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neonatal mechanical ventilation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816096/management-of-severe-pulmonary-hemorrhage-in-a-neonate-on-veno-arterial-ecmo-by-the-temporary-clamping-of-the-endotracheal-tube-a-case-report
#1
Vaclav Vobruba, Tomas Grus, Frantisek Mlejnsky, Jan Belohlavek, Jan Hridel, Lukas Lambert
Severe pulmonary hemorrhage in the newborn is an infrequent, but life-threatening, event. A newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension and a large persistent ductus arteriosus and open foramen ovale presented with hypoxemia and progressive right heart failure shortly after birth, requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Twenty minutes after the initiation of ECMO, the patient developed severe pulmonary hemorrhage refractory to conventional treatment. As a last resort, the endotracheal tube was clamped...
August 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803335/intraoperative-ventilation-during-thoracoscopic-repair-of-neonatal-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#2
Tadaharu Okazaki, Manabu Okawada, Junya Ishii, Hiroyuki Koga, Go Miyano, Takashi Doi, Yuki Ogasawara, Geoffrey J Lane, Atsuyuki Yamataka
PURPOSE: To evaluate the optimal ventilation mode during thoracoscopic repair (TR) of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), we compared high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). METHODS: Twenty-three neonatal CDH cases who underwent TR without intraoperative inhalation of nitric oxide at our institution between 2007 and 2016 were reviewed. Patients were initially ventilated with HFOV, which was converted to CMV if the HFOV settings were decreased to FiO2 <0...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802561/recombinant-human-elafin-promotes-alveologenesis-in-newborn-mice-exposed-to-chronic-hyperoxia
#3
Wenli Han, Xiaomei Li, Han Zhang, Benli Yu, Chunbao Guo, Chun Deng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elastase inhibitors reverse elastin degradation and abnormal alveologenesis and attenuate the lung structural abnormalities induced by mechanical ventilation with O2-rich gas. The potential of these molecules to improve endothelial function and to ameliorate severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) during lung development is not yet understood. We sought to determine whether the intratracheal treatment of newborn mice with the elastase inhibitor elafin would prevent hyperoxia-induced lung elastin degradation and the cascade of events that cause abnormal alveologenesis...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780497/neonatal-management-and-outcome-after-thoracoamniotic-shunt-placement-for-fetal-hydrothorax
#4
Ruben S G M Witlox, Frans J C M Klumper, Arjan B Te Pas, Erik W van Zwet, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
AIM: To evaluate the short-term neonatal outcome after fetal thoracoamniotic shunt placement for isolated hydrothorax. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of infants with isolated hydrothorax treated with thoracoamniotic shunt placement at our fetal therapy centre between 2001 and 2016. RESULTS: In total 48 fetuses were treated with a thoracoamniotic shunt. All fetuses had signs of hydrops at the time of intervention. Median (IQR) gestational age at shunting was 28...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775070/elevated-airway-liquid-volumes-at-birth-a-potential-cause-of-transient-tachypnea-of-the-newborn
#5
Erin Victoria McGillick, Katie Lee, Shigeo Yamaoka, Arjan B Te Pas, Kelly J Crossley, Megan J Wallace, Marcus John Kitchen, Robert A Lewis, Lauren T Kerr, Philip DeKoninck, Janneke Dekker, Marta Thio, Annie McDougall, Stuart B Hooper
Excessive liquid in airways and/or in distal lung tissue may underpin the respiratory morbidity associated with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). However, its effects on lung aeration and respiratory function following birth are unknown. We investigated the effect of elevated airway liquid volumes on newborn respiratory function. Near term rabbit kittens (30 days gestation; term ~32 days) were delivered, had lung liquid drained and either had no liquid replaced (Control, n=7) or 30 mL/kg of liquid was re-added to the airways (liquid added; LA, n=7)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768667/trpv4-channels-contribute-to-renal-myogenic-autoregulation-in-neonatal-pigs
#6
Hitesh Soni, Dieniffer Peixoto-Neves, Anberitha T Matthews, Adebowale Adebiyi
Myogenic response, a phenomenon in which resistance size arteries and arterioles swiftly constrict or dilate in response to an acute elevation or reduction, respectively in intravascular pressure is a key component of renal autoregulation mechanisms. Although it is well-established that the renal system is functionally immature in neonates, mechanisms that regulate neonatal renal blood flow (RBF) remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are molecular components of renal myogenic constriction in newborns...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761416/neurological-consequences-of-systemic-inflammation-in-the-premature-neonate
#7
REVIEW
Aparna Patra, Hong Huang, John A Bauer, Peter J Giannone
Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759409/head-growth-trajectory-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-preterm-neonates
#8
Kamini Raghuram, Junmin Yang, Paige T Church, Zenon Cieslak, Anne Synnes, Amit Mukerji, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between head growth (HG) during neonatal and postdischarge periods and neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm neonates of <29 weeks gestational age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants <29 weeks gestational
age admitted between 2009 and 2011 to participating Canadian Neonatal Network
units and followed by Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network clinics. Differences in head circumference (ΔHC) z score were calculated for 3 time periods, which include admission to discharge, discharge to follow-up at 16-36 months, and admission to follow-up...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742724/epidemiology-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-pediatric-cardiac-icus
#9
Ryan A Romans, Steven M Schwartz, John M Costello, Nikhil K Chanani, Parthak Prodhan, Avihu Z Gazit, Andrew H Smith, David S Cooper, Jeffrey Alten, Kshitij P Mistry, Wenying Zhang, Janet E Donohue, Michael Gaies
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of noninvasive ventilation therapy for patients admitted to pediatric cardiac ICUs and to assess practice variation across hospitals. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. SETTING: Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. PATIENTS: Patients admitted to cardiac ICUs at PC4 hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: None...
July 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737191/-stress-in-parents-of-hospitalized-newborns-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#10
Elisa Palma I, Fernanda Von Wussow K, Ignacia Morales B, Javier Cifuentes R, Sergio Ambiado T
The birth of a child that requires hospitalization in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can be very stressful for parents. OBJECTIVE: To determine the stress level of parents of newborns (NB) hospitalized in a level III NICU in Santiago, and its association with clinical and sociodemographic variables. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Descriptive cross-sectional study. 373 admissions were evaluated. The sampling was non-probabilistic and included parents of RN admitted to the UPCN between 7 and 21 days of hospitalization...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734732/perinatal-and-neonatal-use-of-sedation-and-analgesia
#11
REVIEW
Christopher McPherson, Terrie Inder
Optimal obstetric and neonatal care requires the provision of adequate analgesia for painful procedures. However, anesthetic and analgesic agents have the potential to adversely impact the developing fetal/neonatal brain. In this setting, clinicians must assess the risks and benefits of pharmacologic anesthesia and analgesia for specific indications in this population. General anesthesia is required for non-obstetric surgery and cesarean section in the absence of neuraxial anesthesia for the health of the mother and fetus...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733213/risk-factors-for-the-infection-and-or-colonization-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-bacteria-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Xuan Li, Xuan Xu, Xianxian Yang, Mei Luo, Pin Liu, Kewen Su, Ying Qing, Shuai Chen, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are the important causes of healthcare associated infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This study performed a meta-analysis to identify the risk factors associated with infection and/or colonization of ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU. METHODS: Relevant studies in the literature published from January 1, 2000 to July 1, 2016 were searched in the electronic databases. The literature was screened and data were extracted according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716018/prediction-of-extubation-readiness-in-extremely-preterm-infants-by-the-automated-analysis-of-cardiorespiratory-behavior-study-protocol
#13
Wissam Shalish, Lara J Kanbar, Smita Rao, Carlos A Robles-Rubio, Lajos Kovacs, Sanjay Chawla, Martin Keszler, Doina Precup, Karen Brown, Robert E Kearney, Guilherme M Sant'Anna
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants (≤ 28 weeks gestation) commonly require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) to maintain adequate oxygenation and gas exchange. Given that MV is independently associated with important adverse outcomes, efforts should be made to limit its duration. However, current methods for determining extubation readiness are inaccurate and a significant number of infants fail extubation and require reintubation, an intervention that may be associated with increased morbidities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707404/sustained-versus-standard-inflations-during-neonatal-resuscitation-to-prevent-mortality-and-improve-respiratory-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Matteo Bruschettini, Colm Pf O'Donnell, Peter G Davis, Colin J Morley, Lorenzo Moja, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: At birth, infants' lungs are fluid-filled. For newborns to have a successful transition, this fluid must be replaced by air to enable effective breathing. Some infants are judged to have inadequate breathing at birth and are resuscitated with positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Giving prolonged (sustained) inflations at the start of PPV may help clear lung fluid and establish gas volume within the lungs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of an initial sustained (> 1 second duration) lung inflation versus standard inflations (≤ 1 second) in newly born infants receiving resuscitation with intermittent PPV...
July 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704815/relaxation-rate-of-the-respiratory-muscles-and-prediction-of-extubation-outcome-in-prematurely-born-infants
#15
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of extubation outcome could result in a significant reduction of respiratory morbidity in premature neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the respiratory muscle time constant of relaxation (τ) predicted extubation outcome in mechanically ventilated, premature infants. METHODS: Forty-six mechanically ventilated infants with a median gestational age of 26 (interquartile range [IQR] 25-29) weeks were prospectively studied...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680565/oxidative-injury-of-the-pulmonary-circulation-in-the-perinatal-period-short-and-long-term-consequences-for-the-human-cardiopulmonary-system
#16
Daphne P de Wijs-Meijler, Dirk J Duncker, Dick Tibboel, Ralph T Schermuly, Norbert Weissmann, Daphne Merkus, Irwin K M Reiss
Development of the pulmonary circulation is a complex process with a spatial pattern that is tightly controlled. This process is vulnerable for disruption by various events in the prenatal and early postnatal periods. Disruption of normal pulmonary vascular development leads to abnormal structure and function of the lung vasculature, causing neonatal pulmonary vascular diseases. Premature babies are especially at risk of the development of these diseases, including persistent pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674636/diabetes-during-pregnancy-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-composite-morbidity
#17
Amy E O'Neil Dudley, Zachary B Jenner, Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Viviana S Ellis, Suneet P Chauhan
Objective  This study aims to compare composite maternal and neonatal morbidities (MM, NM) among pregnant women with diabetes mellitus whose body mass index (BMI) at delivery was < 30 (group 1), 30.0 to 39.9 (group 2), and ≥ 40 kg/m (2) (group 3). We hypothesized that increased BMI class at delivery would be associated with worsening maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods  This is a retrospective cohort study. MM was defined as: chorioamnionitis, wound infection, eclampsia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia admission, third/fourth degree laceration, and/or death...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672919/brain-injury-with-systemic-inflammation-in-newborns-with-congenital-heart-disease-undergoing-heart-surgery
#18
Rossitza P Pironkova, Joseph Giamelli, Howard Seiden, Vincent A Parnell, Dorota Gruber, Cristina P Sison, Czeslawa Kowal, Kaie Ojamaa
The potential role of systemic inflammation on brain injury in newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD) was assessed by measuring levels of central nervous system (CNS)-derived proteins in serum prior to and following cardiac surgery. A total of 23 newborns (gestational age, 39±1 weeks) with a diagnosis of CHD that required cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in the current study. Serum samples were collected immediately prior to surgery and 2, 24 and 48 h following CPB, and serum levels of phosphorylated neurofilament-heavy subunit (pNF-H), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B were analyzed...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670941/association-between-serum-25-oh-vitamin-d-level-at-birth-and-respiratory-morbidities-among-preterm-neonates
#19
Adham Mohamed El Tahry Hegazy, Dina Mohamed Shinkar, Noha Refaat Mohamed, Hala Abdalla Gaber
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels on first day of life with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), need and duration of mechanical ventilation and subsequent development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) among preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: In this case control study, serum 25(OH)D was measured on first day of life in 65 preterm neonates < 34 weeks: 40 with RDS and 25 without RDS and compared between them...
July 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669502/the-impact-of-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-on-surgical-repair-outcomes-of-conotruncal-cardiac-anomalies
#20
Bahaaldin Alsoufi, Courtney McCracken, Subhadra Shashidharan, Shriprasad Deshpande, Kirk Kanter, Brian Kogon
BACKGROUND: We aim to describe the impact of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) on clinical characteristics, postoperative course, and early and late outcomes of neonates undergoing surgery for conotruncal anomalies. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed (2002 to 2012) of 224 neonates who underwent surgery for interrupted aortic arch (n = 67), truncus arteriosus (n = 85), or ductal-dependent pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (n = 72). Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, n = 119, no genetic syndrome; group 2, n = 64, 22q11DS; and group 3, n = 41, other genetic syndrome...
June 29, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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