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Lipid transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223733/mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-loss-of-ca2-exchanger-nclx-levels-occur-after-frataxin-depletion
#1
R Purroy, E Britti, F Delaspre, J Tamarit, J Ros
Frataxin-deficient neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and dorsal root ganglia neurons have been used as cell models of Friedreich ataxia. In previous work we show that frataxin depletion resulted in mitochondrial swelling and lipid droplet accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and compromised DRG neurons survival. Now, we show that these cells display reduced levels of the mitochondrial calcium transporter NCLX that can be restored by calcium-chelating agents and by external addition of frataxin fused to TAT peptide. Also, the transcription factor NFAT3, involved in cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, becomes activated by dephosphorylation in both cardiomyocytes and DRG neurons...
December 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223576/uptake-of-iron-iii-ethylenediamine-n-n-n-n-tetraacetic-acid-complex-by-phosphatidylcholine-lipid-film-part-i-effect-of-bulk-ph
#2
Masumi Villeneuve, Mihoko Tanaka, Natsumi Saito, Hiroyasu Sakamoto, Yoshiteru Hayami
We studied a ternary solutes aqueous solution of NaOH, iron (III)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid complex (Fe-edta), and 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC)/air interface system to clarify the interactions between iron complexes and lipids with a phosphatidylcholine head group. The solution surface tension and pH were measured as functions of the total molality of NaOH, Fe-edta and DHPC, and the mole fractions of NaOH and DHPC. Rigorous thermodynamic equations were derived, in which the overall proton dissociation equilibria of Fe-edta and DHPC were taken into consideration, and applied to experimental data to obtain phase diagram of adsorption...
December 6, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223569/isolated-mangiferin-and-naringenin-exert-antidiabetic-effect-via-ppar%C3%AE-glut4-dual-agonistic-action-with-strong-metabolic-regulation
#3
Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Amit K Keshari, Amit Rai, Pranesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Biswanath Maity, Dinesh Kumar, Anand Prakash, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Bolay Bhattacharya, Sudipta Saha
In this study, we isolated two compounds from the leaves of Salacia oblonga (SA1, mangiferin and SA2, naringenin), and their structures were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. SA1 and SA2 were orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, histopathology, docking, molecular parameters, and NMR-based metabolic perturbation studies were performed to investigate the pharmacological activities of SA1 and SA2...
December 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222644/membrane-shed-vesicles-from-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-characterization-and-their-association-with-cell-interaction
#4
Yesica R Nievas, Veronica M Coceres, Victor Midlej, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Patricia J Johnson, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222176/ca2-releases-e-syt1-autoinhibition-to-couple-er-plasma-membrane-tethering-with-lipid-transport
#5
Xin Bian, Yasunori Saheki, Pietro De Camilli
The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that bind the plasma membrane (PM) via C2 domains and transport lipids between them via SMP domains. E-Syt1 tethers and transports lipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but the role of Ca2+ in this regulation is unclear. Of the five C2 domains of E-Syt1, only C2A and C2C contain Ca2+-binding sites. Using liposome-based assays, we show that Ca2+ binding to C2C promotes E-Syt1-mediated membrane tethering by releasing an inhibition that prevents C2E from interacting with PI(4,5)P2-rich membranes, as previously suggested by studies in semi-permeabilized cells...
December 8, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221437/evolutionary-characterization-and-transcript-profiling-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-during-plant-development
#6
Floriana Gavazzi, Gaia Pigna, Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Laura Morello
BACKGROUND: Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220880/development-of-a-new-biochip-array-for-apoe4-classification-from-plasma-samples-using-immunoassay-based-methods
#7
Sigrun Badrnya, Tara Doherty, Ciaran Richardson, Robert I McConnell, John V Lamont, Michael Veitinger, Stephen P FitzGerald, Maria Zellner, Ellen Umlauf
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a key player in lipid transport and metabolism and exists in three common isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE4. The presence of the E4 allelic variant is recognized as a major genetic risk factor for dementia and other chronic (neuro)degenerative diseases. The availability of a validated assay for rapid and reliable APOE4 classification is therefore advantageous. METHODS: Biochip array technology (BAT) was successfully applied to identify directly the APOE4 status from plasma within 3 h, through simultaneous immunoassay-based detection of both specific APOE4 and total APOE levels...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220188/instability-mechanisms-of-water-in-oil-nanoemulsions-with-phospholipids-temporal-and-morphological-structures
#8
Jan-Hendrik Sommerling, Maria Betania Carreira de Matos, Ellen Hildebrandt, Alberto Dessy, Robbert J Kok, Hermann Nirschl, Gero Leneweit
Many food preparations, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics use water in oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized by phospholipids. Moreover, recent technological developments try to produce liposomes or lipid coated capsules from W/O emulsions, but are faced with colloidal instabilities. To explore these instability mechanisms, emulsification by sonication was applied in three cycles and the sample stability was studied for 3 hours after each cycle. Clearly identifiable temporal structures of instability provide evidence about the emulsion morphology: an initial regime of about 10 minutes is shown to be governed by coalescence after which Ostwald ripening dominates...
December 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219809/the-cell-wall-of-the-filamentous-anoxygenic-phototrophic-bacterium-oscillochloris-trichoides
#9
Olga I Keppen, Ruslan N Ivanovsky, Galina M Streshinskaya, Natalia V Lebedeva, Alexander S Shashkov, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Denis S Grouzdev
The filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides DG-6 has been studied, and it has been shown that there are no lipopolysaccharides on the cell surface. Fatty acids hydroxylated at the C3 position, amino sugars and phosphate-containing compounds characteristic of lipid A have also not been found. The genes encoding for proteins responsible for the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides and the genes for the transport system, usually localized in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, have not been detected in the genome...
December 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218349/core-hydrophobicity-tuning-of-a-self-assembled-particle-results-in-efficient-lipid-reduction-and-favorable-organ-distribution
#10
Bhabatosh Banik, Ru Wen, Sean Marrache, Anil Kumar, Nagesh Kolishetti, Elizabeth W Howerth, Shanta Dhar
Atherosclerosis, the deadliest disease in the United States, arises due to the build up of plaques in the arteries as a result of excessive cholesterol deposition and an impaired cholesterol removal process. High density lipoproteins (HDL), popularly known as "good cholesterol", are naturally occurring nano-sized particles that, along with apolipoproteins, are deployed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis in the body. Both cholesterol efflux, from the fat-laden macrophages in the arteries, and intracellular lipid transport, to deliver cholesterol to the mitochondria of liver cells for metabolism, hold key responsibilities to maintain healthy lipid levels inside the body...
December 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217594/glucose-induced-trophic-shift-in-an-endosymbiont-dinoflagellate-with-physiological-and-molecular-consequences
#11
Tingting Xiang, Robert E Jinkerson, Sophie Clowez, Cawa Tran, Cory J Krediet, Masayuki Onishi, Phillip A Cleves, John R Pringle, Arthur R Grossman
Interactions between the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium and its cnidarian hosts (e.g., corals, sea anemones) are the foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Carbon flow between the partners is a hallmark of this mutualism, but the mechanisms governing this flow and its impact on symbiosis remain poorly understood. We showed previously that although Symbiodinium strain SSB01 can grow photoautotrophically, it can grow mixotrophically or heterotrophically when supplied with glucose, a metabolite normally transferred from the alga to its host...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217473/impact-of-digestion-on-the-transport-of-dextran-loaded-self-emulsified-nanoemulsion-through-mdck-epithelial-cell-monolayer-and-rat-intestines
#12
Pulkit Khatri, Jun Shao
Many of the lipids and surfactants used to prepare the self-emulsified nanoemulsion (SEN) are subjected to the gastro-intestinal enzymatic digestion, which may affect the absorption of the loaded drug. The present study was to investigate the impact of such digestion on the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules (10-kDa dextran as the model compound) loaded in SEN through the MDCK cell monolayer and ex-vivo rat intestines. FITC-labeled dextran (FD) was loaded inside the inner oil phase of SEN by the formation of FD-phospholipid solid dispersion (FDPS)...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217371/reconstitution-of-the-activity-of-rnd-efflux-pumps-a-bottoms-up-approach
#13
Dhenesh Puvanendran, Quentin Cece, Martin Picard
Efflux pumps are systems devoted to the extrusion of noxious compounds. In this review, we discuss the various strategies that have thus far been undertaken for the investigation of efflux pumps after reconstitution into liposomes. It is challenging to uncover mechanisms and dynamics of efflux pumps due to a number of characteristics: their function depends on the correct assembly of three components and they span two adjacent membranes whose lipid compositions are very different. In addition, efflux pumps are active transporters that need energy to work...
December 4, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216827/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-brevibacterium-strains-insights-into-key-genetic-determinants-involved-in-adaptation-to-the-cheese-habitat
#14
Nguyen-Phuong Pham, Séverine Layec, Eric Dugat-Bony, Marie Vidal, Françoise Irlinger, Christophe Monnet
BACKGROUND: Brevibacterium strains are widely used for the manufacturing of surface-ripened cheeses, contributing to the breakdown of lipids and proteins and producing volatile sulfur compounds and red-orange pigments. The objective of the present study was to perform comparative genomic analyses in order to better understand the mechanisms involved in their ability to grow on the cheese surface and the differences between the strains. RESULTS: The genomes of 23 Brevibacterium strains, including twelve strains isolated from cheeses, were compared for their gene repertoire involved in salt tolerance, iron acquisition, bacteriocin production and the ability to use the energy compounds present in cheeses...
December 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213328/the-transcription-factors-hsf1-and-msn2-of-thermotolerant-kluyveromyces-marxianus-promote-cell-growth-and-ethanol-fermentation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-at-high-temperatures
#15
Pengsong Li, Xiaofen Fu, Lei Zhang, Zhiyu Zhang, Jihong Li, Shizhong Li
Background: High temperature inhibits cell growth and ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a complex phenotype, thermotolerance usually involves synergistic actions of many genes, thereby being difficult to engineer. The overexpression of either endogenous or exogenous stress-related transcription factor genes in yeasts was found to be able to improve relevant stress tolerance of the hosts. Results: To increase ethanol yield of high-temperature fermentation, we constructed a series of strains of S...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212874/the-na-k-h-exchanger-nhx1-controls-multivesicular-body-vacuolar-lysosome-fusion
#16
Mahmoud Abdul Karim, Christopher Leonard Brett
Loss-of-function mutations in human endosomal Na+(K+)/H+ Exchangers (NHEs) NHE6 and NHE9 are implicated in neurological disorders including Christianson Syndrome, autism and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These mutations disrupt retention of surface receptors within neurons and glial cells by affecting their delivery to lysosomes for degradation. However, the molecular basis of how these endosomal NHEs control endocytic trafficking is unclear. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we conducted cell-free organelle fusion assays to show that transport activity of the orthologous endosomal NHE Nhx1 is important for multivesicular body (MVB)-vacuolar lysosome fusion, the last step of endocytosis required for surface protein degradation...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212086/comparative-analyses-of-transport-proteins-encoded-within-the-genomes-of-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-hd100-and-bdellovibrio-exovorus-jss
#17
Fereshteh Heidari Tajabadi, Arturo Medrano-Soto, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Milton H Saier
Bdellovibrio, δ-proteobacteria, including B. bacteriovorus (Bba) and B. exovorus (Bex), are obligate predators of other Gram-negative bacteria. While Bba grows in the periplasm of the prey cell, Bex grows externally. We have analyzed and compared the transport proteins of these 2 organisms based on the current contents of the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org). Bba has 103 transporters more than Bex, 50% more secondary carriers, and 3 times as many MFS carriers. Bba has far more metabolite transporters than Bex as expected from its larger genome, but there are 2 times more carbohydrate uptake and drug efflux systems, and 3 times more lipid transporters...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211883/carcass-characteristics-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-wild-living-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-l
#18
P Janiszewski, D Murawska, V Hanzal, M Gesek, D Michalik, M Zawacka
The aim of this study was to determine the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of wild-living mallards. The experimental materials comprised 30 mallards (1:1 sex ratio) harvested during the hunting season in northeastern Poland. The carcasses were transported to the laboratory where they were weighed individually, plucked, dressed, and dissected. The proximate chemical composition and physicochemical properties of meat and the fatty acid profile of breast muscle lipids were determined, and a histological analysis was performed...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210464/ca2-and-lipid-signals-hold-hands-at-er-plasma-membrane-contact-sites
#19
Tamas Balla
Discovery of the STIM1 and Orai proteins as the principal components of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has drawn attention to contact sites between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Such contacts between adjacent membranes of different cellular organelles, primarily between the mitochondria and the ER, had already been known as the sites where Ca2+ released from the ER can be efficiently channeled to the mitochondria and also where phosphatidylserine synthesis and transfer takes place. Recent studies have identified contact sites between virtually every organelle and the ER and the functional importance of these small specialized membrane domains is increasingly recognized...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210417/reactive-oxygen-species-ros-responsive-nanomedicine-for-rnai-based-cancer-therapy
#20
Yang Li, Hongzhen Bai, Hebin Wang, Youqing Shen, Guping Tang, Yuan Ping
Although much effort has been dedicated to the development of efficient siRNA delivery for cancer therapy, delivery nanomaterials that can particularly respond to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are overproduced in the tissue and mitochondria of cancer cells, are still rare for the clinical translation of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapy. To this end, we developed a ROS-responsive boronic vehicle with a lipid envelope for systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA delivery so as to improve RNAi cancer therapy...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
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