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Pneumococcal vaccine in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224962/incidence-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-and-during-an-era-of-use-of-three-different-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-quebec
#1
Philippe De Wals, Brigitte Lefebvre, Geneviève Deceuninck, Jean Longtin
BACKGROUND: In Quebec, 7-valent (PCV7), 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were successively used for the immunization of children according to a 2+1 doses schedule. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the impact of this program on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and adults. METHODS: Notification and laboratory surveillance data were analyzed and the immunization status of IPD cases in children was checked...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204064/vaccinations-in-immunosuppressive-dependent-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Huyen-Tran Nguyen, Phillip Minar, Kimberly Jackson, Patricia C Fulkerson
AIM: To determine the vaccination rates in pediatric immunosuppression-dependent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and review the safety and efficacy of vaccinations in this population. METHODS: The electronic medical records from October 2009 to December 2015 of patients diagnosed with IBD at 10 years of age or younger and prescribed anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapy were reviewed for clinical history, medication history, vaccination history, and hepatitis B and varicella titers...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198816/association-between-race-ethnicity-and-disability-status-and-receipt-of-vaccines-among-older-adults-in-florida
#3
Shivani R Khan, Allyson G Hall, Rebecca J Tanner, Nicole M Marlow
BACKGROUND: Individuals living with a disability or are a member of a certain racial/ethnic group may be at heightened risk for not receiving important vaccinations. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether race/ethnicity and disability status are associated with the receipt of two vaccines (influenza and pneumococcal) among older adults living in Florida. METHODS: Using the 2011-2015 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey, we ran bivariate and multivariate analyses to determine the associations for race/ethnicity and disability status with receipt of vaccinations among individuals 65 years and older...
November 28, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194019/an-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-influenza-pneumoccocal-tdap-and-herpes-zoster-vaccine-uptake-in-the-us-adult-population-and-corresponding-inter-state-variability
#4
Elizabeth M La, Laurel Trantham, Samantha K Kurosky, Dawn Odom, Emmanuel Aris, Cosmina Hogea
Despite longstanding recommendations for routine vaccination against influenza; pneumococcal; tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap); and herpes zoster (HZ) among the United States general adult population, vaccine uptake remains low. Understanding factors that influence adult vaccination and coverage variability beyond the national level are important steps toward developing targeted strategies for increasing vaccination coverage. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011-2014)...
December 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183235/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-for-the-prevention-of-pneumococcal-disease-in-adults-50-years-of-age
#5
Raul E Isturiz, Cassandra Hall-Murray, John M McLaughlin, Vincenza Snow, Beate Schmoele-Thoma, Chris Webber, Allison Thompson, Daniel A Scott
Adults, particularly those with underlying chronic conditions, eg, cardiovascular, liver, and pulmonary diseases and diabetes mellitus, have a persistent pneumococcal disease burden. Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is recommended in the United States for all adults aged ≥65 years and immunocompromised adults aged <65 years to protect against vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia. PCV13 is not recommended for immunocompetent adults aged ≥18 years with comorbidities associated with increased pneumococcal disease risk...
November 29, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182350/using-the-4-pillars-to-increase-vaccination-among-high-risk-adults-who-benefits
#6
Mary Patricia Nowalk, Krissy K Moehling, Song Zhang, Jonathan M Raviotta, Richard K Zimmerman, Chyongchiou J Lin
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in vaccination rates (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV]; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis [Tdap] vaccine; and influenza vaccine) among high-risk adults following an intervention (June 1, 2013, to January 31, 2015) that used the 4 Pillars Practice Transformation Program (4 Pillars Program). STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled cluster trial. METHODS: Eighteen primary care practices received staff education, guidance for using the 4 Pillars Program, and support for a practice immunization champion...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172664/knowledge-activation-and-costs-of-the-pharmacists-pneumonia-prevention-program-pppp-a-novel-senior-center-model-to-promote-vaccination
#7
Laura T Pizzi, Katherine M Prioli, Lynn Fields Harris, Elizabeth Cannon-Dang, Marie Marthol-Clark, Matt Alcusky, Megan McCoy, Jason J Schafer
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the best way to prevent pneumococcal disease (PD), but 40% of older adults remain unvaccinated nationwide, with even greater nonvaccination rates among African Americans (AAs). Prior studies suggest that insufficient knowledge contributes to low vaccination rates. The Pharmacists' Pneumonia Prevention Program (PPPP) was designed to improve older adults' knowledge about PD and pneumococcal vaccination (PV). OBJECTIVE: To measure PPPP's effect on knowledge and activation in a predominantly AA population and determine program costs...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170119/adult-patients-with-pneumococcal-meningitis-at-a-neurosurgical-neurological-center-different-predisposing-conditions
#8
Lucero de María Ugalde-Mejía, Veronica Angeles Morales, Graciela Cárdenas, Jose Luis Soto-Hernández
BACKGROUND: In previous studies of pneumococcal meningitis in adults within general hospitals or national cohorts, the most common predisposing conditions are otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, immunosuppression, alcoholism, and diabetes. The epidemiology of pneumococcal meningitis is changing due to the use of vaccines in childhood, and antibiotic resistance has increased. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of patients with diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis proved by an inflammatory CSF with a positive culture, treated during a period of 14 years at an adult neurosurgical neurological reference center...
November 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169575/health-determinants-and-survival-in-nursing-home-residents-in-europe-results-from-the-shelter-study
#9
Davide L Vetrano, Agnese Collamati, Nicola Magnavita, Agnieszka Sowa, Eva Topinkova, Harriet Finne-Soveri, Henriëtte G van der Roest, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Silvia Giovannini, Walter Ricciardi, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder, Andrea Poscia
OBJECTIVE: The care processes directed towards institutionalized older people needs to be tailored on goals and priorities that are relevant for this specific population. The aim of the present study was (a) to describe the distribution of selected health determinants in a sample of institutionalized older adults, and (b) to investigate the impact on survival of such measures. DESIGN: Multicentre longitudinal cohort-study. SETTING: 57 nursing homes (NH) in 7EU countries (Czech Republic, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands) and 1 non-EU country (Israel)...
January 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132991/attitudes-about-adult-vaccines-and-reminder-recall-in-a-safety-net-population
#10
Karen Albright, Laura P Hurley, Steven Lockhart, Dennis Gurfinkel, Brenda Beaty, L Miriam Dickinson, Anne Libby, Allison Kempe
Little is known about adult patients' attitudes toward vaccination and preferences for reminder/recall. The objective of this study was to determine patient perspectives on adult vaccines generally; attitudes about Tdap, pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV-23), and seasonal influenza vaccines specifically; and preferences for adult reminder/recall delivery. Twelve focus groups were conducted with 68 patients in a safety net health system. The sample was stratified by preferred language (English or Spanish), age (18-64 or 65+), and health status (with or without chronic conditions)...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132988/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-novel-multiple-antigen-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-adults-a-phase-1-randomised-clinical-trial
#11
Claire Entwisle, Sue Hill, Yin Pang, Michael Joachim, Ann McIlgorm, Camilo Colaco, David Goldblatt, Polly De Gorguette D'Argoeuves, Chris Bailey
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal vaccines, combining multiple protein antigens, provide an alternative approach to currently marketed vaccines and may provide broader protection against pneumococcal disease. This trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a novel vaccine candidate PnuBioVax in healthy young adults. METHODS: In a Phase 1 double-blind study, 36 subjects (18-40 years) were randomised to receive 3 doses of PnuBioVax, 28 days apart, at one of three dose levels (50, 200, 500 µg) or placebo...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129213/vaccinations-in-older-adults
#12
REVIEW
Megan Burke, Theresa Rowe
Vaccines are important for preventing infections in adults aged ≥65 years. Older adults are at increased risk for complications from vaccine-preventable illnesses due to age-associated changes in immune function and chronic medical comorbidities. Vaccination rates for older adults remain low despite widely accepted practice guidelines. Recommended vaccinations for older adults include (1) influenza; (2) pneumococcal; (3) herpes zoster; (4) tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis; and (5) hepatitis B. Cost influences vaccination rates in older adults...
February 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#13
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116597/response-to-tetanus-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-following-administration-of-ixekizumab-in-healthy-participants
#14
Elisa V Gomez, Jessie L Bishop, Kimberley Jackson, Talia M Muram, Diane Phillips
BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab (IXE) is an interleukin (IL)-17A antagonist approved for the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if the immune response to tetanus and pneumococcal vaccines in healthy subjects administered IXE was noninferior to control. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, adult subjects received vaccinations alone (N = 42, control) or in combination with 160 mg IXE subcutaneously 2 weeks prior to vaccination and 80 mg IXE on the day of vaccination (N = 41, IXE)...
November 7, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114387/repeat-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination-does-not-impair-functional-immune-responses-among-indigenous-australians
#15
Paul V Licciardi, Edwin Hoe, Zheng Quan Toh, Anne Balloch, Sarah Moberley, Paula Binks, Rachel Marimla, Amanda Leach, Sue Skull, Kim Mulholland, Ross Andrews
Indigenous Australians experience one of the highest rates of pneumococcal disease globally. In the Northern Territory of Australia, a unique government-funded vaccination schedule for Indigenous Australian adults comprising multiple lifetime doses of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is currently implemented. Despite this programme, rates of pneumococcal disease do not appear to be declining, with concerns raised over the potential for immune hyporesponse associated with the use of this vaccine. We undertook a study to examine the immunogenicity and immune function of a single and repeat pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination among Indigenous adults compared to non-Indigenous adults...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096010/macrolides-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-panacea-or-placebo
#16
Christopher C Blyth, Jeffrey S Gerber
Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting "atypical" pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095719/novel-and-preclinical-treatment-strategies-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#17
Jan P Bewersdorf, Denis Grandgirard, Uwe Koedel, Stephen L Leib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent form of bacterial meningitis in Europe and the United States. Although early antimicrobial and adjuvant therapy with dexamethasone have helped to improve disease outcome in adults, mortality and morbidity rates remain unsatisfactorily high, emphasizing the need for additional treatment options. Promising targets for adjuvant therapy have been identified recently and will be the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain disease in pneumococcal meningitis is caused by direct bacterial toxicity and excessive meningeal inflammation...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093131/exploring-the-role-of-competition-induced-by-non-vaccine-serotypes-for-herd-protection-following-pneumococcal-vaccination
#18
G L Masala, M Lipsitch, C Bottomley, S Flasche
The competitive pressure from non-vaccine serotypes may have helped pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to limit vaccine-type (VT) serotype prevalence. We aimed to investigate if, consequently, the indirect protection of vaccines targeting most pneumococcal serotypes could fall short of the profound effects of current formulations. We compared three previously described pneumococcal models harmonized to simulate 20 serotypes with a combined pre-vaccination prevalence in children younger than 5-years-old of 40%...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092707/determining-the-contribution-of-em-streptococcus-pneumoniae-em-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-australia
#19
REVIEW
J Kevin Yin, Sanjay H Jayasinghe, Patrick G Charles, Catherine King, Clayton K Chiu, Robert I Menzies, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the proportion and severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in Australians aged 18 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with unpublished data from the largest study. DATA SOURCES: Multiple key bibliographic databases to June 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Australian studies on the aetiology of CAP in adults. DATA SYNTHESIS: In the 12 studies identified, pneumococcus was the most common cause of CAP...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069321/influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-older-adults-living-in-nursing-home-a-survival-analysis-on-the-shelter-study
#20
Andrea Poscia, Agnese Collamati, Angelo Carfì, Eva Topinkova, Tomas Richter, Michael Denkinger, Roberta Pastorino, Francesco Landi, Walter Ricciardi, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines have been proved to be effective and safe in preventing and controlling infection among elderly, reducing morbidity and mortality. However, some evidences raised health concerns related to these vaccinations. This study aims to identify prevalence and outcomes related to influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in a large European population of frail old people living in nursing homes (NHs). Methods: We conducted a survival analysis of NH residents participating to the Services and Health for Elderly in Long-TERm project, a prospective cohort study collecting information on residents admitted to 57 NH in eight countries (Czech Republic, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Israel)...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
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