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'Aspergillus' and 'virulence'

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876784/expression-and-characterization-of-a-talaromyces-marneffei-active-phospholipase-b-expressed-in-a-pichia-pastoris-expression-system
#1
Yan He, Linghua Li, Fengyu Hu, Wanshan Chen, Huali Lei, Xiejie Chen, Weiping Cai, Xiaoping Tang
Phospholipase B is a virulence factor for several clinically important pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, but its role in the thermally dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei remains unclear. Here, we provide the first report of the expression of a novel phospholipase gene, designated TmPlb1, from T. marneffei in the eukaryotic expression system of Pichia pastoris GS115. Sensitive real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the expression of TmPlb1 increased 1...
November 23, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830189/characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-from-air-and-surfaces-of-the-international-space-station
#2
Benjamin P Knox, Adriana Blachowicz, Jonathan M Palmer, Jillian Romsdahl, Anna Huttenlocher, Clay C C Wang, Nancy P Keller, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822731/are-cystic-fibrosis-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-different-intermicrobial-interactions-with-pseudomonas
#3
Hasan Nazik, Richard B Moss, Vyshnavi Karna, Karl V Clemons, Niaz Banaei, Kevin Cohen, Varun Choudhary, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading bacterial and fungal pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have shown that Af biofilms are susceptible to Pseudomonas, particularly CF phenotypes. Those studies were performed with a reference virulent non-CF Aspergillus. Pseudomonas resident in CF airways undergo profound genetic and phenotypic adaptations to the abnormal environment. Studies have also indicated Aspergillus from CF patients have unexpected profiles of antifungal susceptibility...
November 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820672/balancing-iron-and-calcium-flavin-carrier-family-proteins-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence
#4
Praveen R Juvvadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818262/laea-negatively-regulates-dothistromin-production-in-the-pine-needle-pathogen-dothistroma-septosporum
#5
Pranav Chettri, Rosie E Bradshaw
In filamentous fungi both pathway-specific and global regulators regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. LaeA is a global regulator that was named for its mutant phenotype, loss of aflR expression, due to its effect on the aflatoxin-pathway regulator AflR in Aspergillus spp. The pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum produces a polyketide virulence factor, dothistromin, that is chemically related to aflatoxin and whose pathway genes are also regulated by an ortholog of AflR...
December 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816905/aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-through-the-lens-of-transcription-factors
#6
Katherine M Bultman, Caitlin H Kowalski, Robert A Cramer
Invasive aspergillosis (IA), most commonly caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, occurs in immune compromised individuals. The ability of A. fumigatus to proliferate in a multitude of environments is hypothesized to contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence. Transcription factors (TF) have long been recognized as critical proteins for fungal pathogenicity, as many are known to play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of pathways implicated in virulence. Such pathways include regulation of conidiation and development, adhesion, nutrient acquisition, adaptation to environmental stress, and interactions with the host immune system among others...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816786/how-to-invade-a-susceptible-host-cellular-aspects-of-aspergillosis
#7
REVIEW
Sven Krappmann
Diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and in particular A. fumigatus are manifold and affect individuals suffering from immune dysfunctions, among them immunocompromised ones. The determinants of whether the encounter of a susceptible host with infectious propagules of this filamentous saprobe results in infection have been characterized to a limited extent. Several cellular characteristics of A. fumigatus that have evolved in its natural environment contribute to its virulence, among them general traits as well as particular ones that affect interaction with the mammalian host...
November 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814394/deep-sequencing-analysis-reveals-the-mycoviral-diversity-of-the-virome-of-an-avirulent-isolate-of-rhizoctonia-solani-ag-2-2-iv
#8
Anika Bartholomäus, Daniel Wibberg, Anika Winkler, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter, Mark Varrelmann
Rhizoctonia solani represents an important plant pathogenic Basidiomycota species complex and the host of many different mycoviruses, as indicated by frequent detection of dsRNA elements in natural populations of the fungus. To date, eight different mycoviruses have been characterized in Rhizoctonia and some of them have been reported to modulate its virulence. DsRNA extracts of the avirulent R. solani isolate DC17 (AG2-2-IV) displayed a diverse pattern, indicating multiple infections with mycoviruses. Deep sequencing analysis of the dsRNA extract, converted to cDNA, revealed that this isolate harbors at least 17 different mycovirus species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812511/transcriptional-control-of-drug-resistance-virulence-and-immune-system-evasion-in-pathogenic-fungi-a-cross-species-comparison
#9
REVIEW
Pedro Pais, Catarina Costa, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Daniela Romão, Miguel C Teixeira
Transcription factors are key players in the control of the activation or repression of gene expression programs in response to environmental stimuli. The study of regulatory networks taking place in fungal pathogens is a promising research topic that can help in the fight against these pathogens by targeting specific fungal pathways as a whole, instead of targeting more specific effectors of virulence or drug resistance. This review is focused on the analysis of regulatory networks playing a central role in the referred mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811178/crispr-cas9-the-new-kid-on-the-block-of-fungal-molecular-biology
#10
Sven Krappmann
Research on fungal pathogens with the aim to identify virulence determinants strictly relies on the generation of defined, recombinant strains, a task that is executed by means of a sophisticated molecular biology toolbox. Recent developments in fungal genome engineering have opened a new frontier by implementing the CRISPR-Cas9 technology, based on expression of the Cas9 endonuclease that is loaded by a single guiding RNA (sgRNA) molecule to target a defined site in the recipient genome. This novel approach has been adapted successfully to engineer fungal genomes, among them the one of the human-pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus Implementation of the required components was achieved by various means that differ with respect to expression of the Cas9 enzyme and sgRNA delivery...
November 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801871/deletion-of-afpab1-causes-increased-sensitivity-to-oxidative-stress-and-hypovirulence-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#11
Dongyang Wang, Shunan Wang, Dan He, Song Gao, Baiji Xue, Li Wang
Aspergillus fumigatus AFPAB1 is the ortholog of the Aspergillus oryzae cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein granules AOPAB1 that function to depress the initiation of translation during stress. A. fumigatus can regulate its cellular physiology in response to environmental stresses, but there has been no research on Pab1 in A. fumigatus. The associated gene afpab1 was replaced with a hygromycin-selectable marker to generate the strain Δafpab1. Phenotypic analysis showed that the Δafpab1 grew more weakly than the wild-type strain...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797604/siderophores-iron-scavengers-the-novel-promising-targets-for-pathogen-specific-antifungal-therapy
#12
Meenakshi Balhara, Renu Chaudhary, Sonam Ruhil, Bharat Singh, Nisha Dahiya, Virinder S Parmar, Pawan K Jaiwal, Anil K Chhillar
The recent emergence of resistance, toxicity paradigm and limited efficacy of conventional antifungal drugs necessitate the identification of de novo targets in fungal metabolism. One of the most critical physiological processes during in vivo pathogenesis is maintenance of iron homeostasis. The most life threatening opportunistic human fungal pathogens like Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus exploit the siderophore mediated iron uptake mechanism either for survival, virulence, propagation or resistance to oxidative stress envisaged in vivo during infection...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706915/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-exposed-to-osmotic-stress-reveals-regulators-of-osmotic-and-cell-wall-stresses-that-are-saka-hog1-and-mpkc-dependent
#13
Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Mario Henrique Paziani, Márcia Regina Von Zeska Kress, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Daisuke Hagiwara, Laure N A Ries, Neil Andrew Brown, Gustavo H Goldman
Invasive aspergillosis is predominantly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and adaptations to stresses experienced within the human host are a prerequisite for the survival and virulence strategies of the pathogen. The central signal transduction pathway operating during hyperosmotic stress is the High Osmolarity Glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. A. fumigatus MpkC and SakA, orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1p, constitute the primary regulator of the hyperosmotic stress response...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651366/heterogeneity-among-isolates-reveals-that-fitness-in-low-oxygen-correlates-with-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence
#14
Caitlin H Kowalski, Sarah R Beattie, Kevin K Fuller, Elizabeth A McGurk, Yi-Wei Tang, Tobias M Hohl, Joshua J Obar, Robert A Cramer
UNLABELLED: Previous work has shown that environmental and clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus represent a diverse population that occupies a variety of niches, has extensive genetic diversity, and exhibits virulence heterogeneity in a number of animal models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, mechanisms explaining differences in virulence among A. fumigatus isolates remain enigmatic. Here, we report a significant difference in virulence of two common lab strains, CEA10 and AF293, in the murine triamcinolone immunosuppression model of IPA, in which we previously identified severe low oxygen microenvironments surrounding fungal lesions...
September 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651362/aspergillus-fumigatus-photobiology-illuminates-the-marked-heterogeneity-between-isolates
#15
Kevin K Fuller, Robert A Cramer, Michael E Zegans, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
UNLABELLED: The given strain of Aspergillus fumigatus under study varies across laboratories, ranging from a few widely used "standards," e.g., Af293 or CEA10, to locally acquired isolates that may be unique to one investigator. Since experiments concerning physiology or gene function are seldom replicated by others, i.e., in a different A. fumigatus background, the extent to which behavioral heterogeneity exists within the species is poorly understood. As a proxy for assessing such intraspecies variability, we analyzed the light response of 15 A...
September 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649508/scf-ubiquitin-ligase-f-box-protein-fbx15-controls-nuclear-co-repressor-localization-stress-response-and-virulence-of-the-human-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#16
Bastian Jöhnk, Özgür Bayram, Anja Abelmann, Thorsten Heinekamp, Derek J Mattern, Axel A Brakhage, Ilse D Jacobsen, Oliver Valerius, Gerhard H Braus
F-box proteins share the F-box domain to connect substrates of E3 SCF ubiquitin RING ligases through the adaptor Skp1/A to Cul1/A scaffolds. F-box protein Fbx15 is part of the general stress response of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Oxidative stress induces a transient peak of fbx15 expression, resulting in 3x elevated Fbx15 protein levels. During non-stress conditions Fbx15 is phosphorylated and F-box mediated interaction with SkpA preferentially happens in smaller subpopulations in the cytoplasm...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624005/the-crystal-structure-of-peroxiredoxin-asp-f3-provides-mechanistic-insight-into-oxidative-stress-resistance-and-virulence-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#17
Falk Hillmann, Karine Bagramyan, Maria Straßburger, Thorsten Heinekamp, Teresa B Hong, Krzysztof P Bzymek, John C Williams, Axel A Brakhage, Markus Kalkum
Invasive aspergillosis and other fungal infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, including patients who received blood-building stem cell transplants, patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), and others. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immune cells, which incidentally is defective in CGD patients, is considered to be a fundamental process in inflammation and antifungal immune response. Here we show that the peroxiredoxin Asp f3 of Aspergillus fumigatus inactivates ROS. We report the crystal structure and the catalytic mechanism of Asp f3, a two-cysteine type peroxiredoxin...
September 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601806/prevalence-and-characterization-of-opportunistic-candidal-infections-among-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Madhusudan Astekar, Priyanka Sharma Bhatiya, G V Sowmya
BACKGROUND: Although Candida albicans remains the most common cause of human candidiasis, the frequency of infection attributed to other members of the genus is also increasing. Hence, the present study was carried out to know the prevalence of opportunistic candidal infection in tuberculosis, and if positive, the species of Candida that is most commonly associated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study comprised sixty pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were divided into (1) fresh or untreated group, (2A) chronic or treated group having no complications and (2B) having complications, comprising twenty patients each, respectively...
May 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584150/characterization-of-gprk-encoding-a-putative-hybrid-g-protein-coupled-receptor-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Mun-Gu Jung, Sung Su Kim, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest and most varied collection of membrane embedded proteins that are sensitized by ligand binding and interact with heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite their presumed critical roles in fungal biology, the functions of the GPCR family members in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are largely unknown, as only two (GprC and GprD) of the 15 predicted GPCRs have been studied. Here, we characterize the gprK gene, which is predicted to encode a hybrid GPCR with both 7-transmembrane and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538790/the-aspergillus-fumigatus-scha-sch9-kinase-modulates-saka-hog1-map-kinase-activity-and-it-is-essential-for-virulence
#20
Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Stephen K Dolan, Adriana Oliveira Manfiolli, Neil Andrew Brown, Gary W Jones, Sean Doyle, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Fábio Márcio Squina, Camila Caldana, Ashutosh Singh, Maurizio Del Poeta, Daisuke Hagiwara, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Gustavo H Goldman
The serine-threonine kinase TOR, the Target of Rapamycin, is an important regulator of nutrient, energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes. Sch9, a Ser/Thr kinase of AGC family (the cAMP-dependent PKA, cGMP- dependent protein kinase G and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C family), is a substrate of TOR. Here, we characterized the fungal opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Sch9 homologue (SchA). The schA null mutant was sensitive to rapamycin, high concentrations of calcium, hyperosmotic stress and SchA was involved in iron metabolism...
November 2016: Molecular Microbiology
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