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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#1
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209137/transcriptional-analysis-of-defense-mechanisms-in-upland-tetraploid-switchgrass-to-greenbugs
#2
Teresa Donze-Reiner, Nathan A Palmer, Erin D Scully, Travis J Prochaska, Kyle G Koch, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Jeffrey D Bradshaw, Paul Twigg, Keenan Amundsen, Scott E Sattler, Gautam Sarath
BACKGROUND: Aphid infestation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has the potential to reduce yields and biomass quality. Although switchgrass-greenbug (Schizaphis graminum; GB) interactions have been studied at the whole plant level, little information is available on plant defense responses at the molecular level. RESULTS: The global transcriptomic response of switchgrass cv Summer to GB was monitored by RNA-Seq in infested and control (uninfested) plants harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days after infestation (DAI)...
February 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208964/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-in-infants-receiving-skin-to-skin-care-at-birth-follow-up-of-randomized-cohort
#3
Archana Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Dipen Vasudev Patel, Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar, Vijay Karshanbhai Patel, Dhaval Nileshbhai Patel, Ajay Gajanan Phatak
INTRODUCTION: Skin to Skin Care (SSC) in neonatal period influences immediate breastfeeding outcomes in early childhood, especially the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. AIM: We investigated influence of 17 hours of SSC given from day one of life on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices through one year of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Follow-up of a Superiority Randomized Control Trial (RCT) (CTRI/2013/06/003790) conducted in a teaching hospital located in central Gujarat...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201995/zoonotic-necrotizing-myositis-caused-by-streptococcus-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-in-a-farmer
#4
Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen, Oddvar Oppegaard, Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Håvard Dale, Harald G Wiker, Steinar Skrede
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a beta-hemolytic group C streptococcus mainly causing infections in domesticated animals. Here we describe the first case of zoonotic necrotizing myositis caused by this bacterium. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 73-year-old, previously healthy farmer with two asymptomatic Shetland ponies in his stable. After close contact with the ponies while feeding them, he rapidly developed erythema of his left thigh and sepsis with multiple organ failure...
February 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197790/surgical-treatment-of-anterior-cranial-fossa-dural-arterio-venous-fistulas-davfs-a-two-centre-experience
#5
Pietro Meneghelli, Alberto Pasqualin, Luigi Andrea Lanterna, Claudio Bernucci, Roberto Spinelli, Gianluigi Dorelli, Piergiuseppe Zampieri
BACKGROUND: Anterior cranial fossa dural arterio-venous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 6% of all intracranial DAVFs; characteristically they show an aggressive behaviour with high risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Peculiar anatomical features, such as feeding by the ethmoidal arteries and the pattern of venous drainage (frequently with varices that mimic aneurysmal dilatation), can be evaluated in detail only by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which represents the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of such cranial fistulas...
February 14, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196553/association-between-body-energy-content-in-the-dry-period-and-post-calving-production-disease-status-in-dairy-cattle
#6
G L Smith, N C Friggens, C J Ashworth, M G G Chagunda
The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse...
February 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194219/development-of-a-lecithotrophic-pilidium-larva-illustrates-convergent-evolution-of-trochophore-like-morphology
#7
Marie K Hunt, Svetlana A Maslakova
BACKGROUND: The pilidium larva is an idiosyncrasy defining one clade of marine invertebrates, the Pilidiophora (Nemertea, Spiralia). Uniquely, in pilidial development, the juvenile worm forms from a series of isolated rudiments called imaginal discs, then erupts through and devours the larval body during catastrophic metamorphosis. A typical pilidium is planktotrophic and looks like a hat with earflaps, but pilidial diversity is much broader and includes several types of non-feeding pilidia...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194211/enteral-nutrition-for-optimal-growth-in-preterm-infants
#8
REVIEW
Myo-Jing Kim
Early, aggressive nutrition is an important contributing factor of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. To ensure optimal growth in premature infants, adequate protein intake and optimal protein/energy ratio should be emphasized rather than the overall energy intake. Minimal enteral nutrition should be initiated as soon as possible in the first days of life, and feeding advancement should be individualized according to the clinical course of the infant. During hospitalization, enteral nutrition with preterm formula and fortified human milk represent the best feeding practices for facilitating growth...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194188/primum-non-nocere-first-do-no-harm-and-then-feed-peanut
#9
Kyla Jade Hildebrand, Elissa Michele Abrams, Timothy K Vander Leek, Julia Elizabeth Mainwaring Upton, Douglas P Mack, Linda Kirste, Christine McCusker, Sandeep Kapur
The Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States-Report of the NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel were developed to build on previous food allergy guidelines after several key studies demonstrated the benefit of early introduction of allergenic foods. These landmark studies including the Learning Early about Peanut (LEAP), LEAP-On and Enquiring about Tolerance trials created a paradigm shift in food allergy prevention. The "take home" messages of this guideline include that peanut should be introduced early in the first year of life, and for the majority of infants, peanut can be introduced at home...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194156/integrated-management-strategies-increase-cottonseed-oil-and-protein-production-the-key-role-of-carbohydrate-metabolism
#10
Hongkun Yang, Xinyue Zhang, Binglin Chen, Yali Meng, Youhua Wang, Wenqing Zhao, Zhiguo Zhou
Cottonseed, oil, and protein, as the by-products of cotton production, have the potential to provide commodities to meet the increasing demand of renewable bio-fuels and ruminant feed. An increase in crop yield per unit area requires high-yielding cultivar management with an economic nitrogen (N) rate, an optimal N application schedule, high-yielding plant populations and strong seedlings. Whether the integration of these agronomic practices into a coherent management system can increase the productivity of cotton fiber, embryo oil and protein requires experimental elucidation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193812/coping-with-copepods-do-right-whales-eubalaena-glacialis-forage-visually-in-dark-waters
#11
Thomas W Cronin, Jeffry I Fasick, Lorian E Schweikert, Sönke Johnsen, Lorren J Kezmoh, Mark F Baumgartner
North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) feed during the spring and early summer in marine waters off the northeast coast of North America. Their food primarily consists of planktonic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus, which they consume in large numbers by ram filter feeding. The coastal waters where these whales forage are turbid, but they successfully locate copepod swarms during the day at depths exceeding 100 m, where light is very dim and copepod patches may be difficult to see. Using models of E...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192518/infant-feeding-practices-and-diarrhoea-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-with-high-diarrhoea-mortality
#12
Felix A Ogbo, Kingsley Agho, Pascal Ogeleka, Sue Woolfenden, Andrew Page, John Eastwood
BACKGROUND: The impacts of optimal infant feeding practices on diarrhoea have been documented in some developing countries, but not in countries with high diarrhoea mortality as reported by the World Health Organisation/United Nations Children's Fund. We aimed to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. METHOD: The study used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets collected in nine sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality, namely: Burkina Faso (2010, N = 9,733); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013; N = 10,458); Ethiopia (2013, N = 7,251); Kenya (2014, N = 14,034); Mali (2013, N = 6,365); Niger (2013, N = 7,235); Nigeria (2013, N = 18,539); Tanzania (2010, N = 5,013); and Uganda (2010, N = 4,472)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190990/the-translation-of-lipid-profiles-to-nutritional-biomarkers-in-the-study-of-infant-metabolism
#13
Animesh Acharjee, Philippa Prentice, Carlo Acerini, James Smith, Ieuan A Hughes, Ken Ong, Julian L Griffin, David Dunger, Albert Koulman
INTRODUCTION: Links between early life exposures and later health outcomes may, in part, be due to nutritional programming in infancy. This hypothesis is supported by observed long-term benefits associated with breastfeeding, such as better cognitive development in childhood, and lower risks of obesity and high blood pressure in later life. However, the possible underlying mechanisms are expected to be complex and may be difficult to disentangle due to the lack of understanding of the metabolic processes that differentiate breastfed infants compared to those receiving just formula feed...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183153/effects-of-armillariella-tabescens-mycelia-on-the-growth-performance-and-intestinal-immune-response-and-microflora-of-early-weaned-pigs
#14
Wen-Bin Chen, Mao-Ji Cheng, Yun-Bo Tian, Qin-Hua Wang, Bing Wang, Mei-Jun Li, Re-Jun Fang
This study was performed to evaluate effects of Armillariella tabescens (A. tabescens) on the growth performance and intestinal immune response and microflora in early-weaned pigs when used as feed additive. A. tabescens mycelia were added to basal diets at concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.9% (w/w). A total of 144 commercial cross-bred piglets were randomly allocated to one of these four diets and fed for 30 days. The growth performance of early-weaned piglets displayed improvement with diets containing 0...
February 9, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181214/aspirin-single-dose-for-perineal-pain-in-the-early-postpartum-period
#15
REVIEW
Sujana Molakatalla, Emily Shepherd, Rosalie M Grivell
BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma (due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy) or in association with operative vaginal birth) is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179525/differentiation-dependent-lmp1-expression-is-required-for-efficient-lytic-ebv-reactivation-in-epithelial-cells
#16
Dhananjay M Nawandar, Makoto Ohashi, Reza Djavadian, Elizabeth Barlow, Kathleen Makielski, Ahmed Ali, Denis Lee, Paul F Lambert, Eric Johannsen, Shannon C Kenney
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases of epithelial cells, including tumors such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) that have latent infection, and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) lesions that have lytic infection, frequently express the viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In lytically-infected cells, LMP1 expression is activated by the BRLF1 (R) immediate-early (IE) protein. However, the mechanisms by which LMP1 expression is normally regulated in epithelial cells remain poorly understood, and its potential roles in regulating lytic reactivation in epithelial cells are as yet unexplored...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179267/obesity-and-pregnancy-mechanisms-of-short-term-and-long-term-adverse-consequences-for-mother-and-child
#17
REVIEW
Patrick M Catalano, Kartik Shankar
Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177396/growth-heterogeneity-in-broiler-breeder-pullets-is-settled-before-the-onset-of-feed-restriction-but-is-not-predicted-by-size-at-hatch
#18
C Lindholm, J Jönsson, A Calais, A Middelkoop, N Yngwe, E Berndtson, J J Lees, E Hult, J Altimiras
Uniform growth is a desirable trait in all large-scale animal production systems because it simplifies animal management and increases profitability. In parental broiler flocks, so-called broiler breeders, low growth uniformity is largely attributed to the feed competition that arises from quantitatively restricted feeding. As feed restriction is crucial to maintaining healthy and fertile breeders, several practices for reducing feed competition and the associated growth heterogeneity have been suggested and range from nutrient dilution by increasing fiber content in feed to intermittent fasting with increased portion size ("skip a day"), but no practice appears to be entirely effective...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177393/acidogenic-mineral-additions-increased-ca-mobilization-in-prepartum-sows
#19
C Darriet, D E Axe, T D Crenshaw
Increased sow milk production is associated with an increase in unexplained sow mortality during prepartum and early postpartum periods. This association has led to purported claims of hypocalcemic disorders. Assuming similar responses as dairy cows, feeding anionic mineral salts in late gestation and early lactation may reduce potential hypocalcemia related disorders in sows. Two experiments using CAD-MATE (Granco Minerals, Petersburg, VA), an acidogenic mineral supplement (AMS), were designed to determine the amount required to increase urinary Ca excretion and to identify renal compensatory responses to acid loads in sows...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176372/development-of-the-skull-and-pectoral-girdle-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-and-russian-sturgeon-acipenser-gueldenstaedtii-acipenseriformes-acipenseridae
#20
Peter Warth, Eric J Hilton, Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The head is considered the major novelty of the vertebrates and directly linked to their evolutionary success. Its form and development as well as its function, for example in feeding, is of major interest for evolutionary biologists. In this study, we describe the skeletal development of the cranium and pectoral girdle in Siberian (Acipenser baerii) and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), two species that are commonly farmed in aquaculture and increasingly important in developmental studies. This study comprises the development of the neuro-, viscero- and dermatocranium and the dermal and chondral components of the pectoral girdle, from first condensation of chondrocytes in prehatchlings to the early juvenile stage and reveals a clear pattern in formation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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