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'Aspergillus' and 'virulence'

Donato Gerin, Luis González-Candelas, Ana-Rosa Ballester, Stefania Pollastro, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Francesco Faretra
Aspergillus carbonarius, belonging to the group Nigri , is the main species responsible for contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and derivative products. OTA can accumulate in the mycelium and in black conidia of the fungus and released into the matrix. Here, we have deleted in A. carbonarius the alb1 orthologue gene of A. fumigatus , involved in melanin biosynthesis. Three A. carbonarius Δ alb1 mutants were characterized for morphologic traits and OTA production on different media and temperatures...
March 12, 2018: Toxins
Yinghang Liu, Kunlong Yang, Qiuping Qin, Guinan Lin, Tianran Hu, Zhangling Xu, Shihua Wang
The heterotrimeric G proteins are critical for signal transduction and function in numerous biological processes including vegetative growth, asexual development and fungal virulence in fungi. Here, we identified four G protein alpha subunits (GanA, GpaB, FadA and GaoC) in the notorious Aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus . GanA, GpaB and FadA have homologues in other fungal species, while GaoC is a novel one. Here, we showed that the loss function of gpaB displayed a defect in conidiophore formation and considerably reduced expression levels of conidia-specific genes brlA and abaA ...
March 10, 2018: Toxins
Olfa Ben Braïek, Paola Cremonesi, Stefano Morandi, Slim Smaoui, Khaled Hani, Taoufik Ghrairi
This study aims to characterise a potential bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterial strain isolated from a raw pink shrimp (Palaemon serratus) and evaluate its safety aspect. The strain designated as 4CP3 was noted to display antibacterial activities (P < 0.05) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and some filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergillus niger A79). Phenotypic and molecular techniques as well as phylogenetic analysis identified the isolate 4CP3 as Enterococcus lactis...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zhongyi Lu, Xiaodong Jia, Yong Chen, Xuelin Han, Fangyan Chen, Shuguang Tian, Xueting Su, Zongwei Li, Jingya Zhao, Xi Zhang, Mandong Hu, Liuyu Huang, Li Han
Through some specific amino acid residues, Cofilin, a ubiquitous actin depolymoerization factor, can significantly affect mitochondrial function related to drug resistance and apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; however, this modulation in a major fungal pathogen, A. fumigatus was still unclear. Hereby, it was found firstly that mutations on several charged residues in cofilin to alanine, D19A;R21A, E48A, and K36A increased the formation of reactive oxygen species and induced apoptosis along with typical hallmarks including mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, the cytochrome c release, upregulation of metacaspases, and DNA cleavage in A...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Huahui Lan, Lianghuan Wu, Ruilin Sun, Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Jiefei Wu, Longpo Geng, Chuanzhong Huang, Shihua Wang
Aspergillus flavus is a common fungal pathogen of plants, animals and humans. Recently, many genes of A. flavus have been reported involving in regulation of pathogenesis in crops, but whether these genes are involved in animal virulence is still unknown. Here, we used a previous easy-to-use infection model for A. flavus based on mouse model by intravenous inoculation of A. flavus conidia. The outcome of infections in mice model showed that A. flavus NRRL3357 and laboratory strain CA14 PTS were both in dose dependent manner and highly reproducible...
February 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Eloise Ballard, Willem J G Melchers, Jan Zoll, Alistair J P Brown, Paul E Verweij, Adilia Warris
In order to survive, Aspergillus fumigatus must adapt to specific niche environments. Adaptation to the human host includes modifications facilitating persistent colonisation and the development of azole resistance. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of the genetic and physiological adaptation of A. fumigatus in patients during infection and treatment. Thirteen A. fumigatus strains were isolated from a single chronic granulomatous disease patient suffering from persistent and recurrent invasive aspergillosis over a period of 2 years...
February 22, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Joe L Hsu, Olga V Manouvakhova, Karl V Clemons, Mohammed Inayathullah, Allen B Tu, Raymond A Sobel, Amy Tian, Hasan Nazik, Venkata R Pothineni, Shravani Pasupneti, Xinguo Jiang, Gundeep S Dhillon, Harmeet Bedi, Jayakumar Rajadas, Hubertus Haas, Laure Aurelian, David A Stevens, Mark R Nicolls
Invasive pulmonary disease due to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus can be life-threatening in lung transplant recipients, but the risk factors remain poorly understood. To study this process, we used a tracheal allograft mouse model that recapitulates large airway changes observed in patients undergoing lung transplantation. We report that microhemorrhage-related iron content may be a major determinant of A. fumigatus invasion and, consequently, its virulence. Invasive growth was increased during progressive alloimmune-mediated graft rejection associated with high concentrations of ferric iron in the graft...
February 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Nayereh Ghods, Mehraban Falahati, Maryam Roudbary, Shirin Farahyar, Masoud Shamaei, Mahin Pourabdollah, Farhad Seif
The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct examination and culture on Czapek Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media were performed for 600 BAL specimens isolated from patients with possible aspergillosis. A Galactomannan ELISA assay was also carried out. The expression levels of the gpaB and sidA genes in isolates were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
February 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Ashraf A Kadry, Amira M El-Ganiny, Rasha A Mosbah, Susan G W Kaminskyj
Systemic human fungal infections are increasingly common. Aspergillus species cause most of the airborne fungal infections. Life-threatening invasive aspergillosis was formerly found only in immune-suppressed patients, but recently some strains of A. fumigatus have become primary pathogens. Many fungal cell wall components are absent from mammalian systems, so they are potential drug targets. Cell-wall-targeting drugs such as echinocandins are used clinically, although echinocandin-resistant strains were discovered shortly after their introduction...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jianjun Qiao, Yi Sun, Lujuan Gao, Chengyan He, Wenqian Zheng
Farnesylation, which is catalyzed by farnesyltransferase, promotes membrane association of the modified protein and protein-protein interactions, and plays an important role in a number of physiological processes of pathogenic fungi, including stress response, environmental adaption and virulence. Lonafarnib is an orally bioavailable nonpeptide tricyclic farnesyltransferase inhibitor with excellent pharmacokinetic and safety profile. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of lonafarnib alone or combined with azoles, including itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, against 22 strains of Aspergillus spp...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Qing Cai, Juan-Juan Wang, Bo Fu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Gcn5 is a core histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3 acetylation on N-terminal lysine residues in yeasts and was reported to catalyze H3K9/K14 acetylation required for activating asexual development in Aspergillus. Here, we report a localization of Gcn5 ortholog in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of gcn5 led to hypoacetylated H3 at K9/14/18/27 and 97% reduction in conidiation capacity as well as severe defects in colony growth and conidial thermotolerance...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Hadeel Saeed Al-Maliki, Suceti Martinez, Patrick Piszczatowski, Joan W Bennett
Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model organism that offers essential insights into developmental and cellular processes shared with humans, which has been adapted for large scale analysis of medically important microbes and to test the toxicity of heavy metals, industrial solvents and other poisonous substances. We here give a brief review of the use of the Drosophila model in medical mycology, discuss the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the opportunistic human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and give a brief summary of what is known about the toxicity of some common fungal VOCs...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Isabel Valsecchi, Vincent Dupres, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, J Iñaki Guijarro, John Gibbons, Rémi Beau, Jagadeesh Bayry, Jean-Yves Coppee, Frank Lafont, Jean-Paul Latgé, Anne Beauvais
Resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to desiccation and their capacity to reach the alveoli are partly due to the presence of a hydrophobic layer composed of a protein from the hydrophobin family, called RodA, which covers the conidial surface. In A. fumigatus there are seven hydrophobins (RodA-RodG) belonging to class I and III. Most of them have never been studied. We constructed single and multiple hydrophobin-deletion mutants until the generation of a hydrophobin-free mutant. The phenotype, immunogenicity, and virulence of the mutants were studied...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Haroon Mohammad, Nehal H Elghazawy, Hassan Eldesouky, Youssef A Hegazy, Waleed Younis, Larisa V Avramova, Tony Hazbun, Reem K Arafa, Mohamed N Seleem
Globally, invasive fungal infections pose a significant challenge to modern human medicine due to the limited number of antifungal drugs and the rise in resistance to current antifungal agents. The vast majority of invasive fungal infections are caused by species of Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. Novel antifungal molecules consisting of unexploited chemical scaffolds with a unique mechanism are a pressing need. The present study identifies a dibromoquinoline compound (4b) with broad-spectrum antifungal activity that inhibits growth of pertinent species of Candida (chiefly C...
January 25, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Cheng-Qian Liu, Kang-Di Hu, Ting-Ting Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, Yan-Hong Li, He-Ping Liu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Hua Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173277.].
2018: PloS One
Yutian Peng, Hua Zhang, Min Xu, Man-Wah Tan
Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the major causes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Novel antifungal therapy is in urgent need due to emerging resistance and adverse toxicity of current antifungal drugs. Gene products that are essential for Aspergillus viability during infection are attractive drug targets. To characterize these genes in vivo we developed a Tet-Off gene expression system in A. fumigatus, whereby the administration of doxycycline resulted in down regulation of the gene whose expression is under the control of the Tet-Off promoter...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Inge Kjærbølling, Tammi C Vesth, Jens C Frisvad, Jane L Nybo, Sebastian Theobald, Alan Kuo, Paul Bowyer, Yudai Matsuda, Stephen Mondo, Ellen K Lyhne, Martin E Kogle, Alicia Clum, Anna Lipzen, Asaf Salamov, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum, Jennifer Chiniquy, Kerrie Barry, Kurt LaButti, Sajeet Haridas, Blake A Simmons, Jon K Magnuson, Uffe H Mortensen, Thomas O Larsen, Igor V Grigoriev, Scott E Baker, Mikael R Andersen
The fungal genus of Aspergillus is highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverse Aspergillus species (A. campestris, A. novofumigatus, A. ochraceoroseus, and A. steynii) have been whole-genome PacBio sequenced to provide genetic references in three Aspergillus sections. A. taichungensis and A. candidus also were sequenced for SM elucidation...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Silvia Novohradská, Iuliia Ferling, Falk Hillmann
Infections with filamentous fungi are common to all animals, but attention is rising especially due to the increasing incidence and high mortality rates observed in immunocompromised human individuals. Here, Aspergillus fumigatus and other members of its genus are the leading causative agents. Attributes like their saprophytic life-style in various ecological niches coupled with nutritional flexibility and a broad host range have fostered the hypothesis that environmental predators could have been the actual target for some of their virulence determinants...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Praveen R Juvvadi, M Arthur Moseley, Christopher J Hughes, Erik J Soderblom, Sarah Lennon, Simon R Perkins, J Will Thompson, Scott J Geromanos, Jason Wildgoose, Keith Richardson, James I Langridge, Johannes P C Vissers, William J Steinbach
Calcineurin is a critical cell-signaling protein that orchestrates growth, stress response, virulence, and antifungal drug resistance in several fungal pathogens. Blocking calcineurin signaling increases the efficacy of several currently available antifungals and suppresses drug resistance. We demonstrate the application of a novel scanning quadrupole DIA method for the analysis of changes in the proteins coimmunoprecipitated with calcineurin during therapeutic antifungal drug treatments of the deadly human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Hilary Renshaw, José M Vargas-Muñiz, Praveen R Juvvadi, Amber D Richards, Greg Waitt, Erik J Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, William J Steinbach
Myosins are critical motor proteins that contribute to the secretory pathway, polarized growth, and cytokinesis. The globular tail domains of class V myosins have been shown to be important for cargo binding and actin cable organization. Additionally, phosphorylation plays a role in class V myosin cargo choice. Our previous studies on the class V myosin MyoE in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus confirmed its requirement for normal morphology and virulence. However, the domains and molecular mechanisms governing the functions of MyoE remain unknown...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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