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inflammation bowel disease

Ana Cardoso, Antonio Gil Castro, Ana Catarina Martins, Guilhermina M Carriche, Valentine Murigneux, Isabel Castro, Ana Cumano, Paulo Vieira, Margarida Saraiva
Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Konstantinos H Katsanos, Konstantinos Papamichael, Joseph D Feuerstein, Dimitrios K Christodoulou, Adam S Cheifetz
The pharmacological management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) over the last two decades has transitioned from reliance on aminosalycilates, corticosteroids and immunomodulators to earlier treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. Nevertheless, 20-30% of patients discontinue anti-TNF therapy for primary non-response and another 30-40% for losing response within one year of treatment. These undesirable therapeutic outcomes can be attributed to pharmacokinetic (anti-drug antibodies and/or low drug concentrations) or pharmacodynamic issues characterized by a non-TNF driven inflammation...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Xiumei Che, Ki Cheong Park, Soo Jung Park, You Hyun Kang, Hyun A Jin, Joo Wan Kim, Dong Hyuk Seo, Dae Kyu Kim, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild type and IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Eun Ae Kang, Hyuk Yoon, A Young Seo, Cheol Min Shin, Jong Pil Im, Young Soo Park, Joo Sung Kim, Nayoung Kim, Dong Ho Lee
OBJECTIVES: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is more common in immunocompromised patients but may occur in people with normal immune function. In addition, CMV enterocolitis can aggravate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but there was little knowledge of differences in clinical and endoscopic features of CMV enterocolitis between patients with IBD and without IBD. The aim of this study was to determine the difference in clinical implication in CMV enterocolitis between the IBD patients and non-IBD patients...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Ondrej Fabian, Ondrej Hradsky, Tereza Drskova, Filip Mikus, Josef Zamecnik, Jiri Bronsky
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remains challenging. We aimed at the value of immunohistochemical assessment of CD30+ lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa in differential diagnosis between pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and its utility as a predictor of future differentiation in patients with IBD unclassified (IBDU). METHODS: Seventy-four treatment naive pediatric patients with IBD (33 CD, 30 UC and 11 IBDU) were enrolled into the study...
March 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Davide Di Fusco, Vincenzo Dinallo, Ivan Monteleone, Federica Laudisi, Irene Marafini, Eleonora Franzè, Antonio Di Grazia, Rami Dwairi, Alfredo Colantoni, Angela Ortenzi, Carmine Stolfi, Giovanni Monteleone
Metformin, a hypoglycemic drug used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, regulates also inflammatory pathways. By using several models of intestinal inflammation, we examined whether metformin exerts anti-inflammatory effects and investigated the basic mechanism by which metformin blocks pathologic signals. Colitic mice given metformin exhibited less colonic inflammation and increased expression of active AMP-activated protein kinase, a mediator of the metabolic effects of metformin, in both epithelial and lamina propria compartments...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Yu-Ju Peng, Tang-Long Shen, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry John Mersmann, Bing-Hsien Liu, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine derived from adipocytes. It binds to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and R2) to exert its function in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the role of ADN-AdipoR1 signaling in intestinal inflammation is controversial, and its role in the regulation of neutrophils is still unclear. Our goal was to clarify the role of AdipoR1 signaling in colitis and the effects on neutrophils. METHODS: We generated porcine AdipoR1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1 mice) and induced murine colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to study the potential role of AdipoR1 in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Iris Mair, Stephanie E J Zandee, Iqbal S Toor, Louise Saul, Rhoanne C McPherson, Melanie D Leech, Danielle J Smyth, Richard A O'Connor, Neil C Henderson, Stephen M Anderton
Several inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease have been associated with dysfunctional and/or reduced numbers of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). While numerous mechanisms of action have been discovered by which Treg can exert their function, disease-specific Treg requirements remain largely unknown. We found that the integrin αv, which can pair with several β subunits including β8, is highly upregulated in Treg at sites of inflammation. Using mice that lacked αv expression or β8 expression specifically in Treg, we demonstrate that there was no deficit in Treg accumulation in the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and no difference in the resolution of disease compared to control mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Camilla B Jensen, Lars H Ängquist, Michael A Mendall, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jennifer L Baker, Tine Jess
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in western countries has led to the hypothesis that obesity-related inflammation could play a role in the etiology of IBD. However, this hypothesis lacks confirmation in studies of individuals prior to the typical onset of IBD in young adulthood. METHODS: In a cohort of 316,799 individuals from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR), we examined whether BMI at ages 7 through 13 years was associated with later IBD...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Sajid Ur Rahman, Yu Li, Yingying Huang, Lei Zhu, Shibin Feng, Jinjie Wu, Xichun Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a collection of inflammatory conditions of colon and small intestine which affect millions of individuals worldwide and the prevalence amount is on the rise. The organ failure as well as loss of tissue function is because of the inflammatory reaction which is the major contributor of tissue healing leading to lifelong debilitation. To stop the tough consequences of inflammation every patient pursues alternative therapy to relieve symptoms. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) play significant roles in down regulating signaling pathways because GTPs exert effective antioxidant properties and regulate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression via certain receptor, inhibited endotoxin-mediated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production by blocking transcription nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation and upstream of mediated I kappa B kinase complex pathway activities, as well as intrusion with the flow of cytokines and synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
March 12, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katarina Stanko, Christina Iwert, Christine Appelt, Katrin Vogt, Julia Schumann, Franziska Janina Strunk, Stefanie Ahrlich, Stephan Schlickeiser, Chiara Romagnani, Karsten Jürchott, Christian Meisel, Gerald Willimsky, Anja A Kühl, Birgit Sawitzki
Recent findings demonstrated proinflammatory functions of interleukin (IL)-9-producing T helper type (Th) 9 cells in the pathogenesis of intestinal bowel diseases (IBDs). However, also antiinflammatory properties have been ascribed to Th9 cells, pointing to a functional heterogeneity. To dissect the specific expression pattern and, especially, diversity of murine antigen-specific Th9 cells, we applied single cell transcription profiling. Th9 cells displayed reduced expression of typical activation markers, such as Cd40 ligand and Cd96 , whereas expression of Cd25 and Cd83 was increased compared with other Th subsets...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robert P Hirten, Shailja Shah, David B Sachar, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Crohn's disease (CD) leads to the development of complications through progressive uncontrolled inflammation and the transmural involvement of the bowel wall. Most of the available literature on penetrating CD focuses on the perianal phenotype. The management of nonperianal penetrating complications poses its own set of challenges and can result in significant morbidity and an increased risk of mortality. Few controlled trials have been published evaluating this subgroup of patients for clinicians to use for guidance...
March 8, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Sonja Gommeringer, Anna Held, Katharina Feilhauer, Jörg Köninger, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) shows increasing prevalence over the last years. We propose that anti-inflammatory plant substances could be used as additional or alternative agents with good compliance in prevention and/or therapy of IBD and its complication intestinal fibrosis. We could recently show that the citrus flavonoid nobiletin acts anti-inflammatory on activation of intestinal mast cells. Here, we analysed the effects of nobiletin on inflammation and fibrosis in IL-10-/- colitis...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Warapan Nakayuenyongsuk, Megan Christofferson, David K Stevenson, Karl Sylvester, Henry C Lee, K T Park
OBJECTIVE: To establish baseline trends in fecal calprotectin, a protein excreted into the stool when there is neutrophilic inflammation in the bowel, in infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective observational cohort study in infants with a birth weight of <1500 g without existing bowel disease at a level IV neonatal intensive care unit from October 2015 to September 2016. Stools were collected once daily for 30 days or until 32 weeks postmenstrual age and processed using the Fecal Calprotectin High Range Quantitative Quantum Blue assay...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Rafa S Almeer, Sahar M Mahmoud, Hatem K Amin, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of Ziziphus spina-christi fruit extract (ZFE) against acetic acid (AcOH)-induced colitis in rats. Before a single AcOH instillation, ZFE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) was administered for 5 days by oral gavage. Pretreatment with ZFE at different doses suppressed the spread of inflammation and inhibited mucosal damage; in addition, it reduced ulcer size and mitigated colitis markers. Administration of ZFE (400 mg/kg) resulted in a greater reduction of inflammatory colonic injury than that after reference drug, mesalazine (MLZ), administration...
March 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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