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'Aspergillus' and 'virulence'

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080993/secondary-metabolite-arsenal-of-an-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus
#1
Elaine Bignell, Timothy C Cairns, Kurt Throckmorton, William C Nierman, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053593/evaluation-of-aerial-microbial-pollutants-in-al-haram-al-nabawi-during-pilgrimage-of-2013
#2
Kholoud M Alananbeh, Nahla Boquellah, Nadia Al Kaff, Majid Al Ahmadi
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052140/a-novel-zn2-cys6-transcription-factor-atrr-plays-a-key-role-in-an-azole-resistance-mechanism-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-co-regulating-cyp51a-and-cdr1b-expressions
#3
Daisuke Hagiwara, Daisuke Miura, Kiminori Shimizu, Sanjoy Paul, Ayumi Ohba, Tohru Gonoi, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Takahiro Shintani, W Scott Moye-Rowley, Susumu Kawamoto, Katsuya Gomi
Successful treatment of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus is threatened by an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This situation is further complicated by the finding that strains resistant to azoles, the major antifungal drugs for aspergillosis, have been widely disseminated across the globe. To elucidate mechanisms underlying azole resistance, we identified a novel transcription factor that is required for normal azole resistance in Aspergillus fungi including A. fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus nidulans...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998732/pathogenesis-of-microbial-keratitis
#4
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp...
December 17, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986720/erg4a-and-erg4b-are-required-for-conidiation-and-azole-resistance-via-regulation-of-ergosterol-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Nanbiao Long, Xiaoling Xu, Qiuqiong Zeng, Hong Sang, Ling Lu
: Ergosterol, a fungal specific sterol enriched in cell plasma membranes, is an effective antifungal drug target. However, current knowledge of the ergosterol biosynthesis process in the saprophytic human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus remains limited. In this study, we identified that two endoplasmic reticulum-localized sterol C-24 reductases encoded by both erg4A and erg4B homologs are required to catalyze the reaction during the final step of ergosterol biosynthesis. Loss of one homolog of Erg4 induces the over-expression of the other one, accompanied with almost normal ergosterol synthesis and the wild-type colony growth...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939757/the-ccaat-binding-complex-cbc-in-aspergillus-species
#6
Peter Hortschansky, Hubertus Haas, Eva M Huber, Michael Groll, Axel A Brakhage
The CCAAT binding complex (CBC), consisting of a heterotrimeric core structure, is highly conserved in eukaryotes and constitutes an important general transcriptional regulator. Scope of the review. In this review we discuss the scientific history and the current state of knowledge of the multiple gene regulatory functions, protein motifs and structure of the CBC in fungi with a special focus on Aspergillus species. Major conclusions and general significance. Initially identified as a transcriptional activator of respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in other fungal species the CBC was found to be involved in highly diverse pathways, but a general rationale for its involvement was missing...
December 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939177/the-er-mitochondria-encounter-structure-contributes-to-hyphal-growth-mitochondrial-morphology-and-virulence-of-the-pathogenic-mold-aspergillus-fumigatus
#7
Bernadette Geißel, Mirjam Penka, Michael Neubauer, Johannes Wagener
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the primary causative species of invasive aspergillosis, a systemic disease associated with high mortality rates. Treatment of invasive fungal infection relies on a very limited number of antifungal drug classes. In order to extend the spectrum of antifungal drugs novel target structures have to be identified. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES), a recently discovered tether that links mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, is a potential drug target based on its absence in Metazoa...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933036/functional-analysis-of-the-nitrogen-metabolite-repression-regulator-gene-nmra-in-aspergillus-flavus
#8
Xiaoyun Han, Mengguang Qiu, Bin Wang, Wen-Bing Yin, Xinyi Nie, Qiuping Qin, Silin Ren, Kunlong Yang, Feng Zhang, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
In Aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (NMR) regulator NmrA plays a major role in regulating the activity of the GATA transcription factor AreA during nitrogen metabolism. However, the function of nmrA in A. flavus has not been previously studied. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmrA in A. flavus. Our work showed that the amino acid sequences of NmrA are highly conserved among Aspergillus species and that A. flavus NmrA protein contains a canonical Rossmann fold motif...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921081/a-fungus-specific-protein-domain-is-essential-for-rasa-mediated-morphogenetic-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#9
Qusai Al Abdallah, Tiffany S Norton, Amy M Hill, Lawrence L LeClaire, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909797/wd40-repeat-protein-mocrec-is-essential-for-carbon-repression-and-is-involved-in-conidiation-growth-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Khalid Abdelkarim Omer Matar, Xiaofeng Chen, Dongjie Chen, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Justice Norvienyeku, Yahong Lin, Meilian Chen, Zonghua Wang, Daniel J Ebbole, Guo-Dong Lu
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). The CreC WD40-repeat protein is a major component of the CCR pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. To clarify the function of the CreC ortholog from Magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, MoCreC was identified and genetically characterized. The vegetative growth rate of the MoCreC deletion mutant on various carbon sources was reduced...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876784/expression-and-characterization-of-a-talaromyces-marneffei-active-phospholipase-b-expressed-in-a-pichia-pastoris-expression-system
#11
Yan He, Linghua Li, Fengyu Hu, Wanshan Chen, Huali Lei, Xiejie Chen, Weiping Cai, Xiaoping Tang
Phospholipase B is a virulence factor for several clinically important pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, but its role in the thermally dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei remains unclear. Here, we provide the first report of the expression of a novel phospholipase gene, designated TmPlb1, from T. marneffei in the eukaryotic expression system of Pichia pastoris GS115. Sensitive real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the expression of TmPlb1 increased 1...
November 23, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830189/characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-from-air-and-surfaces-of-the-international-space-station
#12
Benjamin P Knox, Adriana Blachowicz, Jonathan M Palmer, Jillian Romsdahl, Anna Huttenlocher, Clay C C Wang, Nancy P Keller, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822731/are-cystic-fibrosis-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-different-intermicrobial-interactions-with-pseudomonas
#13
Hasan Nazik, Richard B Moss, Vyshnavi Karna, Karl V Clemons, Niaz Banaei, Kevin Cohen, Varun Choudhary, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading bacterial and fungal pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have shown that Af biofilms are susceptible to Pseudomonas, particularly CF phenotypes. Those studies were performed with a reference virulent non-CF Aspergillus. Pseudomonas resident in CF airways undergo profound genetic and phenotypic adaptations to the abnormal environment. Studies have also indicated Aspergillus from CF patients have unexpected profiles of antifungal susceptibility...
November 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820672/balancing-iron-and-calcium-flavin-carrier-family-proteins-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence
#14
Praveen R Juvvadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818262/laea-negatively-regulates-dothistromin-production-in-the-pine-needle-pathogen-dothistroma-septosporum
#15
Pranav Chettri, Rosie E Bradshaw
In filamentous fungi both pathway-specific and global regulators regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. LaeA is a global regulator that was named for its mutant phenotype, loss of aflR expression, due to its effect on the aflatoxin-pathway regulator AflR in Aspergillus spp. The pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum produces a polyketide virulence factor, dothistromin, that is chemically related to aflatoxin and whose pathway genes are also regulated by an ortholog of AflR...
December 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816905/aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-through-the-lens-of-transcription-factors
#16
Katherine M Bultman, Caitlin H Kowalski, Robert A Cramer
Invasive aspergillosis (IA), most commonly caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, occurs in immune compromised individuals. The ability of A. fumigatus to proliferate in a multitude of environments is hypothesized to contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence. Transcription factors (TF) have long been recognized as critical proteins for fungal pathogenicity, as many are known to play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of pathways implicated in virulence. Such pathways include regulation of conidiation and development, adhesion, nutrient acquisition, adaptation to environmental stress, and interactions with the host immune system among others...
January 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816786/how-to-invade-a-susceptible-host-cellular-aspects-of-aspergillosis
#17
REVIEW
Sven Krappmann
Diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and in particular A. fumigatus are manifold and affect individuals suffering from immune dysfunctions, among them immunocompromised ones. The determinants of whether the encounter of a susceptible host with infectious propagules of this filamentous saprobe results in infection have been characterized to a limited extent. Several cellular characteristics of A. fumigatus that have evolved in its natural environment contribute to its virulence, among them general traits as well as particular ones that affect interaction with the mammalian host...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814394/deep-sequencing-analysis-reveals-the-mycoviral-diversity-of-the-virome-of-an-avirulent-isolate-of-rhizoctonia-solani-ag-2-2-iv
#18
Anika Bartholomäus, Daniel Wibberg, Anika Winkler, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter, Mark Varrelmann
Rhizoctonia solani represents an important plant pathogenic Basidiomycota species complex and the host of many different mycoviruses, as indicated by frequent detection of dsRNA elements in natural populations of the fungus. To date, eight different mycoviruses have been characterized in Rhizoctonia and some of them have been reported to modulate its virulence. DsRNA extracts of the avirulent R. solani isolate DC17 (AG2-2-IV) displayed a diverse pattern, indicating multiple infections with mycoviruses. Deep sequencing analysis of the dsRNA extract, converted to cDNA, revealed that this isolate harbors at least 17 different mycovirus species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812511/transcriptional-control-of-drug-resistance-virulence-and-immune-system-evasion-in-pathogenic-fungi-a-cross-species-comparison
#19
REVIEW
Pedro Pais, Catarina Costa, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Daniela Romão, Miguel C Teixeira
Transcription factors are key players in the control of the activation or repression of gene expression programs in response to environmental stimuli. The study of regulatory networks taking place in fungal pathogens is a promising research topic that can help in the fight against these pathogens by targeting specific fungal pathways as a whole, instead of targeting more specific effectors of virulence or drug resistance. This review is focused on the analysis of regulatory networks playing a central role in the referred mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811178/crispr-cas9-the-new-kid-on-the-block-of-fungal-molecular-biology
#20
Sven Krappmann
Research on fungal pathogens with the aim to identify virulence determinants strictly relies on the generation of defined, recombinant strains, a task that is executed by means of a sophisticated molecular biology toolbox. Recent developments in fungal genome engineering have opened a new frontier by implementing the CRISPR-Cas9 technology, based on expression of the Cas9 endonuclease that is loaded by a single guiding RNA (sgRNA) molecule to target a defined site in the recipient genome. This novel approach has been adapted successfully to engineer fungal genomes, among them the one of the human-pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus Implementation of the required components was achieved by various means that differ with respect to expression of the Cas9 enzyme and sgRNA delivery...
January 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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