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inflammation bowel disease

Yusuke Endo, Koutaro Yokote, Toshinori Nakayama
Chronic inflammation associated with obesity plays a major role in the development of metabolic diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Among Th subsets, Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, steroid-resistant asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Accumulating data suggest that reciprocal interactions between the metabolic systems and immune system play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases...
October 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ester Pagano, Raffaele Capasso, Fabiana Piscitelli, Barbara Romano, Olga A Parisi, Stefania Finizio, Anna Lauritano, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Angelo A Izzo, Francesca Borrelli
Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Clostridium difficile (CD) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for a spectrum of gastrointestinal illness ranging from asymptomatic carriage to toxic megacolon and death. The prevalence of CD infection is increasing in both hospitalized and community-based inflammatory bowel disease populations. Standard antibiotic therapy fails to cure or prevent recurrence in more than 50% of patients, thus increasing the need for alternative therapies. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has received renewed attention as a therapy for refractory or recurrent CD infection...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Anna Keppner, Sumedha Malsure, Antoine Nobile, Muriel Auberson, Olivier Bonny, Edith Hummler
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are diseases with impaired epithelial barrier function. We aimed to investigate whether mutated prostasin and thus, reduced colonic epithelial sodium channel activity predisposes to develop an experimentally dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Wildtype, heterozygous (fr/+), and homozygous (fr/fr) prostasin-mutant rats were treated 7 days with DSS followed by 7 days of recovery and analyzed with respect to histology, clinicopathological parameters, inflammatory marker mRNA transcript expression, and sodium transporter protein expression...
October 12, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Francesca Palone, Roberta Vitali, Salvatore Cucchiara, Maurizio Mennini, Alessandro Armuzzi, Daniela Pugliese, Renata DʼIncà, Brigida Barberio, Laura Stronati
BACKGROUND: Fecal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been suggested to be a novel noninvasive biomarker of gut inflammation. We aimed to assess the reliability of fecal HMGB1, compared with fecal calprotectin (FC), in detecting intestinal inflammation in pediatric and adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to evaluate the accuracy of HMGB1 in identifying patients with IBD in clinical and endoscopic remission who still have histologic features of inflammation. METHODS: Stool samples from 85 children with IBD (49 Crohn's disease [CD] and 36 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 119 adults [57 Crohn's disease and 62 ulcerative colitis]) were analyzed for the study...
October 13, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Haruka Yokota, Ayaka Tsuzuki, Yuki Shimada, Azusa Imai, Daichi Utsumi, Takuya Tsukahara, Misaki Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Kazumi Iwata, Akio Nakamura, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Shinichi Kato
NOX1/NADPH oxidase, a non-phagocytic isoform of reactive oxygen species-producing enzymes, is highly expressed in the colon, but the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this isoform are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of NOX1 in the development of colonic inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced murine colitis model. Intrarectal injection of TNBS caused severe colitis accompanied by body weight loss, diarrhea, and increased MPO activity in wild-type (WT) mice...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Susann Pankratz, Stefan Bittner, Beate E Kehrel, Harald F Langer, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Sven G Meuth, Kerstin Göbel
Beyond their indispensable role in hemostasis, platelets have shown to affect the development of inflammatory disorders, as they have been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to diseases featuring an inflammatory reaction in inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disorders. The identification of novel molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and to platelets has highlighted them as new targets for therapeutic interventions. In particular, genetic and pharmacological studies have identified an important role for platelets in neuroinflammation...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yaron Niv, Eyal Gal, Violeta Gabovitz, Marcela Hershkovitz, Lev Lichtenstein, Irit Avni
BACKGROUND AND THE STUDY AIM: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder defined as a transmural inflammation of the bowel wall, affecting the small and large intestine. The Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI or Niv score) was devised to measure mucosal disease activity. We extended the Niv score to the colon and have a comprehensive view of the whole intestine. METHODS: We evaluated 3 parameters of intestinal pathology: A, Inflammation; B, Extent of disease; C, Presence of strictures...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Abhik Bhattacharya, Bhavana B Rao, Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Benjamin Click, Eric J Vargas, Miguel Regueiro, Marc Schwartz, Jason M Swoger, Dmitriy Babichenko, Douglas Hartmann, Claudia R Rivers, Arthur Barrie, Jana G Hashash, Michael A Dunn, David G Binion
BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in clinical remission with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) have been labeled "silent CD" and have increased 2-year hospitalization rates when compared with asymptomatic patients with no biochemical evidence of inflammation. The risk of cumulative bowel damage in patients with silent CD is unknown. METHODS: Observational study of patients with CD prospectively followed in a tertiary referral natural history registry...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Hyun Sook Hong, Dae Yeon Hwang, Ju Hyeong Park, Suna Kim, Eun Jung Seo, Youngsook Son
Intestinal inflammation alters immune responses in the mucosa and destroys colon architecture, leading to serious diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, regulation of inflammation is regarded as the ultimate therapy for intestinal disease. Substance-P (SP) is known to mediate proliferation, migration, and cellular senescence in a variety of cells. SP was found to mobilize stem cells from bone marrow to the site of injury and to suppress inflammatory responses by inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Emire Seyahi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Takayasu arteritis has long been considered as an uncommon disease, rather specific to the Far-East; however recent surveys show that the disease can be seen in all ethnicities around the world with increasing prevalence rates. Nowadays, it would not be fair to consider Takayasu arteritis as a rare disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Although involvement of the thoracic aorta and its branches was more common among females, males had a tendency toward limited involvement of the abdominal aorta and its branches...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Mona Dixon Gundersen, Rasmus Goll, Johanna Hol, Trine Olsen, Renathe Rismo, Sveinung W Sørbye, Olav Sundnes, Guttorm Haraldsen, Jon Florholmen
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine preferentially elevated in acute ulcerative colitis (UC), inferring a role in its pathogenesis. The role of IL-33 in intestinal inflammation is incompletely understood, with both pro-inflammatory and regulatory properties described. There are also conflicting reports on cellular sources and subcellular location of IL-33 in the colonic mucosa, justifying a closer look at IL-33 expression in well-defined clinical stages of UC. A total of 50 study participants (29 UC patients and 21 healthy controls) were included from a prospective cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients treated to disease remission with infliximab, a tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) inhibitor...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Ning Dai
The barrier function of the intestine is essential for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the gut and mucosal immune system. Abnormalities in intestinal barrier function expressed by increased intestinal permeability have long been observed in various gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Imbalance of metabolizing junction proteins and mucosal inflammation contributes to intestinal hyperpermeability. Emerging studies exploring in vitro and in vivo model system demonstrate that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) and myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) mediated pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal permeability...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Gwendalyn J Randolph, Shashi Bala, Jean-François Rahier, Michael W Johnson, Peter L Wang, ILKe Nalbantoglu, Laurent Dubuquoy, Amélie Chau, Benjamin Pariente, Alex Kartheuser, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Xiaolong Ge, Dong Hu, Yu Cao, Zhijian Liu, Chao Ding, Hongliang Tian, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by many complications, such as intra-abdominal abscess (IAA). A frequent problem in CD is the discrimination of fever caused by exacerbated bowel inflammation or IAA. METHODS: A total of 80 CD patients complaining with fever episodes were included prospectively. PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and white blood cell count (WBC) were evaluated on admission...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Eun Young Hwang, Mi Suk Jeong, Sang Kyun Park, Sung Chul Ha, Hak Sun Yu, Se Bok Jang
Toxascaris leonina Galectin (Tl-gal) is a galectin-9 homologue protein isolated from an adult worm of the canine gastrointestinal nematode parasite, and Tl-gal vaccinated challenge can inhibit inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)-induced mice. We determined the first X-ray structures of full-length Tl-gal complexes with carbohydrates (lactose, LacNAc, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), SiaLac, and glucose). Bonds were formed on concave surfaces of both CRDs in Tl-gal. All binding sites are discovered in the HXXXR and WGXEER motifs...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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