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clarks rule

Graham P Head, Matthew Carroll, Sean Evans, Dwain M Rule, Alan Willse, Thomas Clark, Nicholas Storer, Ronald Flannagan, Luke Samuel, Lance J Meinke
BACKGROUND: Cases of western corn rootworm (WCR) field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 and other corn rootworm (CRW) control traits have been reported. Pyramid products expressing multiple CRW traits can delay resistance compared to single trait products. We used field studies to assess the pyramid CRW corn products, SmartStax (expressing Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax PRO (expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and DvSnf7), at locations with high WCR densities and possible Cry3Bb1 resistance, and to assess the reduction in adult emergence attributable to DvSnf7 and other traits...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jessica S Wallisch, Dennis W Simon, Hülya Bayır, Michael J Bell, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
BACKGROUND: Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children with severe TBI. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (n = 34) with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score [GCS] ≤8) who had externalized ventricular drains (EVD) placed for routine care was evaluated for NLRP1 and NLRP3 at 0-24, 25-48, 49-72, and >72 h post-TBI and was compared to infection-free controls that underwent lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection (n = 8)...
February 8, 2017: Neurocritical Care
Laura A Galdamez, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
INTRODUCTION: Flights to high altitude can lead to exposure and unique pathology not seen in normal commercial aviation. METHODS: This paper assesses the potential for point-of-care ultrasound to aid in management and disposition of injured crewmembers from a high altitude incident. This was accomplished through a systematic literature review regarding current diagnostic and therapeutic uses of ultrasound for injuries expected in high altitude free fall and parachuting...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Adeeb Noor, Abdullah Assiri, Serkan Ayvaz, Connor Clark, Michel Dumontier
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel pharmacovigilance inferential framework to infer mechanistic explanations for asserted drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and deduce potential DDIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mechanism-based DDI knowledge base was constructed by integrating knowledge from several existing sources at the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacogenetic, and multipathway interaction levels. A query-based framework was then created to utilize this integrated knowledge base in conjunction with 9 inference rules to infer mechanistic explanations for asserted DDIs and deduce potential DDIs...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Charlotte Kelly, Claire Hulme, Tracey Farragher, Graham Clarke
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an association between differences in travel time/travel distance to healthcare services and patients' health outcomes and assimilate the methodologies used to measure this. DESIGN: Systematic Review. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Transport database, HMIC and EBM Reviews for studies up to 7 September 2016. Studies were excluded that included children (including maternity), emergency medical travel or countries classed as being in the global south...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
Adrian D Wood, Nicholas D Gollop, Joao H Bettencourt-Silva, Allan B Clark, Anthony K Metcalf, Kristian M Bowles, Marcus D Flather, John F Potter, Phyo Kyaw Myint
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the factors associated with in-hospital mortality following total anterior circulation stroke (TACS). We examined the characteristics and comorbidity data for TACS patients in relation to in-hospital mortality with the aim of developing a simple clinical rule for predicting the acute mortality outcome in TACS. METHODS: A routine data registry of one regional hospital in the UK was analyzed. The subjects were 2,971 stroke patients with TACS (82% ischemic; median age=81 years, interquartile age range=74-86 years) admitted between 1996 and 2012...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
S R Clark, B T Baune, K O Schubert, S Lavoie, S Smesny, S M Rice, M R Schäfer, F Benninger, M Feucht, C M Klier, P D McGorry, G P Amminger
Current criteria identifying patients with ultra-high risk of psychosis (UHR) have low specificity, and less than one-third of UHR cases experience transition to psychosis within 3 years of initial assessment. We explored whether a Bayesian probabilistic multimodal model, combining baseline historical and clinical risk factors with biomarkers (oxidative stress, cell membrane fatty acids, resting quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)), could improve this specificity. We analyzed data of a UHR cohort (n=40) with a 1-year transition rate of 28%...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Erik Clark, Michael Akam
The Drosophila embryo transiently exhibits a double-segment periodicity, defined by the expression of seven 'pair-rule' genes, each in a pattern of seven stripes. At gastrulation, interactions between the pair-rule genes lead to frequency doubling and the patterning of 14 parasegment boundaries. In contrast to earlier stages of Drosophila anteroposterior patterning, this transition is not well understood. By carefully analysing the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule gene expression, we demonstrate that frequency-doubling is precipitated by multiple coordinated changes to the network of regulatory interactions between the pair-rule genes...
August 15, 2016: ELife
Laura Diaz Anadon, Gabriel Chan, Alicia G Harley, Kira Matus, Suerie Moon, Sharmila L Murthy, William C Clark
This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christian M Deschodt, Adrian L V Davis, Clarke H Scholtz
Although it has been demonstrated that the tribe Canthonini (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) is polyphyletic, those canthonine genera occurring in arid south-western Africa apparently form a monophyletic group. In this paper we add one new monotypic genus, Drogo stalsi gen. et. sp. n. to this group, and synonymize another member, Byrrhidium namaquense Scholtz and Howden, 1987 syn. n. with Byrrhidium ovale Harold, 1869. We correct the spelling of two species names that were not in agreement with the gender rule...
August 5, 2016: Zootaxa
John F Magnotti, Anthony A Wright, Kevin Leonard, Jeffrey S Katz, Debbie M Kelly
relational concepts depend upon relationships between stimuli (e.g., same vs. different) and transcend features of the training stimuli. Recent evidence shows that learning abstract concepts is shared across a variety species including birds. Our recent work with a highly-skilled food-storing bird, Clark's nutcracker, revealed superior same/different abstract-concept learning compared to rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Here we test a more social, but less reliant on food-storing, corvid species, the Black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia)...
August 8, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
G V Oosthuizen, J L Bruce, W Bekker, N Shangase, G L Laing, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Pan computed tomography (CT) is widely used in the evaluation of patients with blunt polytrauma, but there is growing concern about the radiation risks imposed. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether we were possibly overutilising pan CT in our trauma service, and whether we could safely cut down on scans without missing significant injuries. METHODS: We audited all pan scans performed in the Metropolitan Trauma Service, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, during the 12-month period 1 January - 31 December 2012...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Llorenç Grau-Roma, Kirsty Reid, Simone de Brot, Richard Jennison, Paul Barrow, Raúl Sánchez, Miquel Nofrarías, Mike Clark, Natàlia Majó
Increasing evidence suggests that a new birnavirus, named chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), is the aetiological agent of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP). The present work aimed to explore the possible presence of both TVP and CPNV in the UK. Forty-four chickens showing TVP-compatible gross lesions were classified into three groups based on the histological lesions: (i) TVP-affected chickens: lymphocytic infiltration and glandular necrosis (n = 15); (ii) lymphocytic proventriculitis (LP)-affected chickens: lymphocytic infiltration without necrosis (n = 18); and (iii) without proventriculitis (WP): no lymphocytic infiltration or necrosis (n = 11)...
February 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Helen Pryce, Amanda Hall, Ariane Laplante-Lévesque, Elizabeth Clark
OBJECTIVE: The Any Qualified Provider framework in the National Health Service has changed the way adult audiology services are offered in England. Under the new rules, patients are being offered a choice in geographical location and audiology provider. This study aimed to explore how choices in treatment are presented and to identify what information patients need when they are seeking help with hearing loss. DESIGN: This study adopted qualitative methods of ethnographic observations and focus group interviews to identify information needed prior to, and during, help-seeking...
November 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Kenneth Howard Clark, Robert Stoppacher
For more than 100 years since their initial description, gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages have been discovered at autopsy in cases where environmental hypothermia was determined to be the cause of death. Although these lesions are frequently seen in deaths caused by environmental hypothermia, they can also be seen in cases where hypothermia is not implicated; however, this has been seldom described. We present a series of autopsy cases where hypothermia has been conclusively ruled out as a cause of death, in which Wischnewsky lesions are found...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Sarah Clarke, Marisa L Wilson, Mary Terhaar
Heart Team meetings are becoming the model of care for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) worldwide. While Heart Teams have potential to improve the quality of patient care, the volume of patient data processed during the meeting is large, variable, and comes from different sources. Thus, consolidation is difficult. Also, meetings impose substantial time constraints on the members and financial pressure on the institution. We describe a clinical decision support system (CDSS) designed to assist the experts in treatment selection decisions in the Heart Team...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Leila Chouiter, Josefina Holmberg, Aurelie L Manuel, Françoise Colombo, Stephanie Clarke, Jean-Marie Annoni, Lucas Spierer
Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Genevieve Clark, John R Schaibley, Jason Ross, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Joshua R Hendrickson, Shin Mou, Wang Yao, Xiaodong Xu
Single defects in monolayer WSe2 have been shown to be a new class of single photon emitters and have potential applications in quantum technologies. Whereas previous work relied on optical excitation of single defects in isolated WSe2 monolayers, in this work we demonstrate electrically driven single defect light emission by using both vertical and lateral van der Waals heterostructure devices. In both device geometries, we use few layer graphene as the source and drain and hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric spacer layers for engineered tunneling contacts...
June 8, 2016: Nano Letters
Robert C Lynall, Michael D Clark, Erin E Grand, Jaclyn C Stucker, Ashley C Littleton, Alain J Aguilar, Meredith A Petschauer, Elizabeth F Teel, Jason P Mihalik
INTRODUCTION: There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves)...
September 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ronac Mamtani, Amy S Clark, Frank I Scott, Colleen M Brensinger, Ben Boursi, Lang Chen, Fenglong Xie, Huifeng Yun, Mark T Osterman, Jeffrey R Curtis, James D Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer recurrence may be promoted by immunosuppression due to decreased immune surveillance. The aim of this study was to examine the rates of breast cancer recurrence in patients with immune-mediated disease and treated breast cancer who received therapy with methotrexate, thiopurines, or anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF). METHODS: Three retrospective cohort studies within Medicare (2000-2012) included women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who underwent surgery for primary breast cancer...
October 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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