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PD Access

Maurizio Gallieni, Antonino Giordano, Anna Ricchiuto, Davide Gobatti, Maurizio Cariati
ABSTRACTHemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) represent two complementary modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease patients. Conversion between the two modalities is frequent and more likely to happen from PD to HD. Every year, 10% of PD patients convert to HD, suggesting the need for recommendations on how to proceed with the creation of a vascular access in these patients. Criteria for selecting patients who would likely fail PD, and therefore take advantage of a backup access, are undefined...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
Annavareddi Naresh, Kanakaraju Marumudi, A C Kunwar, Batchu Venkateswara Rao
Conversion of vinyl pyranosylamine and vinyl furanosylamines to 2,6- and 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine and piperidine iminosugars, respectively, in one pot was developed using Kimura and Tamaru's procedure, where a Pd salt in the presence of Et2Zn was used for the domino reaction. In this procedure, double allylation, which involves nucleophilic allylation-heterocyclization, took place to give desired nitrogen heterocycles. This strategy was further elaborated to synthesize some unnatural deoxycalystegines, hydroxylated pyrrolidines, piperidines, and indolizidine analogues...
March 14, 2017: Organic Letters
Luning Tang, Hai Huang, Yang Xi, Guangke He, Hongjun Zhu
An attractive and novel methodology involving Pd/Cu-catalyzed tandem head-to-tail dimerization/cycloisomerization of terminal ynamides for the synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted oxazolones was developed. Under Pd(PPh3)2Cl2/CuI cooperative catalyzed reaction conditions, it provided efficient access to 5-vinyloxazolones with exceptional functional group tolerance and good chemoselectivity. The control experiments demonstrated that Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 serves a key role in the dimerization of terminal ynamides and shows low catalytic activity in the intramolecular cyclization...
March 14, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Arun Jyoti Borah, Zhuangzhi Shi
An exclusive catalytic C4-selective fluoroalkylation of indoles with highly active (1H, 1H-perfluoroalkyl)mesityliodonium triflate has been described. The key to its high regioselectivity is the appropriate choice of an easily accessible, cheap and removable directing group at the C3 position in the presence of a Pd(OAc)2 catalyst. Besides indole fluoroalkylation, the application of this strategy in other heteroarenes such as benzo[b]thiophene is also described.
March 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Paulo Alexandre de Oliveira, Juliana Ben, Filipe Carvalho Matheus, Marcelo Liborio Schwarzbold, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar Moreira, Daniel Rial, Roger Walz, Rui Daniel Prediger
Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
Giuliana P Mognol, Roberto Spreafico, Victor Wong, James P Scott-Browne, Susan Togher, Alexander Hoffmann, Patrick G Hogan, Anjana Rao, Sara Trifari
T-cell exhaustion is a progressive loss of effector function and memory potential due to persistent antigen exposure, which occurs in chronic viral infections and cancer. Here we investigate the relation between gene expression and chromatin accessibility in CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that recognize a model tumor antigen and have features of both activation and functional exhaustion. By filtering out accessible regions observed in bystander, nonexhausted TILs and in acutely restimulated CD8(+) T cells, we define a pattern of chromatin accessibility specific for T-cell exhaustion, characterized by enrichment for consensus binding motifs for Nr4a and NFAT transcription factors...
March 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Igor Latich, Randy L Luciano, Ali Mian
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a vastly underused form of renal replacement therapy that offers great flexibility to the patient, breaks the cycle of tri-weekly visits to a hemodialysis center, and is associated with fewer interventions to maintain functional dialysis access. PD catheter placement allows for urgent initiation of dialysis and minimizes the unnecessary use of temporary vascular access catheters. Image-guided placement of a PD catheter by interventional radiologists that combines ultrasound and fluoroscopy is an elegant, cost saving, safe, less invasive, and at least as effective an option when compared with traditional surgical placement...
March 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Yichu Liu, Xiaoyan Xu, Qi Gao, Shiqiang Yan, Yingxia Li, Ning Ding
A versatile strategy for the synthesis of 6″-functionalized α-GalCers by using NAP ether group for permanent hydroxyl protection was developed, which provide the flexibility necessary for the incorporation of a wide range of functional groups in target molecules including alkyne, azide, thiol that are intolerant to Pd-catalyzed hydrogenolysis as well as other functionalities like carboxylic acid and amine. This strategy is also adaptable to other glycoconjugate synthesis especially those containing clickable tags and unsaturated functionalities...
February 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xinzhe Shi, Jean-François Soulé, Henri Doucet
Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of 4-(2-bromophenyl)-2-methylthiazole proceeds with high efficiency at the thiazolyl C5 position using aryl bromides as the aryl source. This transformation provides simple access to 4-(2-bromophenyl)-2-methyl-5-arylthiazoles, which can be further converted into phenanthrothiazoles via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylation. When the direct arylation of 4-(2-bromophenyl)-2-methyl-5-arylthiazoles is conducted in the presence of an external heteroarene such as thiazoles, thiophenes, or imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, the intermolecular arylation of such external heteroarenes proceeds faster than the intramolecular reaction, allowing the formation of 1,2-di(heteroaryl)benzene derivatives...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Alexis Prieto, Didier Bouyssi, Nuno Monteiro
4-Fluoropyrazoles are accessible in a single step from readily available aldehyde-derived N-alkylhydrazones through double C-H fluoroalkylation with tribromofluoromethane (CBr3F). RuCl2(PPh3)3 has been proven to be the most efficient catalyst for this transformation when compared to a range of other Cu-, Pd-, or Fe-based catalyst systems.
March 6, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Willem G Onderwaater, Andriy Taranovskyy, G Marien Bremmer, Gertjan C van Baarle, Joost W M Frenken, Irene M N Groot
We have developed an experimental setup for optically monitoring a catalytically active surface under reaction conditions. A flow reactor with optical access allows us to image the behavior of an active catalyst surface down to the millimeter length scale. We use reflectance difference measurements with 625 nm light to investigate CO oxidation on Pd(100) at 300 mbar and 320 °C. We conclude that the changes in visible contrast result from the formation of an oxide layer after surface oxidation.
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jennie Haarsager, Rathika Krishnasamy, Nicholas A Gray
AIM: Commencement of haemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) is associated with improved survival compared with commencement with a central venous catheter. In 2011-12, Queensland Health made incentive payments to renal units for early referred patients who commenced peritoneal dialysis (PD), or haemodialysis with an AVF/AVG. The aim of this study was to determine if pay-for-performance improved clinical care. METHODS: All patients who commenced dialysis in Australia between 2009 and 2014 and were registered with the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) were included...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology
Shu-Ying Liu, Piu Chan, A Jon Stoessl
Neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) starts in an insidious manner, 30-50% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost in the substantia nigra before clinical diagnosis. Prodromal stage of the disease, during which the disease pathology has started but is insufficient to result in clinical manifestations, offers a valuable window for disease-modifying therapies. The most focused underlying mechanisms linking the pathological pattern and clinical characteristics of prodromal PD are the prion hypothesis of alpha-synuclein and the selective vulnerability of neurons...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
Anna Machowska, Mark D Alscher, Satyanarayana Reddy Vanga, Michael Koch, Michael Aarup, Abdul R Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Rutherford
INTRODUCTION: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient outcomes and healthcare utilisation depending on initial dialysis access (CVC or PD catheter) and subsequent pathway of UPS patients. METHODS: In this study patient demographics, access procedures, hospitalisations, and major infectious complications were analysed over 12 months in 270 UPS patients...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Shi-Yu Yang, Michelle Beavan, Kai-Yin Chau, Jan-Willem Taanman, Anthony H V Schapira
Numerically the most important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase GBA1 gene. In vitro and in vivo studies show that GBA1 mutations reduce glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity and are associated with increased α-synuclein levels, reflecting similar changes seen in idiopathic PD brain. We have developed a neural crest stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal model that recapitulates biochemical abnormalities in GBA1 mutation-associated PD...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
Hiroyuki Kanazawa, Akinari Fukuda, Mai Sato, Shingo Ishimori, Kengo Sasaki, Hajime Uchida, Takanobu Shigeta, Vidyadhar Padmakar Mali, Seisuke Sakamoto, Kenji Ishikura, Mureo Kasahara
Children with ESRD in need of RRT are commonly managed by PD due to difficulty with vascular access for HD and the relatively large extracorporeal blood volume required. Major abdominal surgery may result in injury to the peritoneum and consequent adhesion, thereby resulting in a reduction in the anatomical capacity and transport capability across the peritoneal membrane. Here, we report successful resumption of PD after LDLT in two pediatric patients. The causes of ESRD were PH1 and juvenile nephronophthisis, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
Jason R Crawford, Hua Yang, Peter Kunz, D Scott Wilbur, Paul Schaffer, Thomas J Ruth
INTRODUCTION: The availability of (211)At for targeted alpha therapy research can be increased by the (211)Rn/(211)At generator system, whereby (211)At is produced by (211)Rn electron capture decay. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using generator-produced (211)At to label monoclonal antibody (BC8, anti-human CD45) for preclinical use, following isolation from the (207)Po contamination also produced by these generators (by (211)Rn α-decay). METHODS: (211)Rn was produced by (211)Fr electron capture decay following mass separated ion beam implantation and chemically isolated in liquid alkane hydrocarbon (dodecane)...
January 29, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Shruti Sahay, G Krishnamoorthy, Samir K Maji
Aggregation of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) into amyloid fibrils is known to be associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several missense mutations of the α-Syn gene have been associated with rare, early onset familial forms of PD. Despite several studies done so far, the local/residue-level structure and dynamics of α-Syn in its soluble and aggregated fibril form and how these are affected by the familial PD associated mutations are still not clearly understood. Here, we review studies performed by our group as well as other research groups, where time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to understand the site-specific structure and dynamics of α-Syn under physiological conditions as well as under conditions that alter the aggregation properties of the protein such as low pH, high temperature, presence of membrane mimics and familial PD associated mutations...
October 11, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Leslie R Amodeo, Diana Kneiber, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood...
March 2017: Alcohol
Tuanli Yao, Tao Liu, Changhui Zhang
A highly efficient Pd-catalyzed Heck-type cascade process with 2-(1-alkynyl)benzaldimines has been developed, which provides access to a broad range of 4-alkylated isoquinoline derivatives in moderate to good yields. The σ-alkylpalladium(ii) intermediate in the Heck reaction activates alkynes toward intramolecular nucleophilic attack. This is the first example of a σ-alkylpalladium(ii) intermediate promoting the cyclization of alkynes containing a proximate nucleophilic center.
February 8, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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