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PD Access

Ran Zhang, Guoqing Lyu, Deng Yuan Li, Pei Nian Liu, Nian Lin
We employed three metal-coordination structures as templates to control the Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions on a Au(111) surface catalyzed by loaded Pd. We used scanning tunnelling microscopy to resolve the products formed at the successive reaction steps and identified three vital characteristics for an efficient template: high accessibility of reaction sites, structural rigidity and thermal stability.
January 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zhou-Hao Zhu, Meng-Lin Chen, Guo-Fang Jiang
An efficient access to optically active sulfahydantoins, 4-aryl-1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1-dioxides, was developed through palladium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of the corresponding cyclic N-sulfonylketimines with up to 98% ee.
January 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Serena Mantenuto, Cecilia Ciccolini, Simone Lucarini, Giovanni Piersanti, Gianfranco Favi, Fabio Mantellini
A Pd(II)-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling has been developed for the direct construction of valuable polycyclic heteroarene scaffolds. From a retrosynthetic point of view, the strategic formation of a C-C bond via C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(2))-H dehydrogenative coupling across C3,N-linked biheterocyclic precursors may be useful in de novo syntheses of indole-derived natural products and pharmaceuticals. The reaction exhibited good functional group/heterocycle tolerance, and a proposed mechanism involving an azoylpalladium complex is also supported...
January 17, 2017: Organic Letters
Aymen Skhiri, Ridha Ben Salem, Jean-Francois Soulé, Henri Doucet
Several methods allow the access to a-arylated selenophenes; whereas the synthesis of b-arylated selenophenes remains very challenging. We demonstrated that the Pd-catalysed coupling of benzenesulfonyl chlorides with selenophenes affords regiospecifically the b-arylated selenophenes. The reaction proceeds with easily accessible catalyst, base and substrates, and tolerates a variety of substituents both on the benzene and selenophene moieties. This transformation allows the programmed synthesis of polyarylated selenophenes with potential applications in pharmaceutical and material chemistry, as the installation of aryl groups at the desired positions can be achieved...
January 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Aurélie de Rus Jacquet, Mitali Arun Tambe, Sin Ying Ma, George P McCabe, Jay Hansford C Vest, Jean-Christophe Rochet
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yi-Chun Lin, Yen-Chung Lin, Chih-Chin Kao, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Mai-Szu Wu
OBJECTIVES: In Taiwan, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis are fully accessible to patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the usage of PD is considered low in Taiwan. Since 2005, 4 major policies have been implemented by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, namely a multidisciplinary predialysis care programme and usage increasing the PD incidence as a key performance indicator (KPI) for hospital accreditation, both of which were implemented in 2006; reimbursement of the glucose-free dialysate, icodextrin that was implemented in 2007; and insurance reimbursement for renting automated PD machines that was implemented in 2008...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
Shi Cao, Michael Street, Junlei Wang, Jian Wang, Xiaozhe Zhang, Christian Binek, Peter A Dowben
From the Cr 2p<sub>3/2</sub> X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signal, there is clear evidence of interface polarization with overlayers of both Pd and Pt on chromia (Cr2O3). The residual boundary polarization of chomia is stronger for a Pt overlayer than in the case of a Pd overlayer. The reduction of chromia boundary magnetization with a paramagnetic metal overlayer, compared to the free surface, is interpreted as response to the induced spin polarization in Pt and Pd. Magnetization induced in a Pt overlayer, via proximity to the chromia boundary magnetization, is evident in the polar magneto-optical Kerr measurements...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
M González-Cao, A Arance, J M Piulats, I Marquez-Rodas, J L Manzano, A Berrocal, G Crespo, D Rodriguez, E Perez-Ruiz, M Berciano, A Soria, A G Castano, E Espinosa, C Montagut, L Alonso, T Puertolas, C Aguado, M A Royo, R Blanco, J F Rodríguez, E Muñoz, P Mut, F Barron, S Martin-Algarra
BACKGROUND: The programmed death (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab has been recently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. We evaluated the clinical activity of pembrolizumab in melanoma patients treated under the Spanish Expanded Access Program. METHODS: Advanced melanoma patients who failed to previous treatment lines were treated with pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every three weeks. Patients with brain metastases were not excluded if they were asymptomatic. Data were retrospectively collected from 21 centers in the Spanish Melanoma Group...
January 4, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Chen Zhang, Tong Li, Cheng-Lin Hou, Xiao-Ye Shen
Stable reference genes are necessary to analyse quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) data and determine the reliability of the final results. For further studies of the valuable fungus Shiraia bambusicola, the identification of suitable reference genes has become increasingly urgent. In this study, three conventional reference genes and nine novel candidates were evaluated under different light conditions (all-dark, all-light and 12-h light/dark) and in different media (rice medium, PD medium, and Czapek-Dox medium)...
December 2017: AMB Express
Liu Ye, Kai-Yip Lo, Qiangshuai Gu, Dan Yang
A highly efficient palladium-catalyzed intramolecular aminoalkylation of unactivated alkenes in the absence of an external ligand and oxidant is described. New C-N and C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bonds are formed simultaneously. This general transformation allows for construction of diverse N-heterocycles. Mechanistic studies show that the process may involve a four-membered Pd(alkyl)amido intermediate.
January 3, 2017: Organic Letters
Sangeeta Kundu
The hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the intracellular protein aggregation forming Lewy Bodies (LB) and Lewy neuritis which comprise mostly of a protein, alpha synuclein (α-syn). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods can augment experimental techniques to understand misfolding and aggregation pathways with atomistic resolution. The quality of MD simulations for proteins and peptides depends greatly on the accuracy of empirical force fields. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different force fields on the structural character of β hairpin fragment of α-syn (residues 35-56) peptide in aqueous solution...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Emily J See, Yeoungjee Cho, Carmel M Hawley, Lauren R Jaffrey, David W Johnson
♦ Background: Significant interest in the practice of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) is mounting internationally, with several observational studies supporting the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of this approach. However, little is known about the early complication rates and long-term technique and peritonitis-free survival for patients who start PD urgently (i.e. within 2 weeks of catheter insertion), compared to those with a conventional start. ♦ Methods: This single-center, matched case-control study evaluated patients commencing PD between 2010 and 2015...
December 22, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Jungjoon Kim, Wook Jeong, Young Ho Rhee
A flexible synthetic method toward highly substituted tetrahydropyran is reported. The key transformation involves atom-efficient sequential metal catalysis consisting of Pd-catalyzed addition of homopropargylic alcohols to alkoxyallene and the subsequent gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization. Notably, this method gives access to both 2,6-cis- and 2,6-trans-tetrahydropyrans possessing diverse substitution patterns.
December 22, 2016: Organic Letters
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Ian Wilson, Jon Coxhead, Sarah Ryan, Sara Rollinson, Helen Griffin, Marzena Kurzawa-Akanbi, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368)...
January 2017: Genome Research
Jonathan A Robson, Ferran Gonzàlez de Rivera, Khairil A Jantan, Margot N Wenzel, Andrew J P White, Oriol Rossell, James D E T Wilton-Ely
The disulfide ligand (SC6H4CO2H-4)2 acts as a simple but versatile linker for a range of group 8 transition metals through reaction of the oxygen donors. This leads to a range of homobimetallic ruthenium and osmium alkenyl compounds, [{M(CH═CHR)(CO)(PPh3)2(O2CC6H4S-4)}2] (M = Ru, Os; R = C6H4Me-4). Additional metal-based functionality can be added through the use of precursors incorporating rhenium bipyridine units (R = (bpy)ReCl(CO)3). The more robust diphosphine ligands in [{Ru(dppm)2(O2CC6H4S-4)}2](2+) (dppm = diphenylphosphinomethane) allow reduction of the disulfide bond with sodium borohydride to yield the thiol complex [Ru(O2CC6H4SH-4)(dppm)2](+)...
December 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Chao-Yuan Wang, Glenn Ralph, Joseph Derosa, Mark R Biscoe
We report the development of a Pd-catalyzed process for the cross coupling of unactivated primary, secondary, and tertiary alkylcarbastannatrane nucleophiles with acyl electrophiles. Reactions involving optically active alkylcarbastannatranes occur with exceptional stereofidelity and with net retention of absolute configuration. Because the stereochemistry of the resulting products is entirely reagent-controlled, this process may be viewed as a general, alternative approach to the preparation of products typically accessed via asymmetric enolate methodologies...
December 16, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Jianchao Liu, Hui Peng, Lin Lu, Xiaobing Xu, Huanfeng Jiang, Biaolin Yin
We report a Pd-catalyzed arylative dearomatization/ring expansion cascade of furfurylcyclobutanols that involves a spiro π-allyl palladium intermediate and affords structurally novel dispirooxindoles containing two quaternary carbon centers in good yields with high step economy, diastereospecificity, and enantioselectivity.
December 16, 2016: Organic Letters
Maria Koyioni, Panayiotis A Koutentis
A Pd(0)-catalyzed double C-N coupling of 5,5'-dibromo-2,2'-bithiazoles with (het)arylamines and subsequent in situ Ag2O-mediated oxidation provides access to cross-conjugated quinoidal 5,5'-diarylimino-2,2'-bithiazoles in moderate to high yield. The highly colored quinoidal 2,2'-bithiazoles were studied by UV/vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and computational methods.
December 14, 2016: Organic Letters
Enrico Vidal, Karlijn J van Stralen, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Marjolein Bonthuis, Christer Holmberg, Aleksandra Zurowska, Antonella Trivelli, José Eduardo Esteves Da Silva, Maria Herthelius, Brigitte Adams, Anna Bjerre, Augustina Jankauskiene, Polina Miteva, Khadizha Emirova, Aysun K Bayazit, Christoph J Mache, Ana Sánchez-Moreno, Jérôme Harambat, Jaap W Groothoff, Kitty J Jager, Franz Schaefer, Enrico Verrina
BACKGROUND: The impact of different dialysis modalities on clinical outcomes has not been explored in young infants with chronic kidney failure. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Data were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. This analysis included 1,063 infants 12 months or younger who initiated dialysis therapy in 1991 to 2013. FACTOR: Type of dialysis modality. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Differences between infants treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) in patient survival, technique survival, and access to kidney transplantation were examined using Cox regression analysis while adjusting for age at dialysis therapy initiation, sex, underlying kidney disease, and country of residence...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Bak-Leong Goh
BACKGROUND: The success rate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion is known to vary among different operators and may be influenced by many factors such as patient and various situational factors. Traditionally, surgeons have inserted Tenckhoff catheters by mini-laparotomy or an open technique. However, with recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and video capabilities, peritoneoscope Tenckhoff catheter insertion has become a viable approach in interventional nephrologist-initiated PD access programmes...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
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