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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637107/malignant-melanoma-of-the-anus-found-during-routine-colonoscopy-in-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Kwang Il Seo, Won Moon, Sung Eun Kim, Moo In Park, Seun Ja Park
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent or chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which results in increased risk of developing cancer. Anorectal malignant melanoma is often misdiagnosed as either hemorrhoids or benign anorectal conditions in inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, the overall prognosis and survival of IBD are poor. To date, the best treatment strategy remains controversial. Only early diagnosis and complete excision yield survival benefit. Here, we report a 64-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis, who was found to have anal malignant melanoma on routine colonoscopy...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#2
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#3
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634361/uridine-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#4
Manish Kumar Jeengar, Dinesh Thummuri, Mattias Magnusson, V G M Naidu, Srinivas Uppugunduri
Uridine, one of the four components that comprise RNA, has attracted attention as a novel therapeutic modulator of inflammation. However, very little is known about its effect on intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of intracolonic administered uridine against DSS induced colitis in male C57BL/6 mice. Intracolonic instillation of 3 doses of uridine 1 mg/Kg (lower dose), 5 mg/Kg (medium dose), and 10 mg/Kg (higher dose) in saline was performed daily...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633443/nod2-genetic-variants-predispose-one-of-two-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-siblings-to-pouchitis-through-microbiome-dysbiosis
#5
Kathleen M Schieffer, Justin R Wright, Leonard R Harris, Sue Deiling, Zhaohai Yang, Regina Lamendella, Gregory S Yochum, Walter A Koltun
Background and Aims: Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may undergo a total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) to surgically treat their disease. Inflammation of the ileal pouch, termed pouchitis, is uncommon in FAP patients but prevalent in patients who received IPAA for ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods and Results: We report on two FAP siblings, living in the same household, who underwent IPAA surgery within one week of each other...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631710/-diagnostic-problems-of-histological-remission-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
A S Tertychnyi, Kh M Akhrieva, I V Maev, O V Zayratyants, L S Selivanova
AIM: to analyze the generally accepted histological criteria for diagnosing the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with therapy-induced endoscopic remission. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Colon biopsy specimens from 57 patients aged from 19 to 52 years (mean age 31±2.5 years), including 41 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 16 with Crohn's disease (CD) affecting the colon, were examined. All the patients had no clinical signs of disease activity; endoscopic examination diagnosed remission (none or minimal changes)...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630047/update-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-agents-and-other-new-drugs-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin L Cohen, David B Sachar
The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)-has evolved beyond surgery with the introduction of biologic agents, primarily antibodies against mediators of inflammation and cell attraction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have been the first line treatment for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease for more than 15 years. During that time much has been learnt about how best to use these agents. This review will assess the evidence on how to optimize the use of anti-TNF agents; when and how to start treatment; how to monitor treatment and when to de-escalate it; and the potential adverse effects of these drugs...
June 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629999/trimethylamine-n-oxide-prime-nlrp3-inflammasome-via-inhibiting-atg16l1-induced-autophagy-in-colonic-epithelial-cells
#8
Chaochi Yue, Xiangdong Yang, Jun Li, Xiaochao Chen, Xiangdong Zhao, Ye Chen, Yong Wen
Recently, the intricate relationship between Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of growing interest. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays crucial roles in gut homeostasis and determining the severity of inflammation in IBD, however, the precise roles of the NLRP3 inflammasome in IBD are still debated. ATG16L1 mediates the cellular degradative process of autophagy and is considered a critical regulator of inflammation based on its genetic association with IBD. Whether TMAO prime NLRP3 inflammasome via ATG16L1-induced autophagy remains unclear...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629745/exposure-to-non-microbial-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid-protects-farmers-children-against-airway-inflammation-and-colitis
#9
Remo Frei, Ruth Ferstl, Caroline Roduit, Mario Ziegler Dipl-Ing, Elisa Schiavi, Weronika Barcik, Noelia Rodriguez-Perez, Oliver F Wirz, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Benoit Pugin, Dirk Nehrbass, Marek Jutel, Sylwia Smolinska, Patrycja Konieczna, Christian Bieli, Susanne Loeliger, Marco Waser, Göran Pershagen, Josef Riedler, Martin Depner, Bianca Schaub, Jon Genuneit, Harald Renz, Juha Pekkanen, Anne M Karvonen, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Marianne van Hage, Gert Doekes, Mübeccel Akdis, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Cezmi A Akdis, Erika von Mutius, Liam O'Mahony, Roger P Lauener
BACKGROUND: Childhood exposure to a farm environment has been shown to protect against the development of inflammatory diseases such as allergy, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether besides exposure to microbes also exposure to structures of non-microbial origin such as the sialic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) may play a significant role. METHODS: Exposure to Neu5Gc was evaluated by quantifying anti-Neu5Gc antibody levels in the sera of children enrolled in two farm studies: the PARSIFAL study (n=299) and the PASTURE birth cohort (cord blood (n=836), 1 year (n=734), 4...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628361/lipocalin-2-an-emerging-player-in-iron-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#10
Xia Xiao, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the interaction between Lcn2 and iron, and its effects in various inflammatory diseases...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626380/clinical-and-pathologic-remission-of-pediatric-ulcerative-colitis-with-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-added-to-the-standard-treatment-regimen
#11
Rachelle A Soriano, Asuncion G Ramos-Soriano
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is particularly troublesome for pediatric patients, as current therapeutic options consist of biologic agents and steroids which alter the immune response and have the harmful side effect of leaving the patient more susceptible to opportunistic infections and eventual surgery. Another option for therapy exists in the form of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), the key ingredient in a medical food, EnteraGam®. The FDA has reviewed the safety of SBI and issued a no challenge letter to the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) findings for this medical food...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624054/diverticulitis-and-crohn-s-disease-have-distinct-but-overlapping-tumor-necrosis-superfamily-15%C3%A2-haplotypes
#12
Tara M Connelly, Christine S Choi, Arthur S Berg, Leonard Harris, Joel Coble, Walter A Koltun
BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis (DD) and Crohn's disease (CD) have overlapping features including bowel structuring, inflammation, and infection. Tumor necrosis superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) is an immunoregulatory, anti-angiogenic gene. CD has been previously associated with a haplotype of five TNFSF15 single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles: rs3810936 (G allele), rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7848647 (G), and rs7869487 (A). We aimed to determine the TNFSF15 risk haplotype for DD versus controls with a subgroup analysis of youthful DD patients (aged ≤55 y) versus older controls (aged ≥55 y)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623863/linear-immunoglobulin-a-g-bullous-dermatosis-associated-with-ulcerative-colitis
#13
Asuka Onoe, Daisuke Matsuura, Tadashi Terui, Norito Ishii, Takashi Hashimoto, Toyoko Ochiai
Linear immunoglobulin (Ig)A/G bullous dermatosis (LAGBD) is an autoimmune bullous disease characterized by formation of subepidermal blisters and linear deposition of IgA and IgG antibodies along the basement membrane zone (BMZ). The association between linear IgA bullous dermatosis and ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but reports of UC-associated LAGBD are lacking. We have reported a 24-year-old man suffering from LAGBD associated with UC, which occurred before exacerbations of skin rash. A skin biopsy indicated a subepidermal blister with an infiltration of primarily neutrophils and eosinophils in the dermis...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622455/intestinal-metabolites-are-profoundly-altered-in-the-context-of-hla-b27-expression-and-functionally-modulate-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-spondyloarthropathy
#14
Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Claire Michell, Cathleen Janowitz, Phoebe Lin, Joe Ensign-Lewis, Jason M Kinchen, Dennis R Koop, Jim Rosenbaum
Objective HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthropathies are associated with an altered intestinal microbiota and bowel inflammation. Therefore, we sought to identify B27-dependent changes in both host and microbial metabolites in the HLA-B27/β2m rat and whether microbiota-derived metabolites could impact disease in this major model of spondyloarthropathy. Methods Cecal contents were collected from 6wk (pre-diseased) and 16wk (diseased) Fischer 344 HLA-B27/β2m transgenic rats and WT controls. Metabolomic profiling was performed by high-throughput gas- and liquid-chromatography-based mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621606/nano-targeting-of-mucosal-addressin-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-identifies-bowel-inflammation-foci-in-murine-model
#15
Marta Truffi, Miriam Colombo, Jesus Peñaranda-Avila, Luca Sorrentino, Francesco Colombo, Matteo Monieri, Veronica Collico, Pietro Zerbi, Erika Longhi, Raffaele Allevi, Davide Prosperi, Fabio Corsi
AIM: We investigate MAdCAM-1 as a reliable target to detect active bowel inflammation for selective noninvasive nanodiagnostics. MATERIALS & METHODS: We coupled anti-MAdCAM-1 antibodies to manganese oxide nanoparticles, and analyzed nanoconjugate biodistribution and safety in murine model of inflammatory bowel disease by imaging and histology. RESULTS: Nanoparticles were stable and nontoxic. Upon administration in colitic mice, anti-MAdCAM-1 functionalized nanoparticles preferentially localized in the inflamed bowel, whereas untargeted nanoparticles were more rapidly washed out...
June 16, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621183/-colon-reconstruction-after-the-hartmann-procedure-laparoscopy-or-laparotomy
#16
Loránd Barabás, Ákos Szabó, Szilárd Szabó, Gábor Turcsányi, Csaba Sipos, Gábor István
The Hartmann procedure - primarily - was introduced for the treatment of cancerous diseases of sigmoid colon and rectum. In the last few years it was performed in cases with complicated inflammation of the left colon, colon cancers with bowel obstruction or perforation, or in the case of insufficiency of the anastomoses, or in urgent operations after traumatics bowel injuries, when making the anastomosis is at very high risk. Later on the restoration of the continuity of the GI tract can be done traditionally (by laparotomy) or laparoscopically...
June 2017: Magyar Sebészet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618865/streptococcus-thermophilus-ncimb-41856-ameliorates-signs-of-colitis-in-an-animal-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
J R Bailey, V Vince, N A Williams, T A Cogan
Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mainly based on suppression of symptoms, often with numerous side effects. Trials of probiotics in IBD have frequently produced disappointing results. The majority of probiotics are unusual, since they do not require iron for growth, unlike many bacteria resident in the intestine. The IBD intestine is iron-rich due to bleeding and use of oral iron supplements; conventional probiotics would be rapidly outcompeted. We have evaluated an iron-responsive Streptococcus thermophilus strain for its potential to reduce signs of colitis...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617945/microrna-cluster-106a-363-is-involved-in-t-helper-17-th17-cell-differentiation
#18
Marc Kaestle, Sabine Bartel, Kerstin Geillinger-Kästle, Martin Irmler, Johannes Beckers, Bernhard Ryffel, Oliver Eickelberg, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann
T-helper cell 17 (Th17) mediated inflammation is associated with various diseases including autoimmune encephalitis, inflammatory bowel disease and lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Differentiation into distinct Th subtypes needs to be tightly regulated to ensure an immunological balance. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of signaling pathways, we aimed to identify specific miRNAs implicated in controlling Th17 differentiation. We were able to create a regulatory network model of murine Th cell differentiation by combining Affymetrix mRNA and miRNA arrays and in-silico analysis...
June 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617758/individualized-infliximab-treatment-guided-by-patient-managed-ehealth-in-children-and-adolescents-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Katrine Carlsen, Gunnar Houen, Christian Jakobsen, Thomas Kallemose, Anders Paerregaard, Lene B Riis, Pia Munkholm, Vibeke Wewer
BACKGROUND: To individualize timing of infliximab (IFX) treatment in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using a patient-managed eHealth program. METHODS: Patients with IBD, 10 to 17 years old, treated with IFX were prospectively included. Starting 4 weeks after their last infusion, patients reported a weekly symptom score and provided a stool sample for fecal calprotectin analysis. Based on symptom scores and fecal calprotectin results, the eHealth program calculated a total inflammation burden score that determined the timing of the next IFX infusion (4-12 wk after the previous infusion)...
June 14, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612843/tricellulin-is-regulated-via-interleukin-13-receptor-%C3%AE-2-affects-macromolecule-uptake-and-is-decreased-in-ulcerative-colitis
#20
S M Krug, C Bojarski, A Fromm, I M Lee, P Dames, J F Richter, J R Turner, M Fromm, J-D Schulzke
In the two inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins leads to an impaired epithelial barrier including increased uptake of luminal antigens supporting the inflammation. Here, we focused on regulation of tricellulin (Tric), a protein of the tricellular TJ essential for the barrier against macromolecules, and hypothesized a role in paracellular antigen uptake. We report that Tric is downregulated in UC, but not in CD, and that its reduction increases the passage of macromolecules...
June 14, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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