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cancer microenviroment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620146/mitochondrial-asncmtrna-1-and-asncmtrna-2-as-potent-targets-to-inhibit-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-the-renca-murine-renal-adenocarcinoma-model
#1
Vincenzo Borgna, Jaime Villegas, Verónica A Burzio, Sebastián Belmar, Mariela Araya, Emanuel Jeldes, Lorena Lobos-González, Verónica Silva, Claudio Villota, Luciana Oliveira-Cruz, Constanza Lopez, Teresa Socias, Octavio Castillo, Luis O Burzio
Knockdown of antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptosis in several human and mouse tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for a selective therapy against different types of cancer. Here we show that in vitro knockdown of murine ASncmtRNAs induces apoptotic death of mouse renal adenocarcinoma RenCa cells, but not normal murine kidney epithelial cells. In a syngeneic subcutaneous RenCa model, treatment delayed and even reversed tumor growth. Since the subcutaneous model does not reflect the natural microenviroment of renal cancer, we used an orthotopic model of RenCa cells inoculated under the renal capsule...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553358/inhibition-of-lysyl-oxidases-impairs-migration-and-angiogenic-properties-of-tumor-associated-pericytes
#2
Aline Lopes Ribeiro, Carolini Kaid, Patrícia B G Silva, Beatriz A Cortez, Oswaldo Keith Okamoto
Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351891/squamous-cell-tumors-recruit-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-producing-either-il17-or-ifn%C3%AE-depending-on-the-tumor-stage
#3
Elena Lo Presti, Francesca Toia, Sebastiano Oieni, Simona Buccheri, Alice Turdo, Laura Rosa Mangiapane, Giuseppina Campisi, Valentina Caputo, Matilde Todaro, Giorgio Stassi, Adriana Cordova, Francesco Moschella, Gaetana Rinaldi, Serena Meraviglia, Francesco Dieli
The identification of reciprocal interactions between tumor-infiltrating immune cells and the microenviroment may help us understand mechanisms of tumor growth inhibition or progression. We have assessed the frequencies of tumor-infiltrating and circulating γδ T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) from 47 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), to determine if they correlated with progression or survival. Vδ1 T cells infiltrated SSC tissue to a greater extent than normal skin, but SCC patients and healthy subjects had similar amounts circulating...
March 28, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193910/hif1-2%C3%AE-mediates-hypoxia-induced-ldha-expression-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#4
Xin-Gang Cui, Zhi-Tao Han, Shao-Hui He, Xing-da Wu, Tian-Rui Chen, Cheng-Hao Shao, Dan-Lei Chen, Ning Su, Yuan-Ming Chen, Ting Wang, Jing Wang, Dian-Wen Song, Wang-Jun Yan, Xing-Hai Yang, Tielong Liu, Hai-Feng Wei, Jianru Xiao
Glycolysis is a typical conduit for energy metabolism in pancreatic cancer (PC) due to the hypoxic microenviroment. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and is considered to be a key checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of interactions between hypoxia, HIF-1/2α and LDHA, and the function of LDHA on PC cells by analyzing 244 PC and paratumor specimens. It was found that LDHA was over-expressed and related to tumor stages...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157137/extracellular-polyamines-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-cancer-cells-by-odc-ssat-and-akt1-mediated-pathway
#5
Fujun Dai, Wubei Yu, Jia Song, Qian Li, Chaojie Wang, Songqiang Xie
High levels of polyamines were observed and were related to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, the mechanism is not obvious. The aim of this study is to mimic the extracellular polyamines in a tumor microenviroment and to explore the role of extracellular polyamines in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Three different concentrations of polyamines composed of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were used. Colony formation assay, wound healing assay, and transwell migration assay were performed...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156441/strategy-of-using-herbal-extract-preparations-for-stage-iv-cancer-in-palliative-care-an-enhanced-and-maintenance-therapy
#6
Zhang Lingyan, Zhou Xiaoxia, Yin Weihua, Zhang Xiulian, Liu Hong, Duan Xiaopeng, Yu Cui, Luo Xiaolu, Zhong Qingfeng, Zhao Fen, Li Xianyong
89 Background: Palliative care is focused and seems as rationally anti-cancer way that have low systemic toxicity and acceptable effectiveness for stage IV cancer, especially herbal extracted medicines, which can regulate tumor microenviroment and body immune system. Our previous lab studies have indicated that TGF-beta, EGF, VEGF, IL-10 cytokines expression and mico-vessel density can be downgraded in tumor microenviroment by herbal extract preparation from Ginseng, Herba Agrimonia, Hairyvein and Arginine etc...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105174/improved-sensitization-effect-of-sunitinib-in-cancer-cells-of-the-esophagus-under-hypoxic-microenviroment
#7
Yu-Qiong Ding, Qin Qin, Yan Yang, Xin-Chen Sun, Xi Yang, Hong-Cheng Zhu, Xiao-Chen Chen, Hao Zhang, Yue-Hua Yang, Lei Gao, Ju-Dong Luo, Xi-Fa Zhou
Radiotherapy is widely used in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treatment. Promoting the radiation sensitivity of cancer cells is required. Recent studies have shown that sunitinib can inhibit the growth of several cancer lines. However, few studies on the radiosensitive effect of sunitinib on ESCC cells under hypoxic conditions have been conducted. In the present study, the radiosensitive effects of sunitinib on human ESCC cells were assessed, and the underlying mechanisms were explored. ESCC cells were exposed to hypoxia and treated with sunitinib at different concentrations prior to irradiation...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884164/hyaluronan-synthase-2-expressed-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promotes-oral-cancer-invasion
#8
Ziwen Zhang, Detao Tao, Ping Zhang, Xue Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Cheng, Hua Yuan, Laikui Liu, Hongbing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) control the biosynthesis of hyaluronan (HA) and critically modulate the tumor microenviroment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the progression of a tumor by remolding the matrix. However, little is known about the role of HAS from CAFs in this process. This study aimed to determine the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) from CAFs in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion. METHODS: HAS isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in paired sets of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were examined by real-time PCR, and the expression of HAS2 and α-SMA in OSCC tissue sections was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494868/a-lupus-anti-dna-autoantibody-mediates-autocatalytic-targeted-delivery-of-nanoparticles-to-tumors
#9
Zeming Chen, Jaymin M Patel, Philip W Noble, Cesar Garcia, Zhangyong Hong, James E Hansen, Jiangbing Zhou
Strategies to target nanoparticles to tumors that rely on surface modification with ligands that bind molecules overexpressed on cancer cells or the tumor neovasculature suffer from a major limitation: with delivery of toxic agents the amount of molecules available for targeting decreases with time; consequently, the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery is reduced. To overcome this limitation, here we propose an autocatalytic tumor-targeting mechanism based on targeting extracellular DNA (exDNA). exDNA is enriched in the tumor microenviroment and increases with treatment with cytotoxic agents, such as doxorubicin (DOX), due to release of DNA by dying tumor cells...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045236/-classification-and-clinicopathological-characteristics-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#10
REVIEW
Zengshan Li
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. The incidence has increased greatly during the past 40 years, partially due to the advanced endoscopic and imaging techniques. As a type of neoplasm with the specific morphology and immunophenotype, its nomenclature and classification have also been changed considerably over the past 40 years, from the past "carcinoid" to the current "neuroendocrine neoplasm". WHO currently recommends two-tiered classification, neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine cancer, according to the differentiation, morphology and proliferation index...
January 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042127/tremelimumab-research-and-clinical-development
#11
REVIEW
Begoña Comin-Anduix, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Francisco Javier Ibarrondo
The immune checkpoint therapy is a relatively recent strategy that aims to tweak the immune system to effectively attack cancer cells. The understanding of the immune responses and their regulation at the intracellular level and the development of fully humanized monoclonal antibodies are the pillars of an approach that could elicit durable clinical responses and even remission in some patients with cancer. Most of the immune checkpoints that regulate the T-cell responses (activation and inhibition) operate through proteins present on the cytoplasmic membrane of the immune cells...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617748/triple-controlled-oncolytic-adenovirus-expressing-melittin-to-exert-inhibitory-efficacy-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Chun-Yu Qian, Kai-Li Wang, Fan-Fu Fang, Wei Gu, Feng Huang, Fu-Zhe Wang, Bai Li, Li-Na Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant disease, and its outcome of routine therapies is poor. Comprehensive treatment including gene therapy is an important way to improve patients' prognosis and survival. In this study, we successfully constructed a triple-controlled cancer-selective oncolytic adenovirus, QG511-HA-Melittin, carrying melittin gene, in which the hybrid promoter, hypoxia-response element (HRE)-AFP promoter, was used to control viral E1a expression targeting AFP-positive cancer cells in hypoxia microenviroment, and the E1b-55 kDa gene was deleted in cancer cells with p53-deficiency...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607481/the-role-of-circulating-mirnas-in-multiple-myeloma
#13
REVIEW
Ji Zhang, XiaoJuan Xiao, Jing Liu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignant hematological disease. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MM cells and bone marrow microenviroment has important impacts on the initiation and progression of MM and drug resistance in MM cells. Recently, it was reported that MM patient serum and plasma contained sufficiently stable miRNA signatures, and circulating miRNAs could be identified and measured accurately from body fluid. Compared to conventional diagnostic parameters, the circulating miRNA profile is appropriate for the diagnosis of MM and estimates patient progression and therapeutic outcome with higher specificity and sensitivity...
December 2015: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26490984/elevated-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-poor-disease-free-survival-in-chinese-women-with-breast-cancer
#14
Jin Hong, Yan Mao, Xiaosong Chen, Li Zhu, Jianrong He, Weiguo Chen, Yafen Li, Lin Lin, Xiaochun Fei, Kunwei Shen
Inflammation and tumor immune microenviroment are critical factors for prognosis in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 487 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at Shanghai Ruijin hospital from January 2009 to December 2010. Hematological parameters before surgery, clinicopathological data, and survival status were obtained. Survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of NLR...
March 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489866/the-human-skin-double-stranded-dna-virome-topographical-and-temporal-diversity-genetic-enrichment-and-dynamic-associations-with-the-host-microbiome
#15
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Amanda S Tyldsley, Qi Zheng, Brendan P Hodkinson, Adam J SanMiguel, Samuel Minot, Frederic D Bushman, Elizabeth A Grice
UNLABELLED: Viruses make up a major component of the human microbiota but are poorly understood in the skin, our primary barrier to the external environment. Viral communities have the potential to modulate states of cutaneous health and disease. Bacteriophages are known to influence the structure and function of microbial communities through predation and genetic exchange. Human viruses are associated with skin cancers and a multitude of cutaneous manifestations. Despite these important roles, little is known regarding the human skin virome and its interactions with the host microbiome...
October 20, 2015: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468017/down-expression-of-mir-152-lead-to-impaired-anti-tumor-effect-of-nk-via-upregulation-of-hla-g
#16
Xiaokun Bian, Yuanquan Si, Min Zhang, Ran Wei, Xiaomin Yang, Hao Ren, Guixi Zheng, Chuanxin Wang, Yi Zhang
It is known that chronic HBV infection (CHB) is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because CHB could not only cause liver tumorigenesis but also lead to change of local microenviroment and lower immune response to infected and cancerous cells (immune tolerance). Human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) belongs to a non-classic MHC-I family and was considered to be an immune tolerance molecule, which could bind to immunosuppressive receptors of natural killer cell (NK) and T cells and trigger immunosuppressive signaling...
March 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426054/the-mesothelial-origin-of-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts-in-peritoneal-metastasis
#17
REVIEW
Angela Rynne-Vidal, José Antonio Jiménez-Heffernan, Concepción Fernández-Chacón, Manuel López-Cabrera, Pilar Sandoval
Solid tumors are complex and unstructured organs that, in addition to cancer cells, also contain other cell types. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent an important population in the tumor microenviroment and participate in several stages of tumor progression, including cancer cell migration/invasion and metastasis. During peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, such as ovarian or gastrointestinal, disseminate through the peritoneal fluid and colonize the peritoneum. Tumor cells metastasize by attaching to and invading through the mesothelial cell (MC) monolayer that lines the peritoneal cavity, then colonizing the submesothelial compact zone where CAFs accumulate...
2015: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26214617/the-role-of-cdcp1-cub-domain-containing-protein-1-and-adam12-a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-12-in-ovarian-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Catalin Vlad, Paul Kubelac, Andrea Onisim, Alexandru Irimie, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common gynecological cancer and the deadliest in industrialized countries, with poor outcomes that indicate an urgent need to provide a greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying OC. Insights into the complex tumor microenviroment show that besides tumor islets, OC biomarkers can derive from newly formed blood vessels that have endothelial cells with a different molecular signature in comparison with their normal counterparts. In this view, recent research has been able to highlight promising candidates such as CDCP1 and ADAM12...
May 2015: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25685069/the-association-between-expressions-of-ras-and-cd68-in-the-angiogenesis-of-breast-cancers
#19
Wei Li, Rong-Rui Liang, Chong Zhou, Meng-Yao Wu, Lian Lian, Gao-Feng Yuan, Ming-Yun Wang, Xin Xie, Liu-Mei Shou, Fei-Ran Gong, Kai Chen, Wei-Ming Duan, Min Tao
OBJECTIVE: Angiogenesis is a critical step of breast cancer metastasis. Oncogenic Ras promotes the remodeling of cancer microenviroment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a prominent inflammatory cell population emerging in the microenviroment and facilitating the angiogenesis and metastasis. In the present study, we tried to investigate the relationship between the expression of Ras and infiltration of TAM, both of which could further promote angiogenesis. METHODS: Expressions of Ras, CD68 and CD34 were assessed by immunohistochemistry...
2015: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25610742/targeting-galectin-1-in-pancreatic-cancer-immune-surveillance-on-guard
#20
Neus Martínez-Bosch, Pilar Navarro
The tumor microenviroment and immune barrier are known to modulate malignant disease progression. We have recently identified Galectin-1 as a key player in a novel stromal regulatory reaction driving immune evasion in pancreatic tumors in vivo. These results suggest that Galectin-1 inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy for one of the most deadly types of cancer.
2014: Oncoimmunology
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