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Wenjia Lou, Hsiu-Chi Ting, Christian jA Reynolds, Yulia Y Tyurina, Vladimir A Tyurin, Yiran Li, Jiajia Ji, Wenxi Yu, Zhuqing Liang, Detcho A Stoyanovsky, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Michael A Frasso, Peter Wipf, Joel S Greenberger, Hülya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid localized almost exclusively within the mitochondrial membranes where it is synthesized. Newly synthesized CL undergoes acyl remodeling to produce CL species enriched with unsaturated acyl groups. Cld1 is the only identified CL specific phospholipase in yeast and is required to initiate the CL remodeling pathway. In higher eukaryotes, peroxidation of CL, yielding CLOX , has been implicated in the cellular signaling events that initiate apoptosis. CLOX can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the release of lipid mediators with signaling properties...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jennifer K Colby, Jonathan Jaoude, Fuyao Liu, Imad Shureiqi
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are enzymatically converted to a variety of bioactive products through insertion of molecular oxygen. PUFA-derived mediators can have either inflammatory or anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving properties, depending upon their specific structures. The relative harm or benefit of these mediators can also be tissue and context dependent. These mediators play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and their dysregulation is involved in pathogenesis of cancers, especially those associated with chronic inflammation...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
M Lucarini, A Durazzo, J Sánchez Del Pulgar, P Gabrielli, G Lombardi-Boccia
The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) in the determination of the fatty acid content in meat and meat products. The Multivariate calibrations were developed and proposed for Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), Monounsatured Fatty Acids (MUFA), Polyunsatured Fatty Acids (PUFA) and Palmitic Acid. SFA and MUFA models, developed using the first derivative and the selected region 3022.33-650.15 cm-1 , gave the best performance, with a coefficient of calibration r2 0...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Asa Hatami, Chunni Zhu, Aroa Relaño-Gines, Chris Elias, Arpine Galstyan, Michael Jun, Ginger Milne, Charles R Cantor, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Mikhail S Shchepinov
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease which has no effective treatment and is characterized by psychiatric disorders, motor alterations, and dementia, with the cognitive deficits representing a devastating aspect of the disorder. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products are found in mouse models and patients with HD, suggesting that strategies to reduce LPO may be beneficial in HD. In contrast to traditional antioxidants, substituting hydrogen with deuterium at bis-allylic sites in polyunsaturated fatty acids (D-PUFA) decreases the rate-limiting initiation step of PUFA autoxidation, a strategy that has shown benefits in other neurodegenerative diseases...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Journal
Martina Trckova, Alena Lorencova, Vladimir Babak, Jiri Neca, Miroslav Ciganek
A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weaned piglets were assigned to three dietary treatments: Control - basal diet without any medication; Leonardite or Lignite - diet supplemented with lignite or leonardite at a dose of 20 g/kg, respectively. Leonardite differed from lignite in the content of humic substances and minerals. Diarrhoea incidence and severity, growth performance, haematological and biochemical status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum fatty acid (FA) profile and faecal microbiota composition were monitored...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Ken Yonezawa, Shunsuke Nonaka, Yuka Iwakura, Yuka Kusano, Yuko Funamoto, Nobukazu Kanchi, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Yuko Kusumoto, Akira Imamura, Hiroki Ozawa
Several studies report that patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a low plasma concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Since fish intake varies among countries and is high in Japan, those results may not apply to Japanese patients with ADHD. However, there is currently not enough evidence to support this. We compared the plasma PUFAs levels of patients with ADHD with the standard reference levels for healthy subjects, and examined the relationship between those PUFAs levels and the subject's psychological evaluation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Zhargal Alexandrovich Tykheev, Svetlana Vasilievna Zhigzhitzhapova, Faqi Zhang, Vasiliy Vladimirovich Taraskin, Oleg Arnoldovich Anenkhonov, Larisa Dorzhievna Radnaeva, Shilong Chen
The essential oils and lipid fraction extracted from the aerial parts of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium were determined by a GC-MS method. In total, up to 67 components were identified. cis - β -Ocimene, trans - β -ocimene, limonene, α -pinene, α -copaene, β -elemene, and caryophyllene oxide were recognized as consistent components of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of B. scorzonerifolium , regardless of the habitat. The content of these components varied from traces to a significant amount...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
P L P Fontes, D D Henry, F M Ciriaco, N Oosthuizen, R F Cooke, V R G Mercadante, N DiLorenzo, G C Lamb
To evaluate the effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplement on reproductive parameters of suckled beef cows, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 60 primiparous cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: CTRL - 1.36 kg/day of corn gluten feed (CGF) and MEGR - 1.36 kg/day of CGF and 0.23 kg/day of calcium salts of soybean oil. Supplementation occurred from 30 days before fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) until 7 days post-TAI. The expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) was measured on days 18 and 21...
June 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Felipe Azevedo Ribeiro, Katherine Ivette Domenech-Pérez, Carmen Josefina Contreras-Castillo, Emery Karoline Wilkerson, Hope Reneé Voegele, Kellen Ballard Hart, Nicolas Jens Herrera, Chris Richard Calkins
The effects of feeding different dietary fat sources with modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) on beef display life were evaluated. Steers (n = 256) were fed for 134 d on either a corn, 40% full-fat MDGS, 40% de-oiled MDGS, or 38% de-oiled MDGS plus 2% corn oil diet. Twenty-four United States Department of Agriculture Choice carcasses (3 head/pen) were randomly selected within each dietary treatment and strip loins were collected and aged for 2, 9, 16, or 23 d. Steaks from each aging period were placed under retail display (RD) conditions for 0, 4, and 7 d...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Omar Santín, Gabriel Moncalián
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are produced in some unicellular organisms, such as marine gammaproteobacteria, myxobacteria and thraustochytrids, by large enzyme complexes called PUFA synthases. These enzymatic complexes resemble bacterial antibiotic-producing proteins known as polyketide synthases (PKS). One of the PUFA synthase subunits is a conserved large protein (PfaA in marine proteobacteria) that contains three to nine tandem Acyl Carrier Protein domains as well as condensation and modification domains...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tobias Banaschewski, Brendan Belsham, Michael H Bloch, Maite Ferrin, Mats Johnson, James Kustow, Sarah Robinson, Alessandro Zuddas
While pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions are recommended as the primary frontline treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alternative approaches to managing ADHD are becoming increasingly popular among patients and their families. Supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is an example of this. PUFA supplementation is not recommended by guidelines for managing ADHD; however, patients may still decide to use it. To provide direction to healthcare professionals (HCPs) managing ADHD, eight international experts in the field of adult and child ADHD came together for the Continuum Education Board: Omega Supplements in ADHD meeting...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition and Health
Federico M Daray, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Suicide and nonfatal suicidal behaviors are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Variability in rates of suicide and suicidal behaviors within and between countries has been attributed to population and individual risk factors, including economic status and cultural differences, both of which can have suicide risk effects mediated through a variety of factors, of which perhaps the least understood is the role of diet. We therefore review the scientific literature concerning two major dietary lipid classes, cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), that have been associated with higher risk of suicide attempts and suicide...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kathy Musa-Veloso, Carolina Venditti, Han Youl Lee, Maryse Darch, Seth Floyd, Spencer West, Ryan Simon
Context: Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are needed. Objective: The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effects of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on liver-related and metabolic outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with NAFLD. Data Sources: The online information service ProQuest Dialog was used to search 8 literature databases...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
S Vela, Neira Sainz, María J Moreno-Aliaga, M Solas, María J Ramirez
A potential role of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been suggested in memory, learning, and cognitive processes. Therefore, ω-3 PUFAs might be a promising treatment option, albeit controversial, for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the different mechanisms that have been proposed as responsible for the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs, inhibition of JNK stands as a particularly interesting candidate. In the present work, it has been studied whether the administration of two different PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and a DHA-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator (MaR1) is able to reverse cognitive deficits in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model of sporadic AD...
June 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Marco N Allemann, Eric E Allen
The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) are widely recognized as beneficial to human health and development. Select lineages of cosmopolitan marine prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms synthesize these compounds via a unique fatty acid synthase/polyketide synthase mechanism that is distinct from the canonical desaturase/elongase-mediated pathway employed by the majority of eukaryotic single-cell microorganisms and metazoans. This "Pfa synthase" mechanism is highly efficient and has been co-opted for the large-scale industrial production of n-3 LC-PUFAs for commercial applications...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Bernardo Valenti, Giuseppe Luciano, Mariano Pauselli, Simona Mattioli, Luisa Biondi, Alessandro Priolo, Antonio Natalello, Luciano Morbidini, Massimiliano Lanza
The effect of dried tomato pomace (DTP) was tested on lamb performances, meat fatty acids and oxidative stability. For 36 days, one group of lambs (n = 7; CON) was fed a commercial concentrate, while the other group (n = 7; DTP) received DTP in addition to CON diet. The administration of DTP reduced (P < .05) concentrate intake, with no effect on animal performances. The DTP treatment tended to increase total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; P = .075), PUFA n-6 (P = .071), α-linolenic acid (P = ...
June 9, 2018: Meat Science
Hung N Luu, Hui Cai, Harvey J Murff, Yong-Bing Xiang, Qiuyin Cai, Honglan Li, Jing Gao, Gong Yang, Qing Lan, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu
Animal studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory properties. Results from epidemiologic studies on specific types of PUFAs for lung cancer risk, however, are inconclusive. We prospectively evaluated the association of specific types of dietary PUFA intakes and lung cancer risk in two population-based cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) with a total of 121,970 study participants (i.e., 65,076 women and 56,894 men)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Lu-Chen Weng, Weihua Guan, Lyn M Steffen, James S Pankow, Nathan Pankratz, Ming-Huei Chen, Mary Cushman, Saonli Basu, Aaron R Folsom, Weihong Tang
INTRODUCTION: Data from epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest an influence of dietary and circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the hemostasis profile. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to plasma PUFAs levels. We aimed to investigate whether the SNPs related to plasma PUFAs levels were also associated with plasma levels of hemostatic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the associations between 9 PUFA-related SNPs and 6 hemostatic variables in 9035 European Americans (EAs) and 2702 African Americans (AAs) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study...
June 1, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Hyun-Young Jang, Jeung-Hyun Koo, Sang-Myeong Lee, Byung-Hyun Park
Previous clinical trials have addressed the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation on atopic dermatitis. Recently, we reported that fat-1 mice, which can convert n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are protected against allergic airway inflammation because their Th2 immune responses are suppressed. Here, we examined the effects of endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs on atopic dermatitis, a representative Th2-dominant allergic inflammatory disease. Mouse models of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions were prepared by epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or house dust mite (HDM) extract to the ears...
June 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Bárbara Brayner, Gunveen Kaur, Michelle A Keske, Katherine M Livingstone
The role of n- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n- 3 PUFA) in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is not well established. The synthesis of LC n- 3 PUFA requires fatty acid desaturase enzymes, which are encoded by the FADS gene. It is unclear if FADS polymorphism and dietary fatty acid intake can influence plasma or erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile and thereby the risk of T2DM. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the current evidence for an effect of FADS polymorphism on T2DM risk and understand its associations with serum/erythrocyte and dietary LC n- 3 PUFA...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
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