Read by QxMD icon Read

Recombinant antibody

D Lapuente, M Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, A Maaske, V Stab, V Heinecke, K Watzstedt, R Heß, A M Westendorf, W Bayer, C Ehrhardt, M Tenbusch
A universal influenza vaccine must provide protection against antigenically divergent influenza viruses either through broadly neutralizing antibodies or cross-reactive T cells. Here, intranasal immunizations with recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAd) encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) in combination with rAd-Interleukin-(IL)-1β or rAd-IL-18 were evaluated for their efficacy in BALB/c mice. Mucosal delivery of rAd-IL-1β enhanced HA-specific antibody responses including strain-specific neutralizing antibodies...
March 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Zhancheng Tian, Xiaoyue Du, Junzheng Du, Shandian Gao, Ruiming Yu, Muhammad Adeel Hassan, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Tropical theileriosis, caused by Theileria annulata, is distributed worldwide and causes great economic losses in dairy. The reliable diagnostic method is critical for prevention and control of the disease. In this study, a sporozoite and macroschizont gene 2 (spm2) protein from T. annulata was used to develop an indirect ELISA for tropical theileriosis. Specificity test showed that there were no cross-reactions with antibodies raised against other bovine piroplasm species using ELISA or western blotting...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Annebel R De Vleeschauwer, Xiaocui Zhou, David J Lefebvre, Annabelle Garnier, Fleur Watier, Charly Pignon, Sandrine A Lacour, Stephan Zientara, Labib Bakkali-Kassimi, Kris De Clercq, Bernard Klonjkowski
Vaccination is a key element in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The majority of the antigenic sites that induce protective immune responses are localized on the FMD virus (FMDV) capsid that is formed by four virus-encoded structural proteins, VP1 to VP4. In the present study, recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2)-based FMD vaccines, Cav-P1/3C R° and Cav-VP1 R°, respectively expressing the structural P1 precursor protein along with the non-structural 3C protein or expressing the structural VP1 protein of the FMDV strain O/FRA/1/2001, were evaluated as novel vaccines against FMD...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Riyoko Tamai, Michiyo Kobayashi-Sakamoto, Yusuke Kiyoura
Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are C-type lectin receptors that bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of galectin-1 and galectin-3 on adhesion to and invasion of the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 by Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogenic gram-negative bacterium. Recombinant galectin-1, but not galectin-3, enhanced P. gingivalis adhesion and invasion, although both galectins bound similarly to P. gingivalis...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Jing Wang, Sichen Liu, Baidong Hou, Meixiang Yang, Zhongjun Dong, Hai Qi, Wanli Liu
Class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) occur during the differentiation of germinal center B cells (GCBs). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is responsible for both CSR and SHM in GCBs. Here, we show that ablation of PTEN through the Cγ1-Cre mediated recombination significantly influences the CSR and SHM responses. The GCs fail to produce the IgG1 B cells, the high affinity antibodies and nearly lost the dark zone (DZ) in Ptenfl/fl Cγ1Cre/+ mice after immunization, suggesting the impaired GC structure...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John L M Law, Michael Logan, Jason Wong, Juthika Kundu, Darren Hockman, Amir Landi, Chao Chen, Kevin Crawford, Mark Wininger, Janelle Johnson, Catalina Mesa Prince, Elzbieta Dudek, Ninad Mehta, D Lorne Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
Current evidence supports a protective role for virus neutralizing antibodies in immunity against HCV infection. Many cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been identified. These antibodies have been shown to protect or clear infection in animal models. Previous clinical trials have shown a gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce antibodies that neutralize the in vitro infectivity of all the major HCVcc genotypes around the world. However, cross-neutralization appeared to favour certain genotypes with significant but lower neutralization against others...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Valeryi K Lishko, Valentin P Yakubenko, Tatiana P Ugarova, Nataly P Podolnikova
Platelet Factor 4 (PF4) is one of the most abundant cationic proteins secreted from α-granules of activated platelets. Based on its structure, PF4 was assigned to the CXC family of chemokines and has been shown to have numerous effects on myeloid leukocytes. However, the receptor for PF4 remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PF4 induces leukocyte responses through the integrin Mac-1 (αM β2 , CD11b/CD18). Human neutrophils, monocytes, U937 monocytic and HEK293 cells expressing Mac-1 strongly adhered to immobilized PF4 in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dan Boyd, Arpa Ebrahimi, Sarah Ronan, Brian Mickus, Matthew Schenauer, Jenny Wang, Darren Brown, Alexandre Ambrogelly
Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibody (mAb) variants to understand the impact of their structure on function is a typical activity during early-stage candidate selection that contributes to derisking clinical development. In particular, efforts are devoted to characterizing oligomeric variants, owing to their potential immunogenic nature. We report here a mAb variant consisting of a canonical mAb monomer associated in a non-covalent fashion with an antigen-binding fragment (Fab) arm amputated from its Fc domain...
March 14, 2018: MAbs
Imran Khan, Patricia S Steeg
The NM23/NME gene was identified as a metastasis suppressor. It's re-expression inhibited cancer cell motility and suppressed metastasis, without effecting primary tumor size in multiple model systems. The mechanisms of NME suppression of motility and metastasis are incompletely known. Of particular interest, has been NME histidine 118 phosphorylation, involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and histidine protein kinase (HPK) activities. Using recently developed monoclonal antibodies to phosphohistidine, we have addressed the correlation of NME phosphohistidine with motility suppression, and distinguished the NDPK and HPK contributions...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Roberta Lotti, En Shu, Tiziana Petrachi, Alessandra Marconi, Elisabetta Palazzo, Marika Quadri, Ann Lin, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Carlo Pincelli
Pemphigus is a blistering disease characterized by pemphigus autoantibodies (PVIgG) directed mostly against desmogleins (Dsgs), resulting in the loss of keratinocyte adhesion (acantholysis). Yet, the mechanisms underlying blister formation remain to be clarified. We have shown previously that anti-Fas ligand (FasL) antibody (Ab) prevents PVIgG-induced caspase-8 activation and Dsg cleavage in human keratinocytes, and that sera from pemphigus patients contain abnormally increased levels of FasL. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant FasL induces the activation of caspases prior to Dsg degradation, and anti-FasL Ab prevents acantholysis in cultured keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emily C Sheppard, Rikke Brandstrup Morrish, Michael J Dillon, Rebecca Leyland, Richard Chahwan
Epigenetic modifications, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation status, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), all contribute to antibody maturation during somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR). Histone modifications alter the chromatin landscape and, together with DNA primary and tertiary structures, they help recruit Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) to the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus. AID is a potent DNA mutator, which catalyzes cytosine-to-uracil deamination on single-stranded DNA to create U:G mismatches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jenna Anderson, Thorunn A Olafsdottir, Sven Kratochvil, Paul F McKay, Malin Östensson, Josefine Persson, Robin J Shattock, Ali M Harandi
Systems biology approaches have recently provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of human vaccines and adjuvants. Here, we investigated early transcriptional signatures induced in whole blood of healthy subjects following vaccination with a recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein subunit CN54gp140 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) and correlated signatures to CN54gp140-specific serum antibody responses. Fourteen healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years were immunized intramuscularly three times at 1-month intervals and whole blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 h, and 1, 3, and 7 days post first immunization...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Priyanka Singh, Laura M Jenkins, Ben Horst, Victoria Alers, Shrikant Pradhan, Prabhjot Kaur, Tapasya Srivastava, Nadine Hempel, Balázs Győrffy, Eugenia V Broude, Nam Y Lee, Karthikeyan Mythreye
Inhibin is a heterodimeric TGF-β family ligand that is expressed in many cancers and is a selective biomarker for ovarian cancers, however its tumor-specific functions remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that the α subunit of Inhibin (INHA), which is critical for the functionality of dimeric Inhibin A/B, correlates with microvessel density (MVD) in human ovarian tissues and xenografts and is predictive of poor clinical outcomes in multiple cancers. We demonstrate that Inhibin regulated angiogenesis is necessary for metastasis...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Research
M Georgieva, L Kagedan, Ying-Jie Lu, C M Thompson, M Lipsitch
Genomic analysis reveals extensive sequence variation and hot spots of recombination in surface proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae While this phenomenon is commonly attributed to diversifying selection by host immune responses, there is little mechanistic evidence for the hypothesis that diversification of surface protein antigens produces an immune escape benefit during infection with S. pneumoniae Here, we investigate the biological significance of sequence variation within the S. pneumoniae cell wall-associated pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) protein antigen...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Andreas H Laustsen, José María Gutiérrez, Cecilie Knudsen, Kristoffer H Johansen, Erick Bermúdez Méndez, Felipe A Cerni, Jonas A Jürgensen, Mia Øhlenschlæger, Line Ledsgaard, Andrea Martos Esteban, Urska Pus, Mikael R Andersen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Engmark, Manuela B Pucca
Antibody technologies are being increasingly applied in the field of toxinology. Fuelled by the many advances in immunology, synthetic biology, and antibody research, different approaches and antibody formats are being investigated for the ability to neutralize animal toxins. These different molecular formats each have their own therapeutic characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of the advances made in the development of toxin-targeting antibodies, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different antibody formats in relation to their ability to neutralize toxins, pharmacokinetic features, propensity to cause adverse reactions, formulation, and expression for research and development (R&D) purposes and large-scale manufacturing...
March 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
E N Ilina, M V Larina, T K Aliev, D A Dolgikh, M P Kirpichnikov
Rabies virus is a prototypical neurotropic virus that causes one of the most dangerous zoonotic diseases in humans. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that neutralize rabies virus would be the basis for powerful post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies in humans, having several significant benefits in comparison with human or equine rabies polyclonal immunoglobulins. The most advanced antibodies should broadly neutralize natural rabies virus isolates, bind with conserved antigenic determinants of the rabies virus glycoprotein, and show high neutralizing potency in assays in vivo...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Hanbo Yang, Xin Lu, Qinglin Peng, Wei Jiang, Jingli Shi, Yamei Zhang, He Chen, Guochun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between anti-NXP-2 autoantibody levels and disease activity as well as calcinosis severity. METHODS: The serum levels of anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies were determined in 709 idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and also serially measured by an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant MORC3. Patients with anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies were divided into two subgroups: with or without calcinosis. The associations of anti-NXP-2 autoantibody levels with organ-specific disease activity, serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and calcinosis severity were investigated in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses...
March 13, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Richard J Zahrl, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser
The yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.) is a popular cell factory for recombinant protein production. Yeasts in general provide a good starting point for cell factory engineering. They are intrinsically robust and easy to manipulate and cultivate. However, their secretory pathway is not evolutionarily adapted to high loads of secretory protein. In particular, more complex proteins, like the antibody fragment (Fab) used in this study, overwhelm the folding and secretion capacity. This triggers cellular stress responses, which may cause excessive intracellular degradation...
March 13, 2018: Microbiology
Kelley M Heffner, Qiong Wang, Deniz Baycin Hizal, Özge Can, Michael J Betenbaugh
Mammalian expression systems such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), mouse myeloma (NS0), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells serve a critical role in the biotechnology industry as the production host of choice for recombinant protein therapeutics. Most of the recombinant biologics are glycoproteins that contain complex oligosaccharide or glycan attachments representing a principal component of product quality. Both N-glycans and O-glycans are present in these mammalian cells, but the engineering of N-linked glycosylation is of critical interest in industry and many efforts have been directed to improve this pathway...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"