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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#1
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777555/impact-of-nicu-oral-feeding-on-neuropsychomotor-outcomes-at-9-months-of-corrected-age-in-chinese-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants-a-retrospective-study
#2
Wenwen Ding, Lijin Zhao, Nan Sheng, Jiali Ma, Ying Zhang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the changes in neuropsychomotor development and investigate the effect of feeding progression in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on neuropsychomotor outcomes in low-birth-weight preterm infants within 9 months of corrected age. BACKGROUND: Low-birth-weight (LBW) preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation and birth weight < 2500 g) are at a high risk for neuropsychomotor development delay. Therefore, exploring NICU practices related to neuropsychomotor development is important...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#3
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777232/maternal-overnutrition-programs-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulatory-regions-of-hypothalamic-pomc-in-the-offspring-of-rats
#4
Thanuja Gali Ramamoorthy, Tiffany-Jayne Allen, Alison Davies, Erika Harno, Charlotte Sefton, Christopher Murgatroyd, Anne White
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal overnutrition has been implicated in affecting the offspring by programming metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, by mechanisms that are not clearly understood. This study aimed to determine the long-term impact of maternal high-fat (HF) diet feeding on epigenetic changes in the offspring's hypothalamic Pomc gene, coding a key factor in the control of energy balance. Further, it aimed to study the additional effects of postnatal overnutrition on epigenetic programming by maternal nutrition...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777227/in-utero-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-and-adiposity-does-breastfeeding-make-a-difference
#5
L L Hui, A M Li, E A S Nelson, G M Leung, S L Lee, C M Schooling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Short-term breastfeeding from mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) may programme metabolism and increase offspring diabetes risk. We examined the association of in utero GDM exposure with adiposity from infancy to adolescence, and whether any association was modified by breastfeeding during early infancy. METHODS: In the prospective Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" (n = 7342, 88% follow-up rate), generalised estimate equations with multiple imputation were used to assess associations of in utero GDM exposure with age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score during infancy (3 and 9 months), childhood (2- < 8 years) and adolescence (8-16 years), adjusted for sex, parity, maternal age, birth place, preeclampisa, smoking, and family socio-economic position...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776476/institute-of-medicine-early-infant-feeding-recommendations-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-implementation-by-immigrant-mothers-from-central-america
#6
Kathleen F Gaffney, Albert V Brito, Panagiota Kitsantas, Deborah A Kermer, Graciela Pereddo, Katya M Ramos
PURPOSES: Describe implementation of Institute of Medicine (IOM) early infant feeding recommendations for child obesity prevention by immigrant mothers from Central America; examine potential relationships with food insecurity and postpartum depressive symptoms. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 318 mothers of 2month old infants at a large pediatric setting for low income families. Logistic regression models assessed feeding practices, food insecurity and postpartum depressive symptoms...
May 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776336/phylogenomic-analysis-of-apoidea-sheds-new-light-on-the-sister-group-of-bees
#7
Manuela Sann, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S Peters, Christoph Mayer, Alexey Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, Christoph Bleidorn, Michael Ohl
BACKGROUND: Apoid wasps and bees (Apoidea) are an ecologically and morphologically diverse group of Hymenoptera, with some species of bees having evolved eusocial societies. Major problems for our understanding of the evolutionary history of Apoidea have been the difficulty to trace the phylogenetic origin and to reliably estimate the geological age of bees. To address these issues, we compiled a comprehensive phylogenomic dataset by simultaneously analyzing target DNA enrichment and transcriptomic sequence data, comprising 195 single-copy protein-coding genes and covering all major lineages of apoid wasps and bee families...
May 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775456/maternal-obesogenic-diet-induces-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-early-hallmark-of-endometrial-cancer-in-a-diethylstilbestrol-mouse-model
#8
Theresa O Owuor, Michaela Reid, Lauren Reschke, Ian Hagemann, Suellen Greco, Zeel Modi, Kelle H Moley
Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774708/-communicating-data-of-the-italian-ninfea-birth-cohort
#9
Lorenzo Richiardi, Maja Popovic, Daniela Zugna, Franca Rusconi, Franco Merletti, Costanza Pizzi
"In March 2016, the website of the NINFEA project (an Internet-based cohort set up to investigate the effects of exposures acting early in life) was enriched with the section «Data», which reports aggregated data for selected variables of the cohort. This article discusses the rationale for this new section, available data and their possible uses are described, and some results are compared with figures accessible from surveillance studies. The Italian birth cohort NINFEA includes 7,500 pregnant women, recruited through the Internet from 2005 to June 2016, and of their children, followed up with repeated questionnaires...
March 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772380/task-dependent-modulation-of-the-visual-sensory-thalamus-assists-visual-speech-recognition
#10
Begoña Díaz, Helen Blank, Katharina von Kriegstein
The cerebral cortex modulates early sensory processing via feed-back connections to sensory pathway nuclei. The functions of this top-down modulation for human behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that top-down modulation of the visual sensory thalamus (the lateral geniculate body, LGN) is involved in visual-speech recognition. In two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, LGN response increased when participants processed fast-varying features of articulatory movements required for visual-speech recognition, as compared to temporally more stable features required for face identification with the same stimulus material...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771921/mosquito-saliva-alone-has-profound-effects-on-the-human-immune-system
#11
Megan B Vogt, Anismrita Lahon, Ravi P Arya, Alexander R Kneubehl, Jennifer L Spencer Clinton, Silke Paust, Rebecca Rico-Hesse
Mosquito saliva is a very complex concoction of >100 proteins, many of which have unknown functions. The effects of mosquito saliva proteins injected into our skin during blood feeding have been studied mainly in mouse models of injection or biting, with many of these systems producing results that may not be relevant to human disease. Here, we describe the numerous effects that mosquito bites have on human immune cells in mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. We used flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine bead array assays, with detailed statistical analyses, to detect small but significant variations in immune cell functions after 4 mosquitoes fed on humanized mice footpads...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771770/biliary-stenosis-and-gastric-outlet-obstruction-late-complications-after-acute-pancreatitis-with-pancreatic-duct-disruption
#12
Motokazu Sugimoto, David P Sonntag, Greggory S Flint, Cody J Boyce, John C Kirkham, Tyler J Harris, Sean M Carr, Brent D Nelson, Don A Bell, Joshua G Barton, L William Traverso
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic duct disruption (PDD) after acute pancreatitis can cause pancreatic collections in the early phase and biliary stenosis (BS) or gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) in the late phase. We aimed to document those late complications after moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Between September 2010 and August 2014, 141 patients showed pancreatic collections on computed tomography. Percutaneous drainage was primarily performed for patients with signs or symptoms of uncontrolled pancreatic juice leakage...
May 15, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770960/interventions-for-increasing-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-children-aged-five-years-and-under
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca K Hodder, Kate M O'Brien, Fiona G Stacey, Rebecca J Wyse, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Flora Tzelepis, Erica L James, Kate M Bartlem, Nicole K Nathan, Rachel Sutherland, Emma Robson, Sze Lin Yoong, Luke Wolfenden
BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under...
May 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770758/dietary-l-threonine-supplementation-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-intestinal-barrier-damage-of-broiler-chickens-at-an-early-age
#14
Yueping Chen, Hao Zhang, Yefei Cheng, Yue Li, Chao Wen, Yanmin Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of l-threonine (l-Thr) supplementation on growth performance, inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier function of young broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 144 1-d-old male chicks were allocated to one of three treatments: non-challenged broilers fed a basal diet (control group), LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet without l-Thr supplementation and LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with 3·0 g/kg l-Thr...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769581/a-grazing-gomphotherium-in-middle-miocene-central-asia-10-million-years-prior-to-the-origin-of-the-elephantidae
#15
Yan Wu, Tao Deng, Yaowu Hu, Jiao Ma, Xinying Zhou, Limi Mao, Hanwen Zhang, Jie Ye, Shi-Qi Wang
Feeding preference of fossil herbivorous mammals, concerning the coevolution of mammalian and floral ecosystems, has become of key research interest. In this paper, phytoliths in dental calculus from two gomphotheriid proboscideans of the middle Miocene Junggar Basin, Central Asia, have been identified, suggesting that Gomphotherium connexum was a mixed feeder, while the phytoliths from G. steinheimense indicates grazing preference. This is the earliest-known proboscidean with a predominantly grazing habit...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769085/contemporary-enteral-and-parenteral-nutrition-before-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-cancers-a-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Michal Jankowski, Manuela Las-Jankowska, Massaoud Sousak, Wojciech Zegarski
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cancers are among the most recognised oncological diseases in well-developed countries. Tumours located in the digestive tract may cause the fast occurrence of malnutrition. MAIN TEXT: The perioperative period is a special time for systemic metabolism. Thanks to published guidelines, early universal control nutritional status before treatment, patients may have a chance to get suitable nutritional intervention. Although the first line of the intervention-nutritional consultation as well as the fortification of a diet and oral nutritional support (ONS)-is not debatable, in a case of inability of undergoing an oral feeding, the choice of the way of administration in patients before a surgery may represent a serious clinical obstacle...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768650/gestation-at-birth-mode-of-birth-infant-feeding-and-childhood-hospitalization-with-infection
#17
Jason P Bentley, David P Burgner, Antonia W Shand, Jane C Bell, Jessica E Miller, Natasha Nassar
INTRODUCTION: Infections are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in preschool children. We aimed to assess the impact of the co-occurrence of cesarean section, early birth and formula feeding on hospitalization with infection in early childhood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population-based retrospective record-linkage cohort study of 488 603 singleton livebirths ≥32 weeks gestational age in New South Wales, Australia, 2007-2012. Multivariable Cox-regression was used to estimate independent and combined adjusted associations of gestational age, mode of birth (vaginal or cesarean section by labor onset) and formula feeding with time to first and repeat hospitalization with infection for children <5 years of age...
May 16, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768484/herbivory-responsive-calmodulin-like-protein-cml9-does-not-guide-jasmonate-mediated-defenses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767906/use-of-crack-in-pregnancy-repercussions-for-the-newborn
#19
Daiani Modernel Xavier, Giovana Calcagno Gomes, Juliane Portella Ribeiro, Marina Soares Mota, Simone Quadros Alvarez
OBJECTIVES: To know the effects for the newborn of the use of crack in pregnancy. METHODS: This is a qualitative study conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil, in the first half of 2014. Fifteen mothers crack users and five grandparents participated. The data were produced through semi-structured interviews and later submitted to content analysis. RESULTS: It was found that the use of crack in pregnancy leads to repercussions related to the health of the newborn and repercussions related to family restructuring...
October 2017: Investigación y Educación en Enfermería
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767163/response-of-primiparous-and-multiparous-buffaloes-to-yeast-culture-supplementation-during-early-and-mid-lactation
#20
Hanne H Hansen, Nasr E El-Bordeny, Hossam M Ebeid
Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S . cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026 ), on primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffaloes were fed either a basal total mixed ration (TMR, control; 4 PP and 8 MP) or the basal TMR plus 10 g Yea-Sacc1026 per buffalo cow per day (yeast; 4 PP and 8 MP). The feeds were given from 15 days prepartum to 180 days postpartum...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
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