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PD Access

Anna Machowska, Mark D Alscher, Satyanarayana Reddy Vanga, Michael Koch, Michael Aarup, Abdul R Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Rutherford
INTRODUCTION: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient outcomes and healthcare utilisation depending on initial dialysis access (CVC or PD catheter) and subsequent pathway of UPS patients. METHODS: In this study patient demographics, access procedures, hospitalisations, and major infectious complications were analysed over 12 months in 270 UPS patients...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Shi-Yu Yang, Michelle Beavan, Kai-Yin Chau, Jan-Willem Taanman, Anthony H V Schapira
Numerically the most important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase GBA1 gene. In vitro and in vivo studies show that GBA1 mutations reduce glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity and are associated with increased α-synuclein levels, reflecting similar changes seen in idiopathic PD brain. We have developed a neural crest stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal model that recapitulates biochemical abnormalities in GBA1 mutation-associated PD...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
Hiroyuki Kanazawa, Akinari Fukuda, Mai Sato, Shingo Ishimori, Kengo Sasaki, Hajime Uchida, Takanobu Shigeta, Vidyadhar Padmakar Mali, Seisuke Sakamoto, Kenji Ishikura, Mureo Kasahara
Children with ESRD in need of RRT are commonly managed by PD due to difficulty with vascular access for HD and the relatively large extracorporeal blood volume required. Major abdominal surgery may result in injury to the peritoneum and consequent adhesion, thereby resulting in a reduction in the anatomical capacity and transport capability across the peritoneal membrane. Here, we report successful resumption of PD after LDLT in two pediatric patients. The causes of ESRD were PH1 and juvenile nephronophthisis, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
Jason R Crawford, Hua Yang, Peter Kunz, D Scott Wilbur, Paul Schaffer, Thomas J Ruth
INTRODUCTION: The availability of (211)At for targeted alpha therapy research can be increased by the (211)Rn/(211)At generator system, whereby (211)At is produced by (211)Rn electron capture decay. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using generator-produced (211)At to label monoclonal antibody (BC8, anti-human CD45) for preclinical use, following isolation from the (207)Po contamination also produced by these generators (by (211)Rn α-decay). METHODS: (211)Rn was produced by (211)Fr electron capture decay following mass separated ion beam implantation and chemically isolated in liquid alkane hydrocarbon (dodecane)...
January 29, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Shruti Sahay, G Krishnamoorthy, Samir K Maji
Aggregation of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) into amyloid fibrils is known to be associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several missense mutations of the α-Syn gene have been associated with rare, early onset familial forms of PD. Despite several studies done so far, the local/residue-level structure and dynamics of α-Syn in its soluble and aggregated fibril form and how these are affected by the familial PD associated mutations are still not clearly understood. Here, we review studies performed by our group as well as other research groups, where time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to understand the site-specific structure and dynamics of α-Syn under physiological conditions as well as under conditions that alter the aggregation properties of the protein such as low pH, high temperature, presence of membrane mimics and familial PD associated mutations...
October 11, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Leslie R Amodeo, Diana Kneiber, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood...
February 7, 2017: Alcohol
Tuanli Yao, Tao Liu, Changhui Zhang
A highly efficient Pd-catalyzed Heck-type cascade process with 2-(1-alkynyl)benzaldimines has been developed, which provides access to a broad range of 4-alkylated isoquinoline derivatives in moderate to good yields. The σ-alkylpalladium(ii) intermediate in the Heck reaction activates alkynes toward intramolecular nucleophilic attack. This is the first example of a σ-alkylpalladium(ii) intermediate promoting the cyclization of alkynes containing a proximate nucleophilic center.
February 8, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Beom Shin Cho, Young Keun Chung
An unprecedented oxidative dimerization by palladium catalysis has been developed using PhI(OPiv)2 as a by-standing oxidant. This provides a facile method for the synthesis of quaternary 2,3'-bibenzofuran-2'(3')-ones from readily accessible substrates. A plausible mechanism involving a Pd(II)-Pd(IV) catalytic cycle is proposed; a trace amount of water is required for subsequent oxidation.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Sukhdev Singh, Jeffrey Bruffaerts, Alexandre Vasseur, Ilan Marek
Combining functionalization at a distant position from a reactive site with the creation of several consecutive stereogenic centres, including the formation of a quaternary carbon stereocentre, in acyclic system represents a pinnacle in organic synthesis. Here we report the regioselective Heck arylation of terminal olefins as a distant trigger for the ring-opening of cyclopropanes. This Pd-catalysed unfolding of the strained cycle, driving force of the chain-walking process, remarkably proved its efficiency and versatility, as the reaction proceeded regardless of the molecular distance between the initiation (double bond) and termination (alcohol) sites...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
Yuichiro Ashida, Atsushi Honda, Yuka Sato, Hidefumi Nakatsuji, Yoo Tanabe
A highly substrate-general synthesis of all-carbon-substituted E- and Z-stereodefined olefins is performed. The method comprises two sets of parallel and stereocomplementary preparations of (E)- and (Z)-α,β-unsaturated esters involving two robust and distinctive reactions: 1) stereocomplementary enol tosylations using readily available TsCl/diamine/(LiCl) base reagents, and 2) stereoretentive Negishi cross-coupling using the catalysts [Pd(dppe)Cl2] (for E) and [Pd(dppb)Cl2] (for Z). The present parallel approach is categorized as both type I (convergent approach: 16 examples, 56-87 % yield) and type II (divergent approach: 18 examples, 70-95 % yield)...
February 2017: ChemistryOpen
Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Access to the CNS and delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier remains a challenge for most treatments of major neurological diseases such as AD or PD. Focused ultrasound represents a potential approach for overcoming these barriers to treating AD and PD and perhaps other neurological diseases. Ultrasound (US) is best known for its imaging capabilities of organs in the periphery, but various arrangements of the transducers producing the acoustic signal allow the energy to be precisely focused (F) within the skull...
January 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Philip Kam-Tao Li, Vickie Wai-Ki Kwong
Despite the gradual increased use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) globally around the world, it is recognized that a number of areas in PD as a renal-replacement therapy require attention and improvements. The current challenges in PD include how to tackle technique failure and sustain long-term PD, manage and prevent peritoneal infections, malnutrition and inflammation, cardiovascular mortality, volume overload, glucose exposure, adequacy of solute removal, peritoneal access, peritoneal physiology and changes with long-term PD, patient fatigue, psychosocial issues, and care of elderly patients on PD...
January 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
Martin J Schreiber
The future growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) will be directly linked to the shift in US healthcare to a value-based payment model due to PD's lower yearly cost, early survival advantage over in-center hemodialysis, and improved quality of life for patients treating their kidney disease in the home. Under this model, nephrology practices will need an increased focus on managing the transition from chronic kidney disease to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), providing patient education with the aim of accomplishing modality selection and access placement ahead of dialysis initiation...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
Peng-Xiang Ling, Kai Chen, Bing-Feng Shi
The interannular meta-selective C-H arylation of biaryl-2-trifluoroacetamides using Pd(ii)/norbornene catalysis is reported. The installation of a trifluoroacetyl protecting group to tune their electronic properties and binding ability is essential for interannular selectivity. A dimeric palladacycle, comprising two cyclopalladated trifluoroacetamino biaryl units linked through trifluoroacetamide, was isolated and confirmed to be the key intermediate. Furthermore, the resulting products could be further elaborated via ipso-alkynylation and/or directed intraannular ortho-C-H functionalization, allowing access to various fully functionalized biaryl-2-amine derivatives...
February 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Nivesh Kumar, Mrinal Kanti Das, Santanu Ghosh, Alakesh Bisai
We present an effective deacylative alkylation strategy for the construction of a variety of 2-oxindoles bearing an all-carbon quaternary center at the pseudobenzylic position. A wide variety of products with quaternary centers could be accessed by employing simple Pd(0) catalysis under mild reaction conditions. Importantly, the same strategy works equally well for the dimeric 2-oxindole system, furnishing products with a vicinal quaternary center in favour of meso-isomer as the major product. Eventual application to the total syntheses of meso-chimonanthine and meso-folicanthine very well demonstrates the synthetic potential of this strategy...
February 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Barry M Trost, Walter Chan, Sushant Malhotra
This paper fully describes our efforts to design a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric prenylation of 3-substituted oxindoles that affords access to both the linear and reverse-prenylated products. Both 3-alkyl- and 3-aryloxindoles performed well under our optimized reaction conditions. The regiodivergent alkylation of monoterpene-derived electrophiles using this methodology was also investigated. The utility of this methodology in natural product synthesis was demonstrated through the efficient total syntheses of four Flustra alkaloids, which also allowed the absolute stereochemistry of the prenylated oxindole products to be assigned...
January 31, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Holly Green, Xiaoqun Zhang, Katarina Tiklova, Nikolaos Volakakis, Lovisa Brodin, Louise Berg, Paul Greengard, Thomas Perlmann, Per Svenningsson
Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from comorbid depression. P11 (S100A10), a member of the S100 family of proteins, is expressed widely throughout the body and is involved in major depressive disorder and antidepressant response. Central p11 levels are reduced in postmortem tissue from depressed individuals; however, p11 has not yet been investigated in PD patients with depression or those without depression. We investigated p11 levels in postmortem PD brains and assessed whether peripheral p11 levels correlate with disease severity...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Preeya Khanna, Nicole Swann, Coralie De Hemptinne, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Andrew Miller, Philip A Starr, Jose M Carmena
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms such as rigidity and bradykinesia that prevent normal movement. Beta band oscillations (13-30 Hz) in neural local field potentials (LFPs) have been associated with these motor symptoms. Here, three PD patients implanted with a therapeutic deep brain neural stimulator that can also record and wirelessly stream neural data played a neurofeedback game where they modulated their beta band power from sensorimotor cortical areas. Patients' beta band power was streamed in real-time to update the position of a cursor that they tried to drive into a cued target...
August 24, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
P V Santhini, G Nimisha, Jubi John, E Suresh, R Luxmi Varma, K V Radhakrishnan
An efficient stereoselective route for the synthesis of cyclopentene fused 2-pyrrolines has been established via a Pd-catalyzed C-H activation/oxidative coupling of aryl enamides with diazabicyclic olefins. The proposed two-stage mechanism was successfully proven by isolating the intermediate trans-disubstituted cyclopentene.
January 23, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ran Zhang, Guoqing Lyu, Deng Yuan Li, Pei Nian Liu, Nian Lin
We employed three metal-coordination structures as templates to control the Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions on a Au(111) surface catalyzed by loaded Pd. We used scanning tunnelling microscopy to resolve the products formed at the successive reaction steps and identified three vital characteristics for an efficient template: high accessibility of reaction sites, structural rigidity and thermal stability.
January 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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