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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301237/aspergillosis-a-natural-infection-in-poultry-mycological-and-molecular-characterization-and-determination-of-gliotoxin-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates
#1
Verónica Montes de Oca, Sara Esther Valdés, Carolina Segundo, Gabriela Guadalupe Gómez, José Ramírez, Roberto Arnulfo Cervantes
Aspergillosis affects all types of birds; it causes the loss of specimens with high ecologic value and also leads to significant economic losses within the poultry industry. The main etiologic agent is Aspergillus fumigatus , a filamentary fungus with multiple virulence factors, such as gliotoxin (GT), which is an immunosuppressive epipolythiodioxopiperazine molecule. Necropsy was performed on 73 poultry from different provenances, all of which presented with a respiratory semiology compatible with aspergillosis...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#2
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265787/isolation-and-characterisation-of-an-enterocin-p-producing-enterococcus-lactis-strain-from-a-fresh-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei
#3
Olfa Ben Braïek, Hamdi Ghomrassi, Paola Cremonesi, Stefano Morandi, Yannick Fleury, Patrick Le Chevalier, Khaled Hani, Omrane Bel Hadj, Taoufik Ghrairi
Screening for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fresh shrimp samples (Penaeus vannamei) collected from retail seafood markets in the Tunisian's coast, resulted in the isolation of an Enterococcus strain termed Q1. This strain was selected for its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactococcus garvieae and against fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium equiseti). The Q1 strain was characterised using standard morphological and biochemical tests, growth assays at different temperatures, pH and salinity...
March 7, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261252/rna-interference-rnai-as-a-potential-tool-for-control-of-mycotoxin-contamination-in-crop-plants-concepts-and-considerations
#4
REVIEW
Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Jeffrey W Cary
Mycotoxin contamination in food and feed crops is a major concern worldwide. Fungal pathogens of the genera Aspergillus. Fusarium, and Penicillium are a major threat to food and feed crops due to production of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, 4-deoxynivalenol, patulin, and numerous other toxic secondary metabolites that substantially reduce the value of the crop. While host resistance genes are frequently used to introgress disease resistance into elite germplasm, either through traditional breeding or transgenic approaches, such resistance is often compromised by the evolving pathogen over time...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257463/polygalacturonase-gene-pgxb-in-aspergillus-niger-is-a-virulence-factor-in-apple-fruit
#5
Cheng-Qian Liu, Kang-Di Hu, Ting-Ting Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, Yan-Hong Li, He-Ping Liu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Hua Zhang
Aspergillus niger, a saprophytic fungus, is widely distributed in soil, air and cereals, and can cause postharvest diseases in fruit. Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the main enzymes in fungal pathogens to degrade plant cell wall. To evaluate whether the deletion of an exo-polygalacturonase gene pgxB would influence fungal pathogenicity to fruit, pgxB gene was deleted in Aspergillus niger MA 70.15 (wild type) via homologous recombination. The ΔpgxB mutant showed similar growth behavior compared with the wild type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251756/functional-genomics-guided-discovery-of-a-light-activated-phytotoxin-in-the-wheat-pathogen-parastagonospora-nodorum-via-pathway-activation
#6
Yit-Heng Chooi, Guozhi Zhang, Jinyu Hu, Mariano Jordi Muria-Gonzalez, Phuong Tran, Amber Pettitt, Alex Maier, Russell A Barrow, Peter S Solomon
Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. The contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. A biosynthetic gene cluster (SNOG_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of P. nodorum wheat leaf infection. The gene cluster shares several homologues with the Cercospora nicotianae CTB gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of cercosporin. Activation of the gene cluster by overexpression (OE) of the transcription factor gene (SNOG_08609) in P...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223452/heterogeneity-confounds-establishment-of-a-model-microbial-strain
#7
Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous environmental mold and the leading cause of diverse human diseases ranging from allergenic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Experimental investigations of the biology and virulence of this opportunistic pathogen have historically used a few type strains; however, it is increasingly observed with this fungus that heterogeneity among isolates potentially confounds the use of these reference isolates. Illustrating this point, Kowalski et al...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217776/iron-acquisition-in-fungal-pathogens-of-humans
#8
Gaurav Bairwa, Won Hee Jung, James W Kronstad
The devastating infections that fungal pathogens cause in humans are underappreciated relative to viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. In recent years, the contributions to virulence of reductive iron uptake, siderophore-mediated uptake and heme acquisition have been identified in the best studied and most life-threatening fungal pathogens: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In particular, exciting new work illustrates the importance of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin in the virulence of pathogenic yeasts...
February 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174315/a-novel-phosphoregulatory-switch-controls-the-activity-and-function-of-the-major-catalytic-subunit-of-protein-kinase-a-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#9
E Keats Shwab, Praveen R Juvvadi, Greg Waitt, Erik J Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, Nathan I Nicely, Yohannes G Asfaw, William J Steinbach
Invasive aspergillosis (IA), caused by the filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, is a major cause of death among immunocompromised patients. The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is essential for hyphal growth and virulence of A. fumigatus, but the mechanism of regulation of PKA remains largely unknown. Here, we discovered a novel mechanism for the regulation of PKA activity in A. fumigatus via phosphorylation of key residues within the major catalytic subunit, PkaC1. Phosphopeptide enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation of PkaC1 at four sites (S175, T331, T333, and T337) with implications for important and diverse roles in the regulation of A...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120495/cipc-is-important-for-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence
#10
Heliara Maria Spina Canela, Luciano Akira Takami, Márcia Eliana da Silva Ferreira
Aspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of invasive aspergillosis, a disease that affects immunocompromised patients and has a high mortality rate. We previously observed that the transcription of a cipC-like gene was increased when A. fumigatus encountered an increased CO2 concentration, as occurs during the infection process. CipC is a protein of unknown function that might be associated with fungal pathogenicity. In this study, the cipC gene was disrupted in A. fumigatus to evaluate its importance for fungal pathogenicity...
February 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103957/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-of-brugia-malayi-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-severely-affects-parasite-viability-embryogenesis-and-in-vivo-development-of-infective-larvae
#11
Sweta Misra, Jyoti Gupta, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Galactofuranose is an essential cell surface component present in bacteria, fungi and several nematodes such as Caenorhabditis spp., Brugia spp., Onchocerca spp. and Strongyloides spp. This sugar maintains the integrity of parasite surface and is essential for virulence. UDP-Galactopyranose mutase (bmugm) plays a key role in Galf biosynthesis by catalyzing conversion of UDP-Galactopyranose into UDP-galactofuranose and knockout studies of the gene in Leishmania major, Mycobacterium and Aspergillus fumigatus displayed attenuated virulence while RNA interference study in C...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080993/secondary-metabolite-arsenal-of-an-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus
#12
Elaine Bignell, Timothy C Cairns, Kurt Throckmorton, William C Nierman, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053593/evaluation-of-aerial-microbial-pollutants-in-al-haram-al-nabawi-during-pilgrimage-of-2013
#13
Kholoud M Alananbeh, Nahla Boquellah, Nadia Al Kaff, Majid Al Ahmadi
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052140/a-novel-zn2-cys6-transcription-factor-atrr-plays-a-key-role-in-an-azole-resistance-mechanism-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-co-regulating-cyp51a-and-cdr1b-expressions
#14
Daisuke Hagiwara, Daisuke Miura, Kiminori Shimizu, Sanjoy Paul, Ayumi Ohba, Tohru Gonoi, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Takahiro Shintani, W Scott Moye-Rowley, Susumu Kawamoto, Katsuya Gomi
Successful treatment of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus is threatened by an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This situation is further complicated by the finding that strains resistant to azoles, the major antifungal drugs for aspergillosis, have been widely disseminated across the globe. To elucidate mechanisms underlying azole resistance, we identified a novel transcription factor that is required for normal azole resistance in Aspergillus fungi including A. fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus nidulans...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998732/pathogenesis-of-microbial-keratitis
#15
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986720/erg4a-and-erg4b-are-required-for-conidiation-and-azole-resistance-via-regulation-of-ergosterol-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#16
Nanbiao Long, Xiaoling Xu, Qiuqiong Zeng, Hong Sang, Ling Lu
Ergosterol, a fungus-specific sterol enriched in cell plasma membranes, is an effective antifungal drug target. However, current knowledge of the ergosterol biosynthesis process in the saprophytic human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus remains limited. In this study, we found that two endoplasmic reticulum-localized sterol C-24 reductases encoded by both erg4A and erg4B homologs are required to catalyze the reaction during the final step of ergosterol biosynthesis. Loss of one homolog of Erg4 induces the overexpression of the other one, accompanied by almost normal ergosterol synthesis and wild-type colony growth...
February 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939757/the-ccaat-binding-complex-cbc-in-aspergillus-species
#17
Peter Hortschansky, Hubertus Haas, Eva M Huber, Michael Groll, Axel A Brakhage
The CCAAT binding complex (CBC), consisting of a heterotrimeric core structure, is highly conserved in eukaryotes and constitutes an important general transcriptional regulator. Scope of the review. In this review we discuss the scientific history and the current state of knowledge of the multiple gene regulatory functions, protein motifs and structure of the CBC in fungi with a special focus on Aspergillus species. Major conclusions and general significance. Initially identified as a transcriptional activator of respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in other fungal species the CBC was found to be involved in highly diverse pathways, but a general rationale for its involvement was missing...
December 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939177/the-er-mitochondria-encounter-structure-contributes-to-hyphal-growth-mitochondrial-morphology-and-virulence-of-the-pathogenic-mold-aspergillus-fumigatus
#18
Bernadette Geißel, Mirjam Penka, Michael Neubauer, Johannes Wagener
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the primary causative species of invasive aspergillosis, a systemic disease associated with high mortality rates. Treatment of invasive fungal infection relies on a very limited number of antifungal drug classes. In order to extend the spectrum of antifungal drugs novel target structures have to be identified. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES), a recently discovered tether that links mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, is a potential drug target based on its absence in Metazoa...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933036/functional-analysis-of-the-nitrogen-metabolite-repression-regulator-gene-nmra-in-aspergillus-flavus
#19
Xiaoyun Han, Mengguang Qiu, Bin Wang, Wen-Bing Yin, Xinyi Nie, Qiuping Qin, Silin Ren, Kunlong Yang, Feng Zhang, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
In Aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (NMR) regulator NmrA plays a major role in regulating the activity of the GATA transcription factor AreA during nitrogen metabolism. However, the function of nmrA in A. flavus has not been previously studied. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmrA in A. flavus. Our work showed that the amino acid sequences of NmrA are highly conserved among Aspergillus species and that A. flavus NmrA protein contains a canonical Rossmann fold motif...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921081/a-fungus-specific-protein-domain-is-essential-for-rasa-mediated-morphogenetic-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#20
Qusai Al Abdallah, Tiffany S Norton, Amy M Hill, Lawrence L LeClaire, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine...
November 2016: MSphere
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