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cancer microenviroment

Ziwen Zhang, Detao Tao, Ping Zhang, Xue Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Cheng, Hua Yuan, Laikui Liu, Hongbing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) control the biosynthesis of hyaluronan (HA) and critically modulate the tumor microenviroment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the progression of a tumor by remolding the matrix. However, little is known about the role of HAS from CAFs in this process. This study aimed to determine the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) from CAFs in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion. METHODS: HAS isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in paired sets of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were examined by real-time PCR, and the expression of HAS2 and α-SMA in OSCC tissue sections was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Zeming Chen, Jaymin M Patel, Philip W Noble, Cesar Garcia, Zhangyong Hong, James E Hansen, Jiangbing Zhou
Strategies to target nanoparticles to tumors that rely on surface modification with ligands that bind molecules overexpressed on cancer cells or the tumor neovasculature suffer from a major limitation: with delivery of toxic agents the amount of molecules available for targeting decreases with time; consequently, the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery is reduced. To overcome this limitation, here we propose an autocatalytic tumor-targeting mechanism based on targeting extracellular DNA (exDNA). exDNA is enriched in the tumor microenviroment and increases with treatment with cytotoxic agents, such as doxorubicin (DOX), due to release of DNA by dying tumor cells...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Zengshan Li
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. The incidence has increased greatly during the past 40 years, partially due to the advanced endoscopic and imaging techniques. As a type of neoplasm with the specific morphology and immunophenotype, its nomenclature and classification have also been changed considerably over the past 40 years, from the past "carcinoid" to the current "neuroendocrine neoplasm". WHO currently recommends two-tiered classification, neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine cancer, according to the differentiation, morphology and proliferation index...
January 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Begoña Comin-Anduix, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Francisco Javier Ibarrondo
The immune checkpoint therapy is a relatively recent strategy that aims to tweak the immune system to effectively attack cancer cells. The understanding of the immune responses and their regulation at the intracellular level and the development of fully humanized monoclonal antibodies are the pillars of an approach that could elicit durable clinical responses and even remission in some patients with cancer. Most of the immune checkpoints that regulate the T-cell responses (activation and inhibition) operate through proteins present on the cytoplasmic membrane of the immune cells...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Chun-Yu Qian, Kai-Li Wang, Fan-Fu Fang, Wei Gu, Feng Huang, Fu-Zhe Wang, Bai Li, Li-Na Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant disease, and its outcome of routine therapies is poor. Comprehensive treatment including gene therapy is an important way to improve patients' prognosis and survival. In this study, we successfully constructed a triple-controlled cancer-selective oncolytic adenovirus, QG511-HA-Melittin, carrying melittin gene, in which the hybrid promoter, hypoxia-response element (HRE)-AFP promoter, was used to control viral E1a expression targeting AFP-positive cancer cells in hypoxia microenviroment, and the E1b-55 kDa gene was deleted in cancer cells with p53-deficiency...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Ji Zhang, XiaoJuan Xiao, Jing Liu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignant hematological disease. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MM cells and bone marrow microenviroment has important impacts on the initiation and progression of MM and drug resistance in MM cells. Recently, it was reported that MM patient serum and plasma contained sufficiently stable miRNA signatures, and circulating miRNAs could be identified and measured accurately from body fluid. Compared to conventional diagnostic parameters, the circulating miRNA profile is appropriate for the diagnosis of MM and estimates patient progression and therapeutic outcome with higher specificity and sensitivity...
December 2015: Science China. Life Sciences
Jin Hong, Yan Mao, Xiaosong Chen, Li Zhu, Jianrong He, Weiguo Chen, Yafen Li, Lin Lin, Xiaochun Fei, Kunwei Shen
Inflammation and tumor immune microenviroment are critical factors for prognosis in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 487 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at Shanghai Ruijin hospital from January 2009 to December 2010. Hematological parameters before surgery, clinicopathological data, and survival status were obtained. Survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of NLR...
March 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Amanda S Tyldsley, Qi Zheng, Brendan P Hodkinson, Adam J SanMiguel, Samuel Minot, Frederic D Bushman, Elizabeth A Grice
UNLABELLED: Viruses make up a major component of the human microbiota but are poorly understood in the skin, our primary barrier to the external environment. Viral communities have the potential to modulate states of cutaneous health and disease. Bacteriophages are known to influence the structure and function of microbial communities through predation and genetic exchange. Human viruses are associated with skin cancers and a multitude of cutaneous manifestations. Despite these important roles, little is known regarding the human skin virome and its interactions with the host microbiome...
October 20, 2015: MBio
Xiaokun Bian, Yuanquan Si, Min Zhang, Ran Wei, Xiaomin Yang, Hao Ren, Guixi Zheng, Chuanxin Wang, Yi Zhang
It is known that chronic HBV infection (CHB) is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because CHB could not only cause liver tumorigenesis but also lead to change of local microenviroment and lower immune response to infected and cancerous cells (immune tolerance). Human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) belongs to a non-classic MHC-I family and was considered to be an immune tolerance molecule, which could bind to immunosuppressive receptors of natural killer cell (NK) and T cells and trigger immunosuppressive signaling...
March 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Angela Rynne-Vidal, José Antonio Jiménez-Heffernan, Concepción Fernández-Chacón, Manuel López-Cabrera, Pilar Sandoval
Solid tumors are complex and unstructured organs that, in addition to cancer cells, also contain other cell types. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent an important population in the tumor microenviroment and participate in several stages of tumor progression, including cancer cell migration/invasion and metastasis. During peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, such as ovarian or gastrointestinal, disseminate through the peritoneal fluid and colonize the peritoneum. Tumor cells metastasize by attaching to and invading through the mesothelial cell (MC) monolayer that lines the peritoneal cavity, then colonizing the submesothelial compact zone where CAFs accumulate...
2015: Cancers
Catalin Vlad, Paul Kubelac, Andrea Onisim, Alexandru Irimie, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common gynecological cancer and the deadliest in industrialized countries, with poor outcomes that indicate an urgent need to provide a greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying OC. Insights into the complex tumor microenviroment show that besides tumor islets, OC biomarkers can derive from newly formed blood vessels that have endothelial cells with a different molecular signature in comparison with their normal counterparts. In this view, recent research has been able to highlight promising candidates such as CDCP1 and ADAM12...
May 2015: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Wei Li, Rong-Rui Liang, Chong Zhou, Meng-Yao Wu, Lian Lian, Gao-Feng Yuan, Ming-Yun Wang, Xin Xie, Liu-Mei Shou, Fei-Ran Gong, Kai Chen, Wei-Ming Duan, Min Tao
OBJECTIVE: Angiogenesis is a critical step of breast cancer metastasis. Oncogenic Ras promotes the remodeling of cancer microenviroment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a prominent inflammatory cell population emerging in the microenviroment and facilitating the angiogenesis and metastasis. In the present study, we tried to investigate the relationship between the expression of Ras and infiltration of TAM, both of which could further promote angiogenesis. METHODS: Expressions of Ras, CD68 and CD34 were assessed by immunohistochemistry...
2015: Cancer Cell International
Neus Martínez-Bosch, Pilar Navarro
The tumor microenviroment and immune barrier are known to modulate malignant disease progression. We have recently identified Galectin-1 as a key player in a novel stromal regulatory reaction driving immune evasion in pancreatic tumors in vivo. These results suggest that Galectin-1 inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy for one of the most deadly types of cancer.
2014: Oncoimmunology
I-Chi Lee, Jen-Fu Chang
Recent studies indicate that a small population of cancer cells exhibits stem cell properties and are referred to as cancer-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs). The selection and identification of cancer stem cells through methods require well-defined biomarkers and immunolabeling procedures are complicated and often unreliable. Herein, we fabricated a series of microenviroment by using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) nanofilms to program and mimic hepatocellular carcinoma CSCs niches for CSCs selection with a label-free method...
January 1, 2015: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xin-Yu Wu, Rui-Tai Fan, Xin-Hui Yan, Jing Cui, Jun-Ling Xu, Hao Gu, Yong-Ju Gao
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment, used in the treatment of a number of malignant tumors. However, the resistance of tumor cells to ionizing radiation remains a major therapeutic problem and the critical mechanisms determining radiation resistance are poorly defined. In the present study, a cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress microenvironment was established through the pretreatment of cultured thyroid cancer cells with tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG), in order to mimic the ER stress response in a tumor microenvironment...
March 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qinghua Hu, Lingjin Huang, Xuyuan Kuang, Heng Zhang, Guoqiang Ling, Xuliang Chen, Kejiang Li, Zhenghao Deng, Jianhua Zhou
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is involved in the progression of many epithelial cancers. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), another type of epithelial cancer, remains unclear. We detected IGFBP2 expression using immunohistochemistry in surgically resected tumors from 110 NSCLC patients, 37 of which had metastases. The positive rate of IGFBP2 expression was compared between the metastatic and the non-metastatic group, and correlations of IGFBP2 expression with metastasis and overall survival were analyzed...
June 2014: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Weicai Chen, Yuanyuan Yuan, Du Cheng, Jifeng Chen, Lu Wang, Xintao Shuai
Drug resistance is the greatest challenge in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and siRNA to tumor cells is a vital means to silence drug resistant genes during the course of cancer chemotherapy for an improved chemotherapeutic effect. This study aims at effective co-delivery of siRNA and anticancer drugs to tumor cells. A ternary block copolymer PEG-PAsp(AED)-PDPA consisting of pH-sensitive poly(2-(diisopropyl amino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDPA), reduction-sensitive poly(N-(2,2'-dithiobis(ethylamine)) aspartamide) PAsp(AED), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is synthesized and assembled into a core-shell structural micelle which encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) in its pH-sensitive core and the siRNA-targeting anti-apoptosis BCL-2 gene (BCL-2 siRNA) in a reduction-sensitive interlayer...
July 9, 2014: Small
Ramez N Eskander, Krishnansu S Tewari
Despite survival gains achieved nearly two decades ago with combination platinum- and taxane-based intravenous chemotherapy, overall survival curves have remained relatively unchanged during the 21st century using newer cytotoxic agents. Although combined intravenous-intraperitoneal (IV-IP) chemotherapy is promising, tolerability remains a significant issue. An emphasis has been placed on exploring dose dense schedules and targeted agents. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as an important therapeutic target in several solid tumors including ovarian carcinoma...
February 2014: Gynecologic Oncology
Hyunmi Choi, Masaru Tanaka, Takaaki Hiragun, Michihiro Hide, Koreaki Sugimoto
UNLABELLED: Mast cells are released from bone marrow into the circulatory system as immature precursors and differentiate upon their arrival at diverse organs and tissues. Because mast cell functions can be altered in these tissues, we propose that mast cells are sensitive to their surrounding microenvironment. To examine the morphological responses of mast cells, we cultured a proliferative mouse non-tumor cell line of mast cells (NCL-2 cells) on a honeycomb-like structured polystyrene film (HCF) representing a microenvironmental scaffold...
February 2014: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hongzhou Huang, Ying Ding, Xiuzhi S Sun, Thu A Nguyen
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an invaluable role in tumor biology by providing in vivo like microenviroment and responses to therapeutic agents. Among many established 3D scaffolds, hydrogels demonstrate a distinct property as matrics for 3D cell culture. Most of the existing pre-gel solutions are limited under physiological conditions such as undesirable pH or temperature. Here, we report a peptide hydrogel that shows superior physiological properties as an in vitro matrix for 3D cell culture. The 3D matrix can be accomplished by mixing a self-assembling peptide directly with a cell culture medium without any pH or temperature adjustment...
2013: PloS One
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