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'Aspergillus' and 'virulence'

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755443/genomic-organization-and-expression-of-iron-metabolism-genes-in-the-emerging-pathogenic-mold-scedosporium-apiospermum
#1
Yohann Le Govic, Nicolas Papon, Solène Le Gal, Bénédicte Lelièvre, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Patrick Vandeputte
The ubiquitous mold Scedosporium apiospermum is increasingly recognized as an emerging pathogen, especially among patients with underlying disorders such as immunodeficiency or cystic fibrosis (CF). Indeed, it ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tract of CF patients. However, our knowledge about virulence factors of this fungus is still limited. The role of iron-uptake systems may be critical for establishment of Scedosporium infections, notably in the iron-rich environment of the CF lung...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753128/selenate-sensitivity-of-a-laea-mutant-is-restored-by-overexpression-of-the-bzip-protein-metr-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Sachin Jain, Relebohile Sekonyela, Ben Knox, Jonathan M Palmer, Anna Huttenlocher, Mehdi Kabbage, Nancy P Keller
LaeA is a conserved global regulator of secondary metabolism and development in filamentous fungi. Examination of Aspergillus fumigatus transcriptome data of laeA deletion mutants have been fruitful in identifying genes and molecules contributing to the laeA mutant phenotype. One of the genes significantly down regulated in A. fumigatus ΔlaeA is metR, encoding a bZIP DNA binding protein required for sulfur and methionine metabolism in fungi. LaeA and MetR deletion mutants exhibit several similarities including down regulation of sulfur assimilation and methionine metabolism genes and ability to grow on the toxic sulfur analog, sodium selenate...
May 9, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747589/additional-oxidative-stress-reroutes-the-global-response-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-to-iron-depletion
#3
Vivien Kurucz, Thomas Krüger, Károly Antal, Anna-Maria Dietl, Hubertus Haas, István Pócsi, Olaf Kniemeyer, Tamás Emri
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus has to cope with a combination of several stress types while colonizing the human body. A functional interplay between these different stress responses can increase the chances of survival for this opportunistic human pathogen during the invasion of its host. In this study, we shed light on how the H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress response depends on the iron available to this filamentous fungus, using transcriptomic analysis, proteomic profiles, and growth assays...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745728/aspergillus-ochraceopetaliformis-ssp13-modulates-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#4
Subhaswaraj Pattnaik, Tanveer Ahmed, Sampath Kumar Ranganathan, Dinakara Rao Ampasala, V Venkateswara Sarma, Siddharha Busi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing the majority of acute and persistent infections in human beings. The ability to form biofilm adds a new dimension to its resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. In the present study, down-regulation of quorum sensing regulated virulence and biofilm development resulting from exposure to Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis SSP13 extract was investigated. The in vitro results inferred impairment in the production of LasA protease, LasB elastase, chitinase, pyocyanin, exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids...
May 10, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745230/deletion-of-the-catalase-gene-cpeb-reduces-aspergillus-niger-virulence-in-apple-fruits
#5
Meng-Ke Zhang, Jun Tang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Kang-Di Hu, Yan-Hong Li, Zhuo Han, Xiao-Yan Chen, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao, Hua Zhang
Aspergillus niger, a common saprophytic fungus, causes rot in many fruits. We studied the role of a putative catalase-peroxidase encoding gene cpeB in oxidative stress and virulence in fruit. The cpeB gene was deleted in A. niger by homologous recombination, and the ΔcpeB mutant showed decreased CAT activity compared with that of the wild type. The cpeB gene deletion caused increased sensitivity to H2O2 stress, and the spore germination was significantly reduced; in addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolites superoxide anion (∙O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated in the ΔcpeB mutant during H2O2 stress...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#6
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712727/the-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-promotes-the-growth-of-the-pulmonary-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#7
Gerard Sheehan, Gudmundur Bergsson, Noel G McElvaney, Emer P Reeves, Kevin Kavanagh
The pulmonary mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients displays elevated levels of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the aim of this work was to assess the effect of LL-37 on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus , a common pathogen of CF patients. Exposure of A. fumigatus to LL-37 and its derived fragment RK-31 (1.95 μg/ml) for 24 hours had a positive effect on growth (199.94 ± 6.172%, p < 0.05) and (218.20 ± 4.63%, p < 0.05) respectively, whereas scrambled LL-37 peptide did not (85.12 ± 2...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706948/heavy-metal-induced-expression-of-pcaa-provides-cadmium-tolerance-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-supports-its-virulence-in-the-galleria-mellonella-model
#8
Fruzsina Bakti, Christoph Sasse, Thorsten Heinekamp, István Pócsi, Gerhard H Braus
Most of the metal transporters in Aspergillus fumigatus are yet uncharacterized. Their role in fungal metabolism and virulence remains unclear. This paper describes the novel PIB-type cation ATPase PcaA, which links metal homeostasis and heavy metal tolerance in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus . The protein possesses conserved ATPase motif and shares 51% amino acid sequence identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cadmium exporter Pca1p. A pcaA deletion, an overexpression and a gfp-pcaA complementation strain of A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686353/quellenin-a-new-anti-saprolegnia-compound-isolated-from-the-deep-sea-fungus-aspergillus-sp-yk-76
#9
Konami Takahashi, Kazunari Sakai, Wataru Fukasawa, Yuriko Nagano, Sakiko Orui Sakaguchi, Andre O Lima, Vivian H Pellizari, Masato Iwatsuki, Kiyotaka Takishita, Takao Yoshida, Kenichi Nonaka, Katsunori Fujikura, Satoshi Ōmura
Saprolegnia parasitica, belonging to oomycetes, is one of virulent pathogen of fishes such as salmon and trout, and causes tremendous damage and losses in commercial aquacultures by saprolegniasis. Previously, malachite green, an effective medicine, had been used to control saprolegniasis. However, this drug has been banned around the world due to its mutagenicity. Therefore, novel anti-saprolegniasis compounds are urgently needed. As a new frontier to discover bioactive compounds, we focused on the deep-sea fungi for the isolation of anti-saprolegniasis compounds...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663936/animal-models-of-aspergillosis
#10
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolyn Cray
Aspergillosis is an airborne fungal disease caused by Aspergillus spp., a group of ubiquitous molds. This disease causes high morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals. The growing importance of this infection over recent decades has created a need for practical and reproducible models of aspergillosis. The use of laboratory animals provides a platform to understand fungal virulence and pathophysiology, assess diagnostic tools, and evaluate new antifungal drugs. In this review, we describe the fungus, various Aspergillus-related diseases in humans and animals and various experimental animal models...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655909/carbon-catabolite-repression-gene-crea-regulates-morphology-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-and-virulence-in-aspergillus-flavus
#11
Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Bin Wang, Mengguang Qiu, Xiaoyun Han, Kuang-Ren Chung, Shihua Wang
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a very important mechanism employed in the utilization of carbon as an energy source, required for the regulation of growth, development and secondary metabolite production in fungi. Despite the wide study of this mechanism in fungi, little is known about the major CCR gene creA in A. flavus. Hence, we report identification of A. flavus carbon catabolite repression gene creA, which is responsible for the repression of secondary carbon sources. Gene deletion and over-expression was employed to explicate the role of creA in the morphology, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolite production in A...
April 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29586541/the-pathogenicity-of-i-aspergillus-fumigatus-i-drug-resistance-and-nanoparticle-delivery
#12
David Szalewski, Victoria S Hinrichs, Denise K Zinniel, Raúl G Barletta
The genus <i>Aspergillus</i> includes fungal species that cause major health issues of significant economic importance. These microorganisms are also the culprit for production of carcinogenic aflatoxins in grain storages, contaminating crops, and economically straining the production process. <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i> is a very important pathogenic species, being responsible for high human morbidity and mortality on a global basis. The prevalence of these infections in immunosuppressed individuals is on the rise and physicians struggle with the diagnosis of these deadly pathogens...
March 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564395/an-laea-and-brla-dependent-cellular-network-governs-tissue-specific-secondary-metabolism-in-the-human-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#13
Abigail L Lind, Fang Yun Lim, Alexandra A Soukup, Nancy P Keller, Antonis Rokas
Biosynthesis of many ecologically important secondary metabolites (SMs) in filamentous fungi is controlled by several global transcriptional regulators, like the chromatin modifier LaeA, and tied to both development and vegetative growth. In Aspergillus molds, asexual development is regulated by the BrlA > AbaA > WetA transcriptional cascade. To elucidate BrlA pathway involvement in SM regulation, we examined the transcriptional and metabolic profiles of Δ brlA , Δ abaA , and Δ wetA mutant and wild-type strains of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus ...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534508/functional-characterization-of-the-alb1-orthologue-gene-in-the-ochratoxigenic-fungus-aspergillus-carbonarius-ac49-strain
#14
Donato Gerin, Luis González-Candelas, Ana-Rosa Ballester, Stefania Pollastro, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Francesco Faretra
Aspergillus carbonarius, belonging to the group Nigri , is the main species responsible for contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and derivative products. OTA can accumulate in the mycelium and in black conidia of the fungus and released into the matrix. Here, we have deleted in A. carbonarius the alb1 orthologue gene of A. fumigatus , involved in melanin biosynthesis. Three A. carbonarius Δ alb1 mutants were characterized for morphologic traits and OTA production on different media and temperatures...
March 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534423/g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-gpab-is-required-for-asexual-development-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity-by-regulating-camp-signaling-in-aspergillus-flavus
#15
Yinghang Liu, Kunlong Yang, Qiuping Qin, Guinan Lin, Tianran Hu, Zhangling Xu, Shihua Wang
The heterotrimeric G proteins are critical for signal transduction and function in numerous biological processes including vegetative growth, asexual development and fungal virulence in fungi. Here, we identified four G protein alpha subunits (GanA, GpaB, FadA and GaoC) in the notorious Aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus . GanA, GpaB and FadA have homologues in other fungal species, while GaoC is a novel one. Here, we showed that the loss function of gpaB displayed a defect in conidiophore formation and considerably reduced expression levels of conidia-specific genes brlA and abaA ...
March 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524547/safety-characterisation-and-inhibition-of-fungi-and-bacteria-by-a-novel-multiple-enterocin-producing-enterococcus-lactis-4cp3-strain
#16
Olfa Ben Braïek, Paola Cremonesi, Stefano Morandi, Slim Smaoui, Khaled Hani, Taoufik Ghrairi
This study aims to characterise a potential bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterial strain isolated from a raw pink shrimp (Palaemon serratus) and evaluate its safety aspect. The strain designated as 4CP3 was noted to display antibacterial activities (P < 0.05) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and some filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergillus niger A79). Phenotypic and molecular techniques as well as phylogenetic analysis identified the isolate 4CP3 as Enterococcus lactis...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483117/identification-and-characterization-of-key-charged-residues-in-the-cofilin-protein-involved-in-azole-susceptibility-apoptosis-and-virulence-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#17
Zhongyi Lu, Xiaodong Jia, Yong Chen, Xuelin Han, Fangyan Chen, Shuguang Tian, Xueting Su, Zongwei Li, Jingya Zhao, Xi Zhang, Mandong Hu, Liuyu Huang, Li Han
Through some specific amino acid residues, cofilin, a ubiquitous actin depolymerization factor, can significantly affect mitochondrial function related to drug resistance and apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; however, this modulation in a major fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus , was still unclear. Hereby, it was found, first, that mutations on several charged residues in cofilin to alanine, D19A-R21A, E48A, and K36A, increased the formation of reactive oxygen species and induced apoptosis along with typical hallmarks, including mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, cytochrome c release, upregulation of metacaspases, and DNA cleavage, in A...
May 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481813/investigation-of-aspergillus-flavus-in-animal-virulence
#18
Huahui Lan, Lianghuan Wu, Ruilin Sun, Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Jiefei Wu, Longpo Geng, Chuanzhong Huang, Shihua Wang
Aspergillus flavus is a common fungal pathogen of plants, animals and humans. Recently, many genes of A. flavus have been reported involving in regulation of pathogenesis in crops, but whether these genes are involved in animal virulence is still unknown. Here, we used a previous easy-to-use infection model for A. flavus based on mouse model by intravenous inoculation of A. flavus conidia. The outcome of infections in mice model showed that A. flavus NRRL3357 and laboratory strain CA14 PTS were both in dose dependent manner and highly reproducible...
April 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477713/in-host-microevolution-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-a-phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis
#19
Eloise Ballard, Willem J G Melchers, Jan Zoll, Alistair J P Brown, Paul E Verweij, Adilia Warris
In order to survive, Aspergillus fumigatus must adapt to specific niche environments. Adaptation to the human host includes modifications facilitating persistent colonisation and the development of azole resistance. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of the genetic and physiological adaptation of A. fumigatus in patients during infection and treatment. Thirteen A. fumigatus strains were isolated from a single chronic granulomatous disease patient suffering from persistent and recurrent invasive aspergillosis over a period of 2 years...
April 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467298/microhemorrhage-associated-tissue-iron-enhances-the-risk-for-aspergillus-fumigatus-invasion-in-a-mouse-model-of-airway-transplantation
#20
Joe L Hsu, Olga V Manouvakhova, Karl V Clemons, Mohammed Inayathullah, Allen B Tu, Raymond A Sobel, Amy Tian, Hasan Nazik, Venkata R Pothineni, Shravani Pasupneti, Xinguo Jiang, Gundeep S Dhillon, Harmeet Bedi, Jayakumar Rajadas, Hubertus Haas, Laure Aurelian, David A Stevens, Mark R Nicolls
Invasive pulmonary disease due to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus can be life-threatening in lung transplant recipients, but the risk factors remain poorly understood. To study this process, we used a tracheal allograft mouse model that recapitulates large airway changes observed in patients undergoing lung transplantation. We report that microhemorrhage-related iron content may be a major determinant of A. fumigatus invasion and, consequently, its virulence. Invasive growth was increased during progressive alloimmune-mediated graft rejection associated with high concentrations of ferric iron in the graft...
February 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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