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'Aspergillus' and 'virulence'

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#1
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149178/drivers-of-genetic-diversity-in-secondary-metabolic-gene-clusters-within-a-fungal-species
#2
Abigail L Lind, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Catarina Lameiras, Philipp Wiemann, Jonathan M Palmer, Nancy P Keller, Fernando Rodrigues, Gustavo H Goldman, Antonis Rokas
Filamentous fungi produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) critical for defense, virulence, and communication. The metabolic pathways that produce SMs are found in contiguous gene clusters in fungal genomes, an atypical arrangement for metabolic pathways in other eukaryotes. Comparative studies of filamentous fungal species have shown that SM gene clusters are often either highly divergent or uniquely present in one or a handful of species, hampering efforts to determine the genetic basis and evolutionary drivers of SM gene cluster divergence...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114981/ptab-a-lim-domain-binding-protein-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-regulates-biofilm-formation-and-conidiation-through-distinct-pathways
#3
Shizhu Zhang, Yuan Chen, Zhihua Ma, Qiuyi Chen, Hanna Ostapska, Fabrice N Gravelat, Ling Lu, Donald C Sheppard
The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) plays an important role in mediating adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The developmental modifiers MedA, StuA and SomA regulate GAG biosynthesis, but the mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. PtaB is a lim-domain binding protein that interacts with the transcription factor SomA and is required for normal conidiation and biofilm formation. Disruption of ptaB resulted in impaired GAG production and conidiation in association with a markedly reduced expression of GAG biosynthetic genes (uge3 and agd3), developmental regulators (medA and stuA), and genes involved in the core conidiation pathway...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109714/characteristics-of-a-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-rgs-rgsc-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#4
Young Kim, In-Beom Heo, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have a conserved RGS domain that facilitates the intrinsic GTPase activity of an activated Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, thereby attenuating signal transduction. Among six predicted RGS proteins in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, only three (FlbA, GprK, and Rax1) have been studied. The unexplored RgsC composed of the Phox-associated (PXA), RGS, Phox homology (PX), and Nexin_C superfamily domains is highly conserved in many ascomycete fungi, suggesting a crucial role of RgsC in fungal biology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102684/overview-of-selected-virulence-attributes-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-candida-albicans-cryptococcus-neoformans-trichophyton-rubrum-and-exophiala-dermatitidis
#5
REVIEW
Hazal Boral, Banu Metin, Aylin Döğen, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Macit Ilkit
The incidence of fungal diseases has been increasing since 1980, and is associated with excessive morbidity and mortality, particularly among immunosuppressed patients. Of the known 625 pathogenic fungal species, infections caused by the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton are responsible for more than 300 million estimated episodes of acute or chronic infections worldwide. In addition, a rather neglected group of opportunistic fungi known as black yeasts and their filamentous relatives cause a wide variety of recalcitrant infections in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts...
November 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102293/a-new-coumarin-derivative-4-acetatecoumarin-with-antifungal-activity-and-association-study-against-aspergillus-spp
#6
Felipe Q S Guerra, Rodrigo S A Araújo, Janiere P Sousa, Viviane A Silva, Fillipe O Pereira, Francisco J B Mendonça-Junior, José M Barbosa-Filho, Julio Abrantes Pereira, Edeltrudes O Lima
Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082564/could-the-determination-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-mating-type-have-prognostic-value-in-invasive-aspergillosis
#7
M C Monteiro, R Garcia-Rubio, L Alcazar-Fuoli, T Pelaez, E Mellado
A clear link between mating type and virulence has been demonstrated for some fungal pathogens, but not for Aspergillus fumigatus as of yet. An association between mating type and invasiveness has recently been established. The mating type proportion (MAT1-1:MAT1-2) of 213 A. fumigatus strains was determined (48.5%:51.5%) and results were in agreement with previous studies. However, these percentages changed when the strain collection was divided into azole susceptible and resistant strains. The 163 susceptible strains kept these proportions, but among the 50 azole resistant strains 60...
October 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051754/a-cellular-fusion-cascade-regulated-by-laea-is-required-for-sclerotial-development-in-aspergillus-flavus
#8
Xixi Zhao, Joseph E Spraker, Jin Woo Bok, Thomas Velk, Zhu-Mei He, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic soil fungus that poses a serious threat worldwide as it contaminates many food and feed crops with the carcinogenic mycotoxin called aflatoxin. This pathogen persists as sclerotia in the soil which enables fungal survival in harsh environmental conditions. Sclerotia formation by A. flavus depends on successful cell communication and hyphal fusion events. Loss of LaeA, a conserved developmental regulator in fungi, abolishes sclerotia formation in this species whereas overexpression (OE) of laeA results in enhanced sclerotia production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043485/nitrate-assimilation-pathway-nap-role-of-structural-nit-and-transporter-ntr1-genes-in-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lycopersici-growth-and-pathogenicity
#9
Lucia Gomez-Gil, Jesus Camara Almiron, Patricia Lizett Rodriguez Carrillo, Cindy Nayely Olivares Medina, Gustavo Bravo Ruiz, Pamela Romo Rodriguez, Alma Rosa Corrales Escobosa, Felix Gutierrez Corona, M Isabel Roncero
The tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici possesses the capability to use nitrate as the only nitrogen source under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and to activate virulence-related functions when cultivated in the presence of nitrate, but not in ammonium. The genome of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici encodes three paralogs nitrate reductase (NR) genes (nit1, nit2 and nit3) and one predicted ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans high-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NtrA and NtrB, named ntr1...
October 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038255/studies-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutants-indicate-pyoverdine-as-the-central-factor-in-inhibition-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-biofilm
#10
Gabriele Sass, Hasan Nazik, John Penner, Hemi Shah, Shajia Rahman Ansari, Karl V Clemons, Marie-Christine Groleau, Anna-Maria Dietl, Paolo Visca, Hubertus Haas, Eric Déziel, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) are common opportunistic bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. They often co-exist in airways of immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis, where they form biofilms and cause acute and chronic illnesses. Hence the interactions between them have long been of interest, and it is known that Pa can inhibit Af in vitro We have approached the definition of the inhibitory Pa molecules by studying 24 Pa mutants, with various virulence genes deleted, for their ability to inhibit Af biofilms...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016668/diversity-of-clinical-isolates-of-aspergillus-terreus-in-antifungal-susceptibilities-genotypes-and-virulence-in-galleria-mellonella-model-comparison-between-respiratory-and-ear-isolates
#11
Eun Jeong Won, Min Ji Choi, Jong Hee Shin, Yeon-Jun Park, Seung A Byun, Jee Seung Jung, Soo Hyun Kim, Myung Geun Shin, Soon-Pal Suh
We analyzed the antifungal susceptibility profiles, genotypes, and virulence of clinical Aspergillus terreus isolates from six university hospitals in South Korea. Thirty one isolates of A. terreus, comprising 15 respiratory and 16 ear isolates were assessed. Microsatellite genotyping was performed, and genetic similarity was assessed by calculating the Jaccard index. Virulence was evaluated by Galleria mellonella survival assay. All 31 isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, while 23 (74...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993330/morphological-sectors-impacting-on-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-and-virulence-studies
#12
Emina Jukic, Michael Blatzer, Ulrike Binder, Lisa Mayr, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
Morphological heterogeneity of Aspergillus terreus cultures was observed during continued cultivation of AMB-resistant isolates on drug-free medium. Outgrowth leads to the emergence of multiple sectors that might result from increased growth rates at drug-free conditions. We evaluated the differences in AmB susceptibility and virulence between sector subcultures (ATSec), AmB-resistant strains (ATR), and AmB-susceptible strains (ATS). By comparing AmB resistant A. terreus strains (ATR) and A. terreus sector cultures (ATSec) a highly significant reduction of AmB MICs in ATSec was observed (ATR: MIC: 2-32μg/ml, ATSec 0...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992243/mp1p-homologues-as-virulence-factors-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#13
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Candy C Y Lau, Edward T K Tung, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Jian-Pao Cai, Ken T K Chong, Kong Hung Sze, Richard Y Kao, Quan Hao, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Recently, we showed that Mp1p is an important virulence factor of Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic fungus phylogenetically closely related to Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study, we investigated the virulence properties of the four Mp1p homologues (Afmp1p, Afmp2p, Afmp3p, and Afmp4p) in A. fumigatus using a mouse model. All mice died 7 days after challenge with wild-type A. fumigatus QC5096, AFMP1 knockdown mutant, AFMP2 knockdown mutant and AFMP3 knockdown mutant and 28 days after challenge with AFMP4 knockdown mutant (P<...
August 4, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947643/il-1%C3%AE-is-critical-for-resistance-against-highly-virulent-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates
#14
Alayna K Caffrey-Carr, Caitlin H Kowalski, Sarah R Beattie, Nathan A Blaseg, Chanell R Upshaw, Arsa Thammahong, Hannah E Lust, Yi-Wei Tang, Tobias M Hohl, Robert A Cramer, Joshua J Obar
Heterogeneity amongst Aspergillus fumigatus isolates results in unique virulence potential and inflammatory responses. How these isolates drive specific immune responses and how this affects fungal-induced lung damage and disease outcome is unresolved. We demonstrate that the highly virulent CEA10 strain is able to rapidly germinate within the immune competent lung environment inducing greater lung damage, vascular leakage, and IL-1α release compared to the low virulent Af293 strain that germinates with lower frequency in this environment...
September 25, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941897/characterization-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-isolated-from-fresh-chestnuts-and-along-the-chestnut-flour-process
#15
Simona Prencipe, Ilenia Siciliano, Cecilia Contessa, Roberto Botta, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Davide Spadaro
An extensive sampling of Aspergillus section Flavi considered to be the main agent responsible for aflatoxin contamination, was carried out in the field and along the processing phases of chestnut flour production in 2015. Fifty-eight isolates were characterized by means of biological, molecular and chemical assays. The highest incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi was found in the field. The identification of the isolates was based on β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. A. flavus was found to be the dominant species, and this was followed by A...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932216/mycoviruses-in-aspergilli-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Robert H A Coutts
Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initially an overview of the population studies illustrating the presence of mycoviruses in numerous important Aspergillus species, such as A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#17
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892890/virulence-factors-detection-in-aspergillus-isolates-from-clinical-and-environmental-samples
#18
Raksha, Gurjeet Singh, A D Urhekar
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenesis of aspergillosis is dependent on various factors of the host (immune status) and virulence factors of the pathogen which could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis. AIM: To study the virulence factors of Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples and environmental samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective and experimental study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, from July 2014 to June 2015...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887465/host-immune-status-specific-production-of-gliotoxin-and-bis-methyl-gliotoxin-during-invasive-aspergillosis-in-mice
#19
Janyce A Sugui, Stacey R Rose, Glenn Nardone, Muthulekha Swamydas, Chyi-Chia R Lee, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Michail S Lionakis
Delayed diagnosis in invasive aspergillosis (IA) contributes to its high mortality. Gliotoxin (GT) and bis-methyl-gliotoxin (bmGT) are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus during invasive, hyphal growth and may prove diagnostically useful. Because IA pathophysiology and GT's role in virulence vary depending on the underlying host immune status, we hypothesized that GT and bmGT production in vivo may differ in three mouse models of IA that mimic human disease. We defined temporal kinetics of GT and bmGT in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs of A...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883473/identification-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-inhibitors
#20
Julia S Martin Del Campo, Meital Eckshtain-Levi, Nancy J Vogelaar, Pablo Sobrado
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for deadly, invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. The A. fumigatus cell wall is a complex network of polysaccharides among them galactofuran, which is absent in humans. UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf) to UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) and is an important virulence factor. UGM is a flavin-dependent enzyme that requires the reduced flavin for activity; flavin reduction is achieved by reaction with NADPH...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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