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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113177/potential-role-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-primary-biliary-cirrhosis
#1
Kashif Asghar, John Brain, Jeremy M Palmer, Stephen Douglass, Fatmah M A Naemi, Graeme O'Boyle, John Kirby, Simi Ali
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-induced immunosuppression can be clinically beneficial for autoimmune diseases. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by autoimmune lesions of intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells that may lead to irreversible cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study assessed the expression and function of IDO in a cell culture model and in PBC patients. IDO expression was monitored in a human immortalized but non-malignant biliary epithelial cell (iBEC) line. Increased expression of IDO1/2 was observed in the iBECs following stimulation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107287/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-is-robustly-induced-by-ethanol-and-has-a-protective-role-in-ethanol-associated-liver-injury
#2
Bhavna N Desai, Garima Singhal, Mikiko Watanabe, Darko Stevanovic, Thomas Lundasen, Ffolliott M Fisher, Marie L Mather, Hilde G Vardeh, Nicholas Douris, Andrew C Adams, Imad A Nasser, Garret A FitzGerald, Jeffrey S Flier, Carsten Skarke, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
OBJECTIVE: Excess ethanol consumption has serious pathologic consequences. In humans, repeated episodes of binge drinking can lead to liver damage and have adverse effects on other organs such as pancreas and brain. Long term chronic consumption of ethanol can also result in progressive alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions. FGF21 is a novel biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans and limits hepatotoxicity in mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033772/intraparenchymal-hemorrhage-due-to-brain-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Rafael Sartori Balbinot, Ana Laura Facco Muscope, Mateus Dal Castel, Silvana Sartori Balbinot, Raul Angelo Balbinot, Jonathan Soldera
Although extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are present in only 5-15% of cases, they are certainly factors associated with poor prognosis. The main sites include lung, lymph nodes, bones, and adrenal glands, in descending order. Metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare, and the incidences vary from 0.6 to 1.7%. We report a case of a 54-year-old man previously diagnosed with alcohol-induced cirrhosis of the liver and HCC. The patient was admitted presenting progressive left hemiparesis and headache which started 2 days earlier, with no history of cranioencephalic trauma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970705/characterization-of-cerebral-edema-in-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#4
Tarana Gupta, Radha K Dhiman, Chirag K Ahuja, Swastik Agrawal, Madhu Chopra, Naveen Kalra, Ajay Duseja, Sunil Taneja, Niranjan Khandelwal, Yogesh Chawla
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The nature of cerebral edema in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is not well studied. We aimed to characterize cerebral edema in ACLF using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Forty-six patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation were included. Patients were divided into groups A (no cerebral failure, n = 39) and B (cerebral failure, n = 7). Group A was subdivided into no-ACLF (n = 11), grade 1 (n = 10), grade 2 (n = 9) and grade 3 (n = 9) ACLF as per CANONIC study...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#5
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
November 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953093/brain-white-matter-fiber-tracts-involved-in-post-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-hepatic-myelopathy
#6
Liu-Xian Wang, Li Guo, Fan Guo, Shu-Yao Ren, Ning-Bo Fei, Kang Liu, Lin Liu, Tian-Lei Yu, Chuang-Ye He, Yi-Bin Xi, Ping Tian, Long-Biao Cui, Zhan-Xin Yin, Zheng-Yu Wang, Wei Qin, Guo-Hong Han, Hong Yin
We aimed to detect alterations in diffusion characteristics of brain white matter in hepatic myelopathy (HM) patients. Liver cirrhosis patients with (n=25) and without (n=18) HM after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and 26 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All participants were scanned with diffusion tensor imaging on a 3T Siemens scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was used to detect abnormalities of intracranial white matter tracts. Correlations between clinical characteristics and diffusion metrics were also calculated...
December 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947309/wilson-s-disease-and-cardiac-myopathy
#7
Donald J Grandis, Gregory Nah, Isaac R Whitman, Eric Vittinghoff, Thomas A Dewland, Jeffrey E Olgin, Gregory M Marcus
Wilson's disease is a well-characterized disorder known to cause liver and brain disease due to abnormal copper deposition. Data regarding copper infiltration of the heart is conflicting, and the risk of heart disease has not been well described. We aimed to determine whether Wilson's disease is associated with cardiac myopathy, clinically evident in the atria as atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the ventricles as heart failure (HF). We longitudinally assessed 14.3 million patients in the California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database from 2005 through 2009 for diagnoses of Wilson's disease, AF, HF, and covariates using International Classification of Diseases-9th Edition codes...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943585/the-outcome-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-is-improved-by-the-normalization-of-the-serum-sodium-level-by-tolvaptan
#8
Tomomi Kogiso, Mutsuki Kobayashi, Kuniko Yamamoto, Yuichi Ikarashi, Kazuhisa Kodama, Makiko Taniai, Nobuyuki Torii, Etsuko Hashimoto, Katsutoshi Tokushige
Objectives Hyponatremia is frequently observed in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and it is also related to a poor prognosis. The vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan is used to treat cirrhotic patients with ascites and increases the serum sodium (Na) level. In this study, we investigated (i) whether or not correction of the Na level improves the prognosis of cirrhotic patients with ascites and (ii) predictors of normalization of the serum Na level after tolvaptan therapy. Methods This was a single-center retrospective study...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889715/-simultaneous-hepatorenal-transplantation-from-a-brain-dead-donor-for-graft-dysfunction-and-renal-insufficiency-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#9
Hideaki Takada, Takashi Kobayashi, Kohei Ogawa, Hitomi Miyata, Atsuro Sawada, Shusuke Akamatsu, Hiromitsu Negoro, Ryoichi Saito, Naoki Terada, Toshinari Yamasaki, Takahiro Inoue, Yuki Teramoto, Shinsuke Shibuya, Hironori Haga, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto, Osamu Ogawa
We report a case of lethal hepatorenal insufficiency in a 52-year-old man who received successful simultaneous hepatorenal transplantation from a deceased donor. The patient had undergone live-donor liver transplantation for type-C hepatitis and liver cirrhosis 11 years before he developed graft liver dysfunction due to recurrent viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. At that instance, he also developed end-stage renal dysfunction due to calcineurin inhibitor nephropathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Although he needed three open hemostases and abundant blood transfusion, he was withdrawn from continuous hemodiafiltration on the 55th day and discharged from the hospital on the 272nd day postoperatively...
August 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875419/lactulose-decreases-neuronal-activation-and-attenuates-motor-behavioral-deficits-in-hyperammonemic-rats
#10
Natália Ferreira Mendes, Flora França Nogueira Mariotti, José Simões de Andrade, Milena de Barros Viana, Isabel Cristina Céspedes, Márcia Regina Nagaoka, Luciana Le Sueur-Maluf
Lactulose is a nonabsorbable disaccharide commonly used in clinical practice to treat hepatic encephalopathy. However, its effects on neuropsychiatric disorders and motor behavior have not been fully elucidated. Male Wistar rats were bile-duct ligated, and 3 weeks after surgery, treated with lactulose administrated by gavage (1.43 or 3.57 g/kg), once a day for seven days. Plasma levels of ammonia, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and creatinine were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed...
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864370/pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-troponin-t-hypersensitivity-levels-correlate-with-the-severity-of-liver-dysfunction-in-liver-cirrhosis
#11
Jiancheng Zhao, Sai Li, Linan Ren, Xiaozhong Guo, Xingshun Qi
BACKGROUND: Increased pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) or troponin T-hypersensitivity (TnT-HSST) levels are common in liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective observational study aimed to evaluate the correlation of pro-BNP and TnT-HSST levels with the clinical characteristics, laboratory data and in-hospital outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected cirrhotic patients admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and June 2014...
August 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843649/change-in-nomenclature-for-the-immunologic-synapse-from-troxis-necrosis-to-trogocytosis
#12
Samuel W French
The immunologic synapse mechanism of liver necrosis was termed Troxis Necrosis meaning "nibbling". (Wang MX et al. and French SW. Exp Mol Pathol 2001, 71: 137-146). This mechanism of liver injury was first named "Piecemeal Necrosis" by Hans Popper. It is involved in autoimmune hepatitis, HCV, HBV, primary biliary cirrhosis and steatohepatitis. This process involves the T cell receptor (TCR) which binds to the hepatocyte antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the hepatocytic plasma membrane which quickly leads to the removal of the complex from the liver and uptake by the CD4 lymphocyte...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815906/deep-gray-matter-iron-measurement-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-relationship-with-pallidal-t1-hyperintensity
#13
Song Lee, Yoonho Nam, Jinhee Jang, Gun Hyung Na, Dong Goo Kim, Na-Young Shin, Hyun Seok Choi, So-Lyung Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Bum-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The liver is a central organ for the metabolism of iron and manganese and the places where those metals are commonly deposited overlap in the brain. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To elucidate the relationship between pallidal T1 hyperintensity and iron deposition in the deep gray matter of liver cirrhosis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective case-control study SUBJECTS: In all, 38 consecutive liver cirrhosis patients who received brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as pretransplant evaluation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813200/brain-microstructural-abnormalities-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-voxel-based-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study
#14
Hua-Jun Chen, Peng-Fei Liu, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hai-Bin Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whole-brain microstructural abnormalities and their correlation with cognitive impairment in patients with cirrhosis using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent DKI. Cognition was measured using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy (HE) scores. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate between-group differences in DKI-derived parameters, including mean kurtosis, axial kurtosis, and radial kurtosis...
November 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812008/evaluation-of-adrenal-function-in-nonhospitalized-patients-with-cirrhosis
#15
Maryam Moini, Mitra Yazdani Sarvestani, Mesbah Shams, Masood Nomovi
BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis and advancing hepatic insufficiency may show various degrees of other organ malfunction, including brain, kidney, and lung. Several studies have also shown a high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients that may cause hemodynamic instability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we prospectively evaluated adrenal function in a population of nonhospitalized cirrhotic patients. Categorization of liver disease severity was done according to model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800720/jc-virus-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-living-donor-liver-transplant-a-rare-case
#16
Archana Rastogi, Natasha Gulati, Chhagan Bihari, Ashok Chaudhary, Kalpana Bansal, Shridhar Sasturkar, Shalini Thapar, Viniyendra Pamecha
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by polyoma JC virus is a rare and severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It occurs in immunocompromised patients and is scarcely reported in liver transplant recipients. Brain biopsy demonstrating demyelination with presence of foamy macrophages, relative preservation of axons, astrogliosis, and typical polyomavirus inclusions in the enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei is essential for diagnosis. Here, we report a case of JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a living-donor liver transplant recipient who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis...
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798943/a-fatal-case-of-erdheim-chester-disease-with-hepatic-involvement
#17
Gokulakrishnan Balasubramanian, Alexandra Modiri, Marina Affi, Catherine E Hagen, Bjorn Batdorf, Kiyoko Oshima, Laura Michaelis, Kia Saeian
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of systemic histiocytosis, typically presenting with striking osseous involvement characterized by bilateral osteosclerosis and involvement of organs such as the lung, pituitary gland, heart, and brain. Liver involvement with ECD is extremely uncommon. We report a 56-year-old woman presenting with newly diagnosed cirrhosis and signs concerning for intra-abdominal malignancy, including omental caking and peritoneal thickening. Liver biopsy demonstrated xanthogranulomatous infiltration from ECD...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798299/diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-more-severe-brain-spontaneous-activity-impairment-and-gray-matter-loss-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#18
Yun Fei Wang, Xiang Kong, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang
Recent studies showed many cirrhosis patients may have diabetes mellitus (DM), however, the effect of DM on brain in cirrhotic patients is unclear. This study included 34 cirrhosis patients (17 with DM, 17 without DM) and 17 age-, sex-matched healthy controls. MRI examination and neuropsychological tests were performed. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and voxel-based morphometry algorithms were used to obtain fALFF values and gray matter volume, which were compared and correlated with clinical variables...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797986/increased-occurrence-of-brain-abscesses-in-cirrhotic-patients-a-population-based-3-year-follow-up-study
#19
Yen Chun Chen, Tsung Hsing Hung, Kuo Chih Tseng, Chih Wei Tseng, Yu Hsi Hsieh, Chih Chun Tsai, Chen Chi Tsai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cirrhotic patients are prone to various infectious diseases. However, it is still unknown if the occurrence of a brain abscess is associated with cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the occurrence of a brain abscess and cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Health Insurance Database, which is derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program, was used to collect data from 40,878 patients with cirrhosis and from 40,896 randomly selected age- and sex-matched patients...
August 9, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796283/flumazenil-versus-placebo-or-no-intervention-for-people-with-cirrhosis-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#20
REVIEW
Ee Teng Goh, Mette L Andersen, Marsha Y Morgan, Lise Lotte Gluud
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis which results in poor brain functioning. The spectrum of changes associated with hepatic encephalopathy ranges from the clinically 'indiscernible' or minimal hepatic encephalopathy to the clinically 'obvious' or overt hepatic encephalopathy. Flumazenil is a synthetic benzodiazepine antagonist with high affinity for the central benzodiazepine recognition site. Flumazenil may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy through an indirect negative allosteric modulatory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function...
August 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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