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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931077/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-including-potential-new-species-in-human-head-lice-from-mali
#1
Nadia Amanzougaghene, Florence Fenollar, Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Mahamadou S Sissoko, Ogobara K Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. This study assessed the occurrence of bacterial pathogens from head lice collected in two rural villages from Mali, where a high frequency of head lice infestation had previously been reported, using molecular methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929991/effects-of-different-dosages-of-propylene-glycol-in-dry-cows-and-cows-in-early-lactation
#2
Michaela Maurer, Walter Peinhopf, Jutta Gottschalk, Almut Einspanier, Gabor Koeller, Thomas Wittek
In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923476/evaluation-of-nutrition-support-practices-results-from-a-nationwide-survey
#3
Wajdy Abi Saleh, Pierre Bou Khalil, Krystel Ouaijan, Fayez Abillama, Sandra Akiki, Nehmat Ahmad, Lama Mattar
BACKGROUND: Multiple clinical guidelines are available to improve and standardize the delivery of nutrition support. However, recommendations are not being universally applied at the bedside due to challenges of resources and barriers of knowledge. Assessing the current level of nutrition support practice is the first step to understand the barriers and ultimately implement potential strategies to increase guideline adherence and promote quality nutrition support in hospitals. There are no published data concerning the practice of nutrition support in Lebanese hospitals...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922171/pancreatic-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-potential-marker-of-parasympathetic-denervation
#4
Karoline Knudsen, Bolette Hartmann, Tatyana D Fedorova, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Niels Møller, Jens J Holst, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience several non-motor symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract that may partly be caused by parasympathetic deficiency. The pancreas is densely innervated by the vagus nerve, which mediates early meal-induced secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Early secretion after sham feeding has been validated as a marker of vagal integrity. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the ratio of increased PP plasma levels after sham feeding in PD and correlate findings with gastrointestinal transit time (GITT)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920524/remotely-supported-prehospital-ultrasound-a-feasibility-study-of-real-time-image-transmission-and-expert-guidance-to-aid-diagnosis-in-remote-and-rural-communities
#5
Leila Eadie, John Mulhern, Luke Regan, Alasdair Mort, Helen Shannon, Ashish Macaden, Philip Wilson
Introduction Our aim is to expedite prehospital assessment of remote and rural patients using remotely-supported ultrasound and satellite/cellular communications. In this paradigm, paramedics are remotely-supported ultrasound operators, guided by hospital-based specialists, to record images before receiving diagnostic advice. Technology can support users in areas with little access to medical imaging and suboptimal communications coverage by connecting to multiple cellular networks and/or satellites to stream live ultrasound and audio-video...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919799/maple-syrup-urine-disease-mechanisms-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Patrick R Blackburn, Jennifer M Gass, Filippo Pinto E Vairo, Kristen M Farnham, Herjot K Atwal, Sarah Macklin, Eric W Klee, Paldeep S Atwal
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918753/neonatal-intestinal-obstruction-associated-with-situs-inversus-totalis-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Rahul Gupta, Varsha Soni, Prakash Devidas Valse, Ram Babu Goyal, Arun Kumar Gupta, Praveen Mathur
BACKGROUND: The association of neonatal intestinal obstruction with situs inversus totalis is extremely rare with only few cases reported in the literature to date. This association poses dilemmas in management. We present two such cases (of Indian origin), and briefly discuss the pertinent literature and measures to prevent unfavorable outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: a 1-month-old preterm (1300 g) male neonate belonging to Hindu (Indian) ethnicity presented with recurrent bile-stained vomiting, non-passage of stools and epigastric fullness...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918135/effects-of-addition-of-malic-or-citric-acids-on-fermentation-quality-and-chemical-characteristics-of-alfalfa-silage
#8
W C Ke, W R Ding, D M Xu, L M Ding, P Zhang, F D Li, X S Guo
We studied the effects on alfalfa preservation and chemical composition of the addition of different levels of malic acid and citric acid at ensiling as well as the utilization efficiency of these 2 organic acids after fermentation. Alfalfa was harvested at early bloom stage. After wilting to a dry matter content of approximately 40%, the alfalfa was chopped into 1- to 2-cm pieces for ensiling. Four levels (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1% of fresh weight) of malic acid or citric acid were applied to chopped alfalfa at ensiling with 4 replicates for each treatment, and the treated alfalfa forages were ensiled for 60 d in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags (dimensions: 200 mm × 300 mm) packed with 200 to 230 g of fresh alfalfa per mini silo and an initial density of 0...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#9
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916787/late-permian-wood-borings-reveal-an-intricate-network-of-ecological-relationships
#10
Zhuo Feng, Jun Wang, Ronny Rößler, Adam Ślipiński, Conrad Labandeira
Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916221/reduced-risk-of-peanut-sensitization-following-exposure-through-breast-feeding-and-early-peanut-introduction
#11
Tracy J Pitt, Allan B Becker, Moira Chan-Yeung, Edmond S Chan, Wade T A Watson, Rishma Chooniedass, Meghan B Azad
BACKGROUND: Recent trials have shown that avoiding peanuts during infancy increases the risk of peanut allergy; however, these studies did not address maternal peanut consumption. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the relationship between maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding, timing of direct peanut introduction, and peanut sensitization at age 7 years. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a nested cohort within the 1995 Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study intervention study was performed...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915506/maternal-diethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-affects-adiposity-and-insulin-tolerance-in-offspring-in-a-pcna-dependent-manner
#12
Brian G Hunt, Yuan-Liang Wang, Min-Shan Chen, Shao-Chun Wang, Susan E Waltz
The ubiquitous plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a known endocrine disruptor. However, DEHP exposure effects are not well understood. Changes in industrial and agricultural practices have resulted in increased prevalence of DEHP exposure and has coincided with the heightened occurrence of metabolic syndrome and obesity. DEHP and its metabolites are detected in the umbilical cord blood of newborns; however, the prenatal and perinatal effects of DEHP exposure have not been intensively studied. Previously, we discovered that phosphorylation (p) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at tyrosine 114 (Y114) is required for adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity in mice...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915456/carbon-and-nitrogen-elemental-and-isotopic-ratios-of-filter-feeding-bivalves-along-the-french-coasts-an-assessment-of-specific-geographic-seasonal-and-multi-decadal-variations
#13
Nicolas Briant, Nicolas Savoye, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Valérie David, Samuel Rodriguez, Karine Charlier, Jeroen E Sonke, Jean François Chiffoleau, Christophe Brach-Papa, Joël Knoery
Primary consumers play a key role in coastal ecosystems by transferring organic matter from primary producers to predators. Among them, suspension-feeders, like bivalve molluscs are widely used in trophic web studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate variations of C and N elemental and isotopic ratios in common bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and C. gigas) at large spatial (i.e. among three coastal regions) and different temporal (i.e. from seasonal to multi-decadal) scales in France, in order to identify potential general or specific patterns and speculate on their drivers...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913340/caregiver-reports-of-interactions-between-children-up-to-6-years-and-their-family-dog-implications-for-dog-bite-prevention
#14
Christine Arhant, Andrea Martina Beetz, Josef Troxler
In children up to 6 years, interactions such as interfering with the dog's resources and also benign behaviors (e.g., petting) commonly precede a bite incident with the family dog. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the development of everyday interactions between children up to 6 years and their family dogs and whether parents' attitudes to supervision are related to those interactions. Additionally, we investigated whether behavior of dogs that had lived in the family for longer than the child differed from those that grew up with children...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913128/early-initiation-and-exclusive-breastfeeding-factors-influencing-the-attitudes-of-mothers-who-gave-birth-in-a-baby-friendly-hospital
#15
Elif Yılmaz, Fatma Doğa Öcal, Zehra Vural Yılmaz, Meryem Ceyhan, Osman Fadıl Kara, Tuncay Küçüközkan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the initation time of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding rates, and complementary feeding practices during the first six months of life among mothers who gave birth in a baby-friendly hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 350 mothers. Demographic characteristics, obstetric history and information about breastfeeding initiation were collected at the hospital. Information about factors affecting breastfeeding duration and feeding practices of the infants were obtained at the end of six months...
March 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912782/the-sand-fly-salivary-protein-lufaxin-inhibits-the-early-steps-of-the-alternative-pathway-of-complement-by-direct-binding-to-the-proconvertase-c3b-b
#16
Antonio F Mendes-Sousa, Vladimir Fazito do Vale, Naylene C S Silva, Anderson B Guimaraes-Costa, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Fabiano Oliveira, Shaden Kamhawi, José M C Ribeiro, John F Andersen, Jesus G Valenzuela, Ricardo N Araujo
Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912768/linseed-oil-supplementation-of-lambs-diet-in-early-life-leads-to-persistent-changes-in-rumen-microbiome-structure
#17
Tamsin Lyons, Tommy Boland, Sean Storey, Evelyn Doyle
Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912767/shifts-in-host-mucosal-innate-immune-function-are-associated-with-ruminal-microbial-succession-in-supplemental-feeding-and-grazing-goats-at-different-ages
#18
Jinzhen Jiao, Chuanshe Zhou, L L Guan, C S McSweeney, Shaoxun Tang, Min Wang, Zhiliang Tan
Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination) and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S) vs. Grazing (G)] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912191/high-versus-low-energy-administration-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-pancreatitis-goulash-trial-protocol-of-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-clinical-trial
#19
Katalin Márta, Anikó N Szabó, Dániel Pécsi, Péter Varjú, Judit Bajor, Szilárd Gódi, Patrícia Sarlós, Alexandra Mikó, Kata Szemes, Mária Papp, Tamás Tornai, Áron Vincze, Zsolt Márton, Patrícia A Vincze, Erzsébet Lankó, Andrea Szentesi, Tímea Molnár, Roland Hágendorn, Nándor Faluhelyi, István Battyáni, Dezső Kelemen, Róbert Papp, Attila Miseta, Zsófia Verzár, Markus M Lerch, John P Neoptolemos, Miklós Sahin-Tóth, Ole H Petersen, Péter Hegyi
INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with no specific treatment. Mitochondrial injury followed by ATP depletion in both acinar and ductal cells is a recently discovered early event in its pathogenesis. Importantly, preclinical research has shown that intracellular ATP delivery restores the physiological function of the cells and protects from cell injury, suggesting that restoration of energy levels in the pancreas is therapeutically beneficial. Despite several high quality experimental observations in this area, no randomised trials have been conducted to date to address the requirements for energy intake in the early phase of AP...
September 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906559/characterization-of-micrornas-from-arabidopsis-galls-highlights-a-role-for-mir159-in-the-plant-response-to-the-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita
#20
Clémence Medina, Martine da Rocha, Marc Magliano, Alizée Ratpopoulo, Benoît Revel, Nathalie Marteu, Virginie Magnone, Kevin Lebrigand, Javier Cabrera, Marta Barcala, Ana Cláudia Silva, Anthony Millar, Carolina Escobar, Pierre Abad, Bruno Favery, Stéphanie Jaubert-Possamai
Root knot nematodes (RKN) are root parasites that induce the genetic reprogramming of vascular cells into giant feeding cells and the development of root galls. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression during development and plant responses to various stresses. Disruption of post-transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis ago1 or ago2 mutants decrease the infection rate of RKN suggesting a role for this mechanism in the plant-nematode interaction. By sequencing small RNAs from uninfected Arabidopsis roots and from galls 7 and 14 d post infection with Meloidogyne incognita, we identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in gall as putative regulators of gall development...
September 14, 2017: New Phytologist
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