takeuchi, Takeo Kubo, Masaaki Oyama
The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447049/impact-of-acute-and-subchronic-inhalation-exposure-to-pbo-nanoparticles-on-mice
#11
J Lebedová, Z Nováková, Z Večeřa, M Buchtová, J Dumková, B Dočekal, L Bláhová, P Mikuška, I Míšek, A Hampl, K Hilscherová
Lead nanoparticles (NPs) are released into air from metal processing, road transport or combustion processes. Inhalation exposure is therefore very likely to occur. However, even though the effects of bulk lead are well known, there is limited knowledge regarding impact of Pb NPs inhalation. This study focused on acute and subchronic exposures to lead oxide nanoparticles (PbO NPs). Mice were exposed to PbO NPs in whole body inhalation chambers for 4-72 h in acute experiment (4.05 × 10 6 PbO NPs/cm 3 ), and for 1-11 weeks in subchronic experiment (3...
February 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444171/reduced-cognitive-function-increased-blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-inflammatory-responses-and-altered-brain-metabolites-in-ldlr-and-c57bl-6-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#12
Jennifer M Rutkowsky, Linda L Lee, Michelle Puchowicz, Mari S Golub, Douglas E Befroy, Dennis W Wilson, Steven Anderson, Gary Cline, Jason Bini, Kamil Borkowski, Trina A Knotts, John C Rutledge
Recent work suggests that diet affects brain metabolism thereby impacting cognitive function. Our objective was to determine if a western diet altered brain metabolism, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport and inflammation, and induced cognitive impairment in C57BL/6 (WT) mice and low-density lipoprotein receptor null (LDLr -/-) mice, a model of hyperlipidemia and cognitive decline. We show that a western diet and LDLr -/- moderately influence cognitive processes as assessed by Y-maze and radial arm water maze...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443946/a-comparative-study-of-human-saposins
#13
María Garrido-Arandia, Bruno Cuevas-Zuviría, Araceli Díaz-Perales, Luis F Pacios
Saposins are small proteins implicated in trafficking and loading of lipids onto Cluster of Differentiation 1 (CD1) receptor proteins that in turn present lipid antigens to T cells and a variety of T-cell receptors, thus playing a crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. Despite their low sequence identity, the four types of human saposins share a similar folding pattern consisting of four helices linked by three conserved disulfide bridges. However, their lipid-binding abilities as well as their activities in extracting, transporting and loading onto CD1 molecules a variety of sphingo- and phospholipids in biological membranes display two striking characteristics: a strong pH-dependence and a structural change between a compact, closed conformation and an open conformation...
February 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441875/influence-of-slco1b1-polymorphisms-on-atorvastatin-efficacy-and-safety-in-macedonian-subjects
#14
K Mladenovska, A Daka Grapci, M Vavlukis, A Kapedanovska, A Eftimov, N Matevska Geshkovska, D Nebija, A J Dimovski
Atorvastatin, as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, is a widely prescribed medication for the treatment of dyslipidemia. However, despite its clinical efficacy in reducing major cardiovascular events, a wide inter-individual variability in its response exists. Several studies in this area point to the effect of polymorphisms in the solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding the multiple organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) involved in hepatic uptake of atorvastatin...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440748/structural-properties-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-mimetic-peptides-that-promote-abca1-dependent-cholesterol-efflux
#15
Rafique M Islam, Mohsen Pourmousa, Denis Sviridov, Scott M Gordon, Edward B Neufeld, Lita A Freeman, B Scott Perrin, Richard W Pastor, Alan T Remaley
Peptides mimicking the major protein of highdensity lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are promising therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases. Similar to apoA-I, their atheroprotective property is attributed to their ability to form discoidal HDL-like particles by extracting cellular cholesterol and phospholipids from lipid microdomains created by the ABCA1 transporter in a process called cholesterol efflux. The structural features of peptides that enable cholesterol efflux are not well understood...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440498/structure-of-a-zosuquidar-and-uic2-bound-human-mouse-chimeric-abcb1
#16
Amer Alam, Raphael Küng, Julia Kowal, Robert A McLeod, Nina Tremp, Eugenia V Broude, Igor B Roninson, Henning Stahlberg, Kaspar P Locher
The multidrug transporter ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that has a key role in protecting tissues from toxic insult and contributes to multidrug extrusion from cancer cells. Here, we report the near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structure of nucleotide-free ABCB1 trapped by an engineered disulfide cross-link between the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and bound to the antigen-binding fragment of the human-specific inhibitory antibody UIC2 and to the third-generation ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438437/a-novel-lpl-intronic-variant-g-18704c-a-identified-by-re-sequencing-kuwaiti-arab-samples-is-associated-with-high-density-lipoprotein-very-low-density-lipoprotein-and-triglyceride-lipid-levels
#17
Suzanne A Al-Bustan, Ahmad Al-Serri, Babitha G Annice, Majed A Alnaqeeb, Wafa Y Al-Kandari, Mohammed Dashti
The role interethnic genetic differences play in plasma lipid level variation across populations is a global health concern. Several genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport are strong candidates for the genetic association with lipid level variation especially lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The objective of this study was to re-sequence the full LPL gene in Kuwaiti Arabs, analyse the sequence variation and identify variants that could attribute to variation in plasma lipid levels for further genetic association...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437989/galactoglycerolipid-lipase-pgd1-is-involved-in-thylakoid-membrane-remodeling-in-response-to-adverse-environmental-conditions-in-chlamydomonas
#18
Zhi-Yan Du, Ben Franklin Lucker, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Tarryn E Miller, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Barbara B Sears, David M Kramer, Christoph Benning
Photosynthesis occurs in the thylakoid membrane, where the predominant lipid is monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). As environmental conditions change, photosynthetic membranes have to adjust. In this study, we used a loss-of-function Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant deficient in the MGDG-specific lipase PGD1 (PLASTID GALACTOGLYCEROLIPID DEGRADATION1) to investigate the link between MGDG turnover, chloroplast ultrastructure, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to different adverse environmental conditions...
February 5, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437858/coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-simulations-reveal-lipid-access-pathways-in-p-glycoprotein
#19
Estefania Barreto-Ojeda, Valentina Corradi, Ruo-Xu Gu, D Peter Tieleman
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) exports a broad range of dissimilar compounds, including drugs, lipids, and lipid-like molecules. Because of its substrate promiscuity, P-gp is a key player in the development of cancer multidrug resistance. Although P-gp is one of the most studied ABC transporters, the mechanism by which its substrates access the cavity remains unclear. In this study, we perform coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to explore possible lipid access pathways in the inward-facing conformation of P-gp embedded in bilayers of different lipid compositions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437029/formulation-and-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-evaluation-of-tretinoin-loaded-cubosomal-gel-for-acne-treatment
#20
Gaurav Gupta, Shruti Sureka
OBJECTIVE: The current work was attempted to formulate and evaluate the topical sustained release delivery systems potential of bicontinuous cubic monoglyceride -water phases - 'cubosomes' containing Tretinoin with an opinion to sustain the release of drug in the acne treatment. METHODS: Tretinoin loaded cubosomes were prepared by bottom-up technique, by varying the concentration of lipid and surfactant and keeping the drug concentration constant, made a total of nine formulations of tretinoin as TCF...
February 13, 2018: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
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