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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431368/correlates-of-perceived-stigma-for-people-living-with-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Ying Shi, Shouqi Wang, Jie Ying, Meiling Zhang, Pengcheng Liu, Huanhuan Zhang, Jiao Sun
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy, one of the most common, serious chronic neurological diseases, is accompanied by different levels of perceived stigma that affects people in almost all age groups. This stigma can negatively impact the physical and mental health of people living with epilepsy (PLWE). Good knowledge of perceived stigma for PLWE is important. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the correlates of perceived stigma for PLWE. METHODS: Studies on factors associated with perceived stigma for PLWE, including sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related variables, were searched in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431283/zika-virus-infection-of-adult-and-fetal-stat2-knock-out-hamsters
#2
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Jinxin Miao, Zhongde Wang, John D Morrey, Justin G Julander
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#3
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431030/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#4
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
Objective: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430966/decreased-thromboembolic-stroke-but-not-atherosclerosis-or-vascular-remodeling-in-mice-with-rock2-deficient-platelets
#5
Nikola Sladojevic, Goo Taeg Oh, Hyung-Hwan Kim, Lea M Beaulieu, Hervé Falet, Karol Kaminski, Jane E Freedman, James K Liao
Aims: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK)-2 is an important mediator of the actin cytoskeleton. Because changes in the actin cytoskeleton are critical for platelet function, we hypothesized that ROCK2 in platelets will play important role in thrombosis and can be potentially a target for therapeutic intervention in thromboembolic stroke. Methods and Results: We generated platelet-specific ROCK2-deficient mice (ROCK2 Plt-/- ) from conditional ROCK2 fl°x/fl°x and platelet factor (PF)-4-Cre transgenic mice...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430857/repurposed-drugs-targeting-eif2%C3%AE-p-mediated-translational-repression-prevent-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#6
Mark Halliday, Helois Radford, Karlijn A M Zents, Collin Molloy, Julie A Moreno, Nicholas C Verity, Ewan Smith, Catharine A Ortori, David A Barrett, Martin Bushell, Giovanna R Mallucci
Signalling through the PERK/eIF2α-P branch of the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in controlling protein synthesis rates in cells. This pathway is overactivated in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for these currently untreatable conditions. Thus, in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease, prolonged overactivation of PERK/eIF2α-P signalling causes sustained attenuation of protein synthesis, leading to memory impairment and neuronal loss...
April 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430709/vitamin-d3-repressed-astrocyte-activation-following-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation-in-vitro-and-in-neonatal-rats
#7
Ke-Ping Jiao, Shao-Min Li, Wen-Yan Lv, Ming-Liang Jv, Hai-Yan He
Vitamin D3 has been reported to be an immunity modulator and high levels of vitamin D3 are correlated with a decreased risk for developing diseases in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are important immune cells and contribute toward inflammation during neurological diseases. The vitamin D receptor has been reported to be expressed in astrocytes; however, the effect of vitamin D3 on astrocyte activation has not been studied. Here, we found that lipopolysaccharide stimulation in astrocytes could enhance the expression of vitamin D receptor and Cyp27B1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430167/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-of-gaucher-s-disease-what-have-we-learned
#8
REVIEW
Dino Matias Santos, Gustavo Tiscornia
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most frequently inherited lysosomal storage disease, presenting both visceral and neurologic symptoms. Mutations in acid β-glucocerebrosidase disrupt the sphingolipid catabolic pathway promoting glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation in lysosomes. Current treatment options are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT). However, neither of these approaches is effective in treating the neurological aspect of the disease. The use of small pharmacological compounds that act as molecular chaperones is a promising approach that is still experimental...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430097/zika-virus-update-more-on-an-emerging-arboviral-disease-in-the-western-hemisphere
#9
Kelly G Vest
Zika virus has captivated the world with its quick spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Increased emphasis has been placed on the infection of pregnant women and subsequent adverse and severe effects in the developing fetus and newborn. This article supplements a previous article and provides updated information on new and evolving evidence that strengthens the association between Zika virus and unique congenital and neurologic diseases, updates what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides new and updated material for primary care providers as they counsel patients who may be exposed or infected...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430093/editorial-brain-imaging-and-automatic-analysis-in-neurological-and-psychiatric-diseases-part-i
#10
EDITORIAL
Yu-Dong Zhang, Ti-Fei Yuan, Zheng-Chao Dong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429448/white-matter-microstructure-variations-contribute-to-neurological-soft-signs-in-healthy-adults
#11
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Caspar Goch, Jan Hering, Klaus H Maier-Hein
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are core features of psychiatric disorders with significant neurodevelopmental origin. However, it is unclear whether NSS correlates are associated with neuropathological processes underlying the disease or if they are confounded by medication. Given that NSS are also present in healthy persons (HP), investigating HP could reveal NSS correlates, which are not biased by disease-specific processes or drug treatment. Therefore, we used a combination of diffusion MRI analysis tools to provide a framework of specific white matter (WM) microstructure variations underlying NSS in HP...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428906/tbc1d24-mutations-in-a-sibship-with-multifocal-polymyoclonus
#12
Adeline Ngoh, Jose Bras, Rita Guerreiro, Amy McTague, Joanne Ng, Esther Meyer, W Kling Chong, Stewart Boyd, Linda MacLellan, Martin Kirkpatrick, Manju A Kurian
BACKGROUND: Advances in molecular genetic technologies have improved our understanding of genetic causes of rare neurological disorders with features of myoclonus. CASE REPORT: A family with two affected siblings, presenting with multifocal polymyoclonus and neurodevelopmental delay, was recruited for whole-exome sequencing following unyielding diagnostic neurometabolic investigations. Compound heterozygous mutations in TBC1D24, a gene previously associated with various epilepsy phenotypes and hearing loss, were identified in both siblings...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#13
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428630/hinge-deleted-igg4-blocker-therapy-for-acetylcholine-receptor-myasthenia-gravis-in-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Mario Losen, Aran F Labrijn, Vivianne H van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Maarten L Janmaat, Krista G Haanstra, Frank J Beurskens, Tom Vink, Margreet Jonker, Bert A 't Hart, Marina Mané-Damas, Peter C Molenaar, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Eline van der Esch, Janine Schuurman, Marc H de Baets, Paul W H I Parren
Autoantibodies against ion channels are the cause of numerous neurologic autoimmune disorders. Frequently, such pathogenic autoantibodies have a restricted epitope-specificity. In such cases, competing antibody formats devoid of pathogenic effector functions (blocker antibodies) have the potential to treat disease by displacing autoantibodies from their target. Here, we have used a model of the neuromuscular autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to test the therapeutic potential of a new blocker antibody: MG was induced by passive transfer of pathogenic acetylcholine receptor-specific monoclonal antibody IgG1-637...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428069/assessment-of-non-derivatized-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-neurotoxin-in-free-form-in-urine-of-patients-with-nonspecific-neurological-symptoms
#15
L Bláhová, J Kohoutek, E Kadlecová, L Kozáková, L Bláha
The beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid discussed to be produced by cyanobacteria forming harmful blooms. Since BMAA is suspected etiological agent in neurodegenerative diseases, there is a need to study and validate whether and in what concentrations can BMAA be present in human tissues. The aim of the present study was to validate analytical and extraction procedures for quantification of non-derivatized BMAA in the urine using liquid chromatography and commercial ELISA Kit...
April 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427869/ischemic-preconditioning-with-ketogenic-diet-improves-brain-ischemic-tolerance-through-increased-extracellular-adenosine-levels-and-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#16
Qi Yang, Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Hongyan Ding, Mei Cui, Qiang Dong
Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state reduces brain damage and neurological dysfunction characteristic of brain ischemia. The ketogenic diet (KD) has disease-modifying effects in several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we fed mice with KD for three weeks and performed reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the animals. KD-fed mice had significantly reduced infarct volume, increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and extracellular adenosine levels in both ischemic and reperfusion stages...
April 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427827/antiviral-screen-identifies-ev71-inhibitors-and-reveals-camptothecin-target-dna-topoisomerase-1-as-a-novel-ev71-host-factor
#17
Kan Xing Wu, Justin Jang-Hann Chu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological disease. EV71's pathogenesis remains poorly understood and the lack of approved antiviral has led to its emergence as a clinically important neurotropic virus. The goals of this study were to: (i) identify novel anti-EV71 compounds that may serve as lead molecules for therapeutics; and (ii) investigate their targets in downstream studies. We screened a 502-compound library of highly purified natural products for anti-EV71 activities in a cell-based immunofluorescence assay that were then confirmed in viral plaque reduction assays...
April 17, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427747/percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-for-aspiration-pneumonia-a-10-year-single-center-experience
#18
Hiromi Tomioka, Shyuji Yamashita, Nobuaki Mamesaya, Masahiro Kaneko
BACKGROUND: The significance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with aspiration pneumonia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of aspiration pneumonia patients who underwent PEG. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized with pneumonia who underwent PEG from 2005 to 2014. RESULTS: Of 2281 cases of pneumonia, 92 patients with aspiration pneumonia underwent PEG during their hospital stay...
May 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427702/long-term-clinical-and-radiologic-follow-up-of-schilder-s-disease
#19
Hülya Maraş Genç, Bülent Kara, Emek Uyur Yalçın, Ayfer Sakarya Güneş, Adnan Deniz, Yonca Anık
BACKGROUND: Schilder's disease is a rare, subacute, or chronic demyelinating disorder that mainly affects children and generally shows a monophasic course. CASE: Here, we present three boys diagnosed with Schilder's disease, age at onset 10-14 years, and followed up for 4-8 years. All of them presented with headache, two with encephalopathy and vomiting, and one with diplopia and vertigo. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed two large demyelinating lesions, asymmetric in two patients and symmetric in the other...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427413/adiponectin-levels-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-possible-influence-on-neuroinflammation
#20
Patrizia Bossolasco, Raffaella Cancello, Alberto Doretti, Claudia Morelli, Vincenzo Silani, Lidia Cova
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (APN) is a key player in energy homeostasis strictly associated with cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Since APN also belongs to anti-inflammatory-acting adipokines and may influence both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes, we decided to study the APN levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We assessed APN levels by ELISA immunoassay in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients, characterized by normal body mass index and absence of dysautonomic symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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