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Cheng-Yu Shih, René Streubel, Johannes Heberle, Alexander Letzel, Maxim V Shugaev, Chengping Wu, Michael Schmidt, Bilal Gökce, Stephan Barcikowski, Leonid V Zhigilei
The synthesis of chemically clean and environmentally friendly nanoparticles through pulsed laser ablation in liquids has shown a number of advantages over conventional chemical synthesis methods and has evolved into a thriving research field attracting laboratory and industrial applications. The fundamental understanding of processes leading to the nanoparticle generation, however, still remains elusive. In particular, the origin of bimodal nanoparticle size distributions in femto- and picosecond laser ablation in liquids, where small nanoparticles (several nanometers) with narrow size distribution are commonly observed to coexist with larger (tens to hundreds of nanometers) ones, has not been explained so far...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Min Yang, Shuang Xie, Vishnu Prasad Adhikari, Yu Dong, Yonghong Du, Dairong Li
It is difficult to effectively eradicate C. albicans using traditional antifungal agents, mainly because the low permeability of the C. albicans cell wall creates strong drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic fungicidal effect and the underlying mechanisms of low-frequency and low-intensity ultrasound combined with a treatment of amphotericin B-loaded nanoparticles (AmB-NPs) against C. albicans. AmB-NPs were prepared by a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) double emulsion method...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yang Tian, Zhilin Liu, Xiaoqian Li, Lihua Zhang, Ruiqing Li, Ripeng Jiang, Fang Dong
Ultrasonic sonotrodes play an essential role in transmitting power ultrasound into the large-scale metallic casting. However, cavitation erosion considerably impairs the in-service performance of ultrasonic sonotrodes, leading to marginal microstructural refinement. In this work, the cavitation erosion behaviour of ultrasonic sonotrodes in large-scale castings was explored using the industry-level experiments of Al alloy cylindrical ingots (i.e. 630 mm in diameter and 6000 mm in length). When introducing power ultrasound, severe cavitation erosion was found to reproducibly occur at some specific positions on ultrasonic sonotrodes...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Kaouther Kerboua, Oualid Hamdaoui
A computational study treating cavitation phenomenon within a single bubble undergoing various controlled ultrasonic waveforms is presented in this paper. Numerical simulations using sinusoidal, square, triangular and sawtooth waves crossing an aqueous media, saturated with oxygen, are conducted upon various operational conditions of frequency and amplitude. Bubble radius, temperature and pressure were estimated over time for 64 combined cases. The obtained results show that at relatively low acoustic pressure, i...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Keiji Yasuda, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Yoshiyuki Asakura
Cross-sectional area distribution of broadband noise in a sonochemical reactor was measured to estimate reaction fields. A needle-type hydrophone scanned the sonochemical reactor in horizontal and vertical directions at one-millimeter interval. To show an absolute value of broadband noise, average of broadband sound pressure was defined. The distribution of sound pressures at the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies were also measured. In the case of driving frequency at 130 kHz, sonochemical reaction fields were observed in several ellipse shapes...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ruly Terán Hilares, Douglas Viana Kamoei, Muhammad Ajaz Ahmed, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Jong-In Han, Júlio César Dos Santos
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was adopted to assist alkaline-hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). In the following condition: 0.29 M of NaOH, 0.78% (v/v) of H2 O2 , 9.95 min of process time and 3 bar of inlet pressure, 95.4% of digestibility of cellulosic fraction was achieved. To take the best use of the pretreated biomass, the overall process was intensified by way of employing a packed bed flow-through column reactor and thus enabling to handle a high solid loading of 20%, thereby leading to cellulose and hemicellulose conversions to 74...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
D Podbevsek, D Colombet, G Ledoux, F Ayela
We have performed hydrodynamic cavitation experiments with an aqueous luminol solution as the working fluid. Light emission, together with the high frequency noise which characterizes cavitation, was emitted by the two-phase flow, whereas no light emission from luminol was recorded in the single phase liquid flow. Light emission occurs downstream transparent microdiaphragms. The maximum level of the recorded signal was around 180 photons per second with flow rates of 380 µl/s, that corresponds to a real order of magnitude of the chemiluminescence of 75,000 photons per second...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Chunhai Yi, Qianqian Lu, Yun Wang, Yixuan Wang, Bolun Yang
In this paper, the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) by hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), acoustic cavitation (AC) and the combination of these individual methods (HAC) have been investigated. The degradation of 20 L RhB aqueous solution was carried out in a self-designed HAC reactor, where hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation could take place in the same space simultaneously. The effects of initial concentration, inlet pressure, solution temperature and ultrasonic power were studied and discussed...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Kristoffer Johansen, Jae Hee Song, Paul Prentice
We describe the design, construction and characterisation of a broadband passive cavitation detector, with the specific aim of detecting low frequency components of periodic shock waves, with high sensitivity. A finite element model is used to guide selection of matching and backing layers for the shock wave passive cavitation detector (swPCD), and the performance is evaluated against a commercially available device. Validation of the model, and characterisation of the swPCD is achieved through experimental detection of laser-plasma bubble collapse shock waves...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Alex H Wrede, Aarthy Shah, Marilyn C McNamara, Reza Montazami, Nicole N Hashemi
We report a study on two methods that enable spatial control and induced cavitation on targeted microbubbles (MBs). Cavitation is known to be present in many situations throughout nature. This phenomena has been proven to have the energy to erode alloys, like steel, in propellers and turbines. It is recently theorized that cavitation occurs inside the skull during a traumatic-brain injury (TBI) situation. Controlled cavitation methods could help better understand TBIs and explain how neurons respond at moments of trauma...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Flore De Bats, Pierre-Loïc Cornut, Benjamin Wolff, Laurent Kodjikian, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse
PURPOSE: To describe abnormal dark (hyposignal) and white (hypersignal) lesions observed on optical coherence tomography angiography in central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, and descriptive study including patients with active or quiescent central serous chorioretinopathy. All patients had undergone a complete ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Abnormal dark lesions were detected as "dark spots" and "dark areas" on optical coherence tomography angiography...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Michael E Urbanowski, Elizabeth A Ihms, Kristina Bigelow, André Kübler, Paul T Elkington, William R Bishai
Background: Cavitation is a serious consequence of tuberculosis. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive exposure to the same total bacterial burden of Mtb drives greater lung destruction than a single exposure. We also tested whether inhibition of endogenous MMP1 may inhibit cavitation during TB. Methods: Over a three weeks interval we infected rabbits with either 5 aerosols of 500 CFU of Mtb or a single aerosol of 2500 CFU plus four sham aerosols. We administered the MMP1 inhibitor cipemastat (100 mg/kg daily) from week 5-10 to a subset of the animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kenneth B Bader
Histotripsy is a form of therapeutic ultrasound that liquefies tissue mechanically via acoustic cavitation. Bubble expansion is paramount in the efficacy of histotripsy therapy, and the cavitation dynamics are strongly influenced by the medium elasticity. In this study, an analytic model to predict histotripsy-induced bubble expansion in a fluid was extended to include the effects of medium elasticity. Good agreement was observed between the predictions of the analytic model and numerical computations utilizing highly nonlinear excitations (shock-scattering histotripsy) and purely tensile pulses (microtripsy)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ryosuke Yukisada, Akihito Kiyama, Xuehua Zhang, Yoshiyuki Tagawa
We investigate enhancement of the velocity of focused liquid jets by surface bubbles pre-formed on the inner surface of the container. The focused jets are created from impact on a liquid-filled cylindrical tube at cavitation numbers of 0.37 (strong impact where cavitation is likely to occur on unprocessed surfaces) and 2.1 (weak impact where cavitation does not occur from the impact). The bubbles with base diameter up to hundreds of micrometers were formed via the process of solvent exchange using air-equilibrated ethanol and water...
March 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wei-Hao Liao, Chueh-Hung Wu, Wen-Shiang Chen
Sonoporation, the use of ultrasound to alter the permeability of cell membranes, is a non-viral technique used to facilitate gene delivery, possibly by opening transient pores in the cell membrane. However, sonoporation may have negative bio-effects on cells, such as causing apoptosis, which limits its efficacy in gene delivery. In this study, we investigated whether pre-treatment with either L-carnitine or piracetam could protect cells from undergoing apoptosis after sonoporation and the possible mechanisms...
March 14, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
V Sofonea, T Biciuşcă, S Busuioc, Victor E Ambruş, G Gonnella, A Lamura
Aiming to study the bubble cavitation problem in quiescent and sheared liquids, a third-order isothermal lattice Boltzmann model that describes a two-dimensional (2D) fluid obeying the van der Waals equation of state, is introduced. The evolution equations for the distribution functions in this off-lattice model with 16 velocities are solved using the corner-transport-upwind (CTU) numerical scheme on large square lattices (up to 6144×6144 nodes). The numerical viscosity and the regularization of the model are discussed for first- and second-order CTU schemes finding that the latter choice allows to obtain a very accurate phase diagram of a nonideal fluid...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Matthew T Koroscil, Andrew Skabelund
Introduction: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Mississippi River valley. We describe a rare case of chronic pulmonary blastomycosis complicated by large pulmonary cavitation in a young service member who was misdiagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Case Presentation: A 25-year-old active duty male presented to his primary care provider with complaints of hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Computed tomography chest with contrast identified a large cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe (RUL)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ran Chen, Ying Lu, Zhiyong Jiang, Yongfeng Men
The poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) sample was used to investigate the cavitation induced stress-whitening phenomenon during stretching at different temperatures via the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. Two modes of cavitation were found that mode I cavitation activated around yield point followed by mode II cavitation generated in highly oriented state. The critical strain for initiating the mode II cavitation increases with the increase of stretching temperature whereas the critical stress grew steadily in the lower temperature regime (30~60oC) and reached a plateau at 70oC...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
M Irani, N Zaninovic, C Canon, C O'Neill, V Gunnala, Q Zhan, G Palermo, D Reichman, Z Rosenwaks
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a benefit to assessing ploidy in delayed embryos reaching the morula stage on Day 6 of development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Day-6 morulae should be considered for biopsy in women <40 years old undergoing preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) because they are associated with acceptable, albeit reduced, euploidy and implantation rates (IRs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Embryo development and morphology have been shown to correlate with aneuploidy and pregnancy rates...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Agnieszka Montusiewicz, Marta Bis, Sylwia Pasieczna-Patkowska, Dariusz Majerek
The main goal of this study was to investigate the co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate pretreated through hydrodynamic cavitation. The process efficiency was analyzed from the aspects of organics removal, biogas production, kinetics and digestate quality. Energy efficiency of the overall treatment was evaluated as well. A dose of hydrodynamically cavitated leachate of 5% v/v was used as a substrate for co-digestion with sewage sludge at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. This improved the kinetics, biogas production and corresponding yields, as well as digestate quality...
March 12, 2018: Waste Management
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