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'Aspergillus' and 'virulence'

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324860/correction-polygalacturonase-gene-pgxb-in-aspergillus-niger-is-a-virulence-factor-in-apple-fruit
#1
Cheng-Qian Liu, Kang-Di Hu, Ting-Ting Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, Yan-Hong Li, He-Ping Liu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Hua Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173277.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323188/a-tet-off-gene-expression-system-for-validation-of-antifungal-drug-targets-in-a-murine-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-model
#2
Yutian Peng, Hua Zhang, Min Xu, Man-Wah Tan
Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the major causes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Novel antifungal therapy is in urgent need due to emerging resistance and adverse toxicity of current antifungal drugs. Gene products that are essential for Aspergillus viability during infection are attractive drug targets. To characterize these genes in vivo we developed a Tet-Off gene expression system in A. fumigatus, whereby the administration of doxycycline resulted in down regulation of the gene whose expression is under the control of the Tet-Off promoter...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317534/linking-secondary-metabolites-to-gene-clusters-through-genome-sequencing-of-six-diverse-aspergillus-species
#3
Inge Kjærbølling, Tammi C Vesth, Jens C Frisvad, Jane L Nybo, Sebastian Theobald, Alan Kuo, Paul Bowyer, Yudai Matsuda, Stephen Mondo, Ellen K Lyhne, Martin E Kogle, Alicia Clum, Anna Lipzen, Asaf Salamov, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum, Jennifer Chiniquy, Kerrie Barry, Kurt LaButti, Sajeet Haridas, Blake A Simmons, Jon K Magnuson, Uffe H Mortensen, Thomas O Larsen, Igor V Grigoriev, Scott E Baker, Mikael R Andersen
The fungal genus of Aspergillus is highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverse Aspergillus species (A. campestris, A. novofumigatus, A. ochraceoroseus, and A. steynii) have been whole-genome PacBio sequenced to provide genetic references in three Aspergillus sections. A. taichungensis and A. candidus also were sequenced for SM elucidation...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259922/exploring-virulence-determinants-of-filamentous-fungal-pathogens-through-interactions-with-soil-amoebae
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Novohradská, Iuliia Ferling, Falk Hillmann
Infections with filamentous fungi are common to all animals, but attention is rising especially due to the increasing incidence and high mortality rates observed in immunocompromised human individuals. Here, Aspergillus fumigatus and other members of its genus are the leading causative agents. Attributes like their saprophytic life-style in various ecological niches coupled with nutritional flexibility and a broad host range have fostered the hypothesis that environmental predators could have been the actual target for some of their virulence determinants...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251506/scanning-quadrupole-data-independent-acquisition-part-b-application-to-the-analysis-of-the-calcineurin-interacting-proteins-during-treatment-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-with-azole-and-echinocandin-antifungal-drugs
#5
Praveen R Juvvadi, M Arthur Moseley, Christopher J Hughes, Erik J Soderblom, Sarah Lennon, Simon R Perkins, J Will Thompson, Scott J Geromanos, Jason Wildgoose, Keith Richardson, James I Langridge, Johannes P C Vissers, William J Steinbach
Calcineurin is a critical cell-signaling protein that orchestrates growth, stress response, virulence, and antifungal drug resistance in several fungal pathogens. Blocking calcineurin signaling increases the efficacy of several currently available antifungals and suppresses drug resistance. We demonstrate the application of a novel scanning quadrupole DIA method for the analysis of changes in the proteins coimmunoprecipitated with calcineurin during therapeutic antifungal drug treatments of the deadly human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222113/tail-domain-of-the-aspergillus-fumigatus-class-v-myosin-orchestrates-septal-localization-and-hyphal-growth
#6
Hilary Renshaw, José M Vargas-Muñiz, Praveen R Juvvadi, Amber D Richards, Greg Waitt, Erik J Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, William J Steinbach
Myosins are critical motor proteins that contribute to the secretory pathway, polarized growth, and cytokinesis. The globular tail domains of class V myosins have been shown to be important for cargo binding and actin cable organization. Additionally, phosphorylation plays a role in class V myosin cargo choice. Our previous studies on the class V myosin, MyoE, in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus confirmed its requirement for normal morphology and virulence. However, the domains and molecular mechanisms governing MyoE's function remain unknown...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202040/a-simple-and-universal-system-for-gene-manipulation-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-vitro-assembled-cas9-guide-rna-ribonucleoproteins-coupled-with-microhomology-repair-templates
#7
Qusai Al Abdallah, Wenbo Ge, Jarrod R Fortwendel
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a novel genome-editing system that has been successfully established in Aspergillus fumigatus. However, the current state of the technology relies heavily on DNA-based expression cassettes for delivering Cas9 and the guide RNA (gRNA) to the cell. Therefore, the power of the technology is limited to strains that are engineered to express Cas9 and gRNA. To overcome such limitations, we developed a simple and universal CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene deletion that works across different genetic backgrounds of A...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197127/overview-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-catabolite-metabolism-in-the-virulence-of-human-pathogenic-fungi
#8
REVIEW
Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sarah Beattie, Robert A Cramer, Gustavo H Goldman
It is estimated that fungal infections, caused most commonly by Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans, result in more deaths annually than malaria or tuberculosis. It has long been hypothesized the fungal metabolism plays a critical role in virulence though specific nutrient sources utilized by human pathogenic fungi in vivo has remained enigmatic. However, the metabolic utilisation of preferred carbon and nitrogen sources, encountered in a host niche-dependent manner, is known as carbon catabolite and nitrogen catabolite repression (CCR, NCR), and has been shown to be important for virulence...
December 2, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179120/metal-homeostasis-in-the-pathobiology-of-the-opportunistic-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#9
REVIEW
Michael Blatzer, Jean-Paul Latgé
In contrast to obligate pathogens opportunistic pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus do not need a specific host to propagate or survive. However several characteristics of the saprophytic life-style and the selective pressure encountered in the primary ecological niche contribute to the virulence of A. fumigatus. All fungi depend on metals for growth and proliferation, like iron, copper, zinc, manganese or calcium. In the recent past several studies explored the manifold impact of metals modulating virulence of pathogens...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170805/role-of-actin-depolymerizing-factor-cofilin-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-oxidative-stress-response-and-pathogenesis
#10
Xiaodong Jia, Xi Zhang, Yingsong Hu, Mandong Hu, Shuguang Tian, Xuelin Han, Yansong Sun, Li Han
Aspergillus fumigatus is a major fungal pathogen that is responsible for approximately 90% of human aspergillosis. Cofilin is an actin depolymerizing factor that plays crucial roles in multiple cellular functions in many organisms. However, the functions of cofilin in A. fumigatus are still unknown. In this study, we constructed an A. fumigatus strain overexpressing cofilin (cofilin OE). The cofilin OE strain displayed a slightly different growth phenotype, significantly increased resistance against H2O2 and diamide, and increased activation of the high osmolarity glycerol pathway compared to the wild-type strain (WT)...
November 23, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168657/the-hidden-pathogenic-potential-of-environmental-fungi
#11
Glauber R de S Araújo, Wanderley de Souza, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients, highlighting the importance of monitoring fungal pathogens. Global warming (including climatic oscillations) may select for environmental species that have acquired thermotolerance, a key step toward pathogenesis to humans. Also, important virulence factors have developed in environmental fungi, because they are essential for yeast survival in the environment. Thus, fungi traditionally regarded as nonpathogenic to humans have virulence factors similar to those of their pathogenic relatives...
November 23, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#12
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149178/drivers-of-genetic-diversity-in-secondary-metabolic-gene-clusters-within-a-fungal-species
#13
Abigail L Lind, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Catarina Lameiras, Philipp Wiemann, Jonathan M Palmer, Nancy P Keller, Fernando Rodrigues, Gustavo H Goldman, Antonis Rokas
Filamentous fungi produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) critical for defense, virulence, and communication. The metabolic pathways that produce SMs are found in contiguous gene clusters in fungal genomes, an atypical arrangement for metabolic pathways in other eukaryotes. Comparative studies of filamentous fungal species have shown that SM gene clusters are often either highly divergent or uniquely present in one or a handful of species, hampering efforts to determine the genetic basis and evolutionary drivers of SM gene cluster divergence...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114981/ptab-a-lim-domain-binding-protein-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-regulates-biofilm-formation-and-conidiation-through-distinct-pathways
#14
Shizhu Zhang, Yuan Chen, Zhihua Ma, Qiuyi Chen, Hanna Ostapska, Fabrice N Gravelat, Ling Lu, Donald C Sheppard
The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) plays an important role in mediating adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The developmental modifiers MedA, StuA and SomA regulate GAG biosynthesis, but the mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. PtaB is a lim-domain binding protein that interacts with the transcription factor SomA and is required for normal conidiation and biofilm formation. Disruption of ptaB resulted in impaired GAG production and conidiation in association with a markedly reduced expression of GAG biosynthetic genes (uge3 and agd3), developmental regulators (medA and stuA), and genes involved in the core conidiation pathway...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109714/characteristics-of-a-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-rgs-rgsc-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#15
Young Kim, In-Beom Heo, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have a conserved RGS domain that facilitates the intrinsic GTPase activity of an activated Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, thereby attenuating signal transduction. Among six predicted RGS proteins in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, only three (FlbA, GprK, and Rax1) have been studied. The unexplored RgsC composed of the Phox-associated (PXA), RGS, Phox homology (PX), and Nexin_C superfamily domains is highly conserved in many ascomycete fungi, suggesting a crucial role of RgsC in fungal biology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102684/overview-of-selected-virulence-attributes-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-candida-albicans-cryptococcus-neoformans-trichophyton-rubrum-and-exophiala-dermatitidis
#16
REVIEW
Hazal Boral, Banu Metin, Aylin Döğen, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Macit Ilkit
The incidence of fungal diseases has been increasing since 1980, and is associated with excessive morbidity and mortality, particularly among immunosuppressed patients. Of the known 625 pathogenic fungal species, infections caused by the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton are responsible for more than 300 million estimated episodes of acute or chronic infections worldwide. In addition, a rather neglected group of opportunistic fungi known as black yeasts and their filamentous relatives cause a wide variety of recalcitrant infections in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts...
November 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102293/a-new-coumarin-derivative-4-acetatecoumarin-with-antifungal-activity-and-association-study-against-aspergillus-spp
#17
Felipe Q S Guerra, Rodrigo S A Araújo, Janiere P Sousa, Viviane A Silva, Fillipe O Pereira, Francisco J B Mendonça-Junior, José M Barbosa-Filho, Julio Abrantes Pereira, Edeltrudes O Lima
Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082564/could-the-determination-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-mating-type-have-prognostic-value-in-invasive-aspergillosis
#18
M C Monteiro, R Garcia-Rubio, L Alcazar-Fuoli, T Pelaez, E Mellado
A clear link between mating type and virulence has been demonstrated for some fungal pathogens, but not for Aspergillus fumigatus as of yet. An association between mating type and invasiveness has recently been established. The mating type proportion (MAT1-1:MAT1-2) of 213 A. fumigatus strains was determined (48.5%:51.5%) and results were in agreement with previous studies. However, these percentages changed when the strain collection was divided into azole susceptible and resistant strains. The 163 susceptible strains kept these proportions, but among the 50 azole resistant strains 60...
October 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051754/a-cellular-fusion-cascade-regulated-by-laea-is-required-for-sclerotial-development-in-aspergillus-flavus
#19
Xixi Zhao, Joseph E Spraker, Jin Woo Bok, Thomas Velk, Zhu-Mei He, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic soil fungus that poses a serious threat worldwide as it contaminates many food and feed crops with the carcinogenic mycotoxin called aflatoxin. This pathogen persists as sclerotia in the soil which enables fungal survival in harsh environmental conditions. Sclerotia formation by A. flavus depends on successful cell communication and hyphal fusion events. Loss of LaeA, a conserved developmental regulator in fungi, abolishes sclerotia formation in this species whereas overexpression (OE) of laeA results in enhanced sclerotia production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043485/nitrate-assimilation-pathway-nap-role-of-structural-nit-and-transporter-ntr1-genes-in-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lycopersici-growth-and-pathogenicity
#20
Lucia Gomez-Gil, Jesus Camara Almiron, Patricia Lizett Rodriguez Carrillo, Cindy Nayely Olivares Medina, Gustavo Bravo Ruiz, Pamela Romo Rodriguez, Alma Rosa Corrales Escobosa, Felix Gutierrez Corona, M Isabel Roncero
The tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici possesses the capability to use nitrate as the only nitrogen source under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and to activate virulence-related functions when cultivated in the presence of nitrate, but not in ammonium. The genome of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici encodes three paralogs nitrate reductase (NR) genes (nit1, nit2 and nit3) and one predicted ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans high-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NtrA and NtrB, named ntr1...
October 17, 2017: Current Genetics
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