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H Askar, F Schwendicke, J Lausch, H Meyer-Lueckel, S Paris
OBJECTIVE: Infiltrant resin (IR) is currently indicated for non-cavitated caries lesions. However, modifying the technique might expand its indication spectrum to micro-cavitated lesions. The present study aimed to evaluate the penetration/filling ability of a newly developed micro-filled infiltrant resin (MFIR) in non-, micro- and cavitated natural caries lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximal lesions in 120 extracted human teeth with ICDAS-2 (n = 30), 3 (n = 45) and 5 (n = 45) lesions were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel for 2 min and allocated to one of the following treatments; IR: lesions (ICDAS-2, 3 and 5; each n = 15) were treated with commercial infiltrant resin for 3 min...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Yu Peng, Ye Chen, Xi Zhang, Yu Yang, Dan Cao, Feng Bi, Zhipi Li, Hongfeng Gou
PURPOSE: Efficacy and the frequency of tumor cavitation have not been investigated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and lung metastases (LMs) treated with chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab for unresectable mCRC with LM and to determine the frequency of tumor cavitation, and its correlation with clinical outcomes in patients receiving bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with mCRC and LMs treated with bevacizumab as first- or second-line therapy at West China Hospital, Sichuan University Cancer Center from September 2010 to November 2016 were included in this retrospective study...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Lei Zhang, Yue-Hua Liu, Kai-Yu Luo, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yong Zhao, Jian-Yun Huang, Xu-Dong Wu, Chuang Zhou
Tensile property was one important index of mechanical properties of ANSI 304 stainless steel laser weldments subjected to cavitation erosion (CE). Laser shock processing (LSP) was utilized to strengthen the CE resistance, and the tensile property and fracture morphology were analyzed through three replicated experiment times. Results showed tensile process of treated weldments was composed of elastic deformation, plastic deformation, and fracture. The elastic limit, elastic modulus, elongation, area reduction, and ultimate tensile strength of tensile sample after CE were higher in view of LSP...
May 16, 2018: Materials
Roberto F Casal, Garrett Walsh, Mark McArthur, Lori R Hill, Maria F Landaeta, Aristides J Armas Villalba, Philip Ong, Labib Debiane, Erik Vakil, Horiana B Grosu, Carlos A Jimenez, David Ost, Roberto Adachi, George A Eapen
BACKGROUND: Population aging and lung cancer screening strategies may lead to an increase in detection of early-stage lung cancer in medical inoperable patients. Recent advances in peripheral bronchoscopy have made it a suitable platform for ablation of small peripheral tumors. METHODS: We investigated the tissue-ablative effect of a diode laser bronchoscopically applied by a laser delivery fiber (LDF) with wide aperture on porcine lung parenchyma. Laser was tested ex vivo and in vivo to identify the most effective power settings and LDF...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Homa Naseri, Kieran Trickett, Nicholas Mitroglou, Ioannis Karathanassis, Phoevos Koukouvinis, Manolis Gavaises, Robert Barbour, Dale Diamond, Sarah E Rogers, Maurizio Santini, Jin Wang
We identify the physical mechanism through which newly developed quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) deposit control additives (DCAs) affect the rheological properties of cavitating turbulent flows, resulting in an increase in the volumetric efficiency of clean injectors fuelled with diesel or biodiesel fuels. Quaternary ammonium surfactants with appropriate counterions can be very effective in reducing the turbulent drag in aqueous solutions, however, less is known about the effect of such surfactants in oil-based solvents or in cavitating flow conditions...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bo Chen, Shenxu Bao, Yimin Zhang, Ruwei Zheng
N235-impregnated resins were prepared using XAD-16HP macroporous adsorption resins as support with and without ultrasonic irradiation to evaluate the effects of ultrasound impregnation (UI) on the preparation and adsorption characteristics of the resins. The results show that the impregnation ratio of the solvent-impregnated resins (SIRs) prepared by ultrasound impregnation method (SIRs-UI) increases obviously but their adsorption capacity for V(V) just slightly increases and the utilization rate of the extractant decreases with the augmentation of ultrasound power...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ali E Aliev, Daniel Codoluto, Ray H Baughman, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Kanzan Inoue, Stepan A Romanov, Albert Nasibulin, Prashant Kumar, Shashank Priya, Nathanael K Mayo, John Blottman
The combination of smooth, continuous sound spectra produced by a sound source having no vibrating parts, a nanoscale thickness of a flexible active layer and the feasibility of creating large, conformal projectors provoke interest in thermoacoustic phenomena. However, at low frequencies, the sound pressure level and the sound generation efficiency of open carbon nanotube sheets (CNTS) is low. In addition, the nanoscale thickness of fragile heating elements, their high sensitivity to the environment and the high surface temperatures practical for thermoacoustic sound generation necessitate a protective encapsulation of freestanding CNTS in inert gases...
May 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Elizabeth A Ihms, Michael E Urbanowski, William R Bishai
Effacement of normal lung parenchyma by cavities is an important sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite its clinical significance, the pathogenesis of tuberculous cavitation is poorly understood, with controversy as to whether the fundamental mechanism involves matrix depletion, lipid pneumonia, or mechanical factors. In this study, a repetitive aerosol infection model using Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used to generate cavities in 20 New Zealand White rabbits. Serial computed tomography was performed to monitor cavity progression over 14 weeks...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Raquel Francis Almeida, Soraya Coelho Leal, Jordana Guedes Amorim Medonca, Leandro Augusto Hilgert, Ana Paula Dias Ribeiro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether an association exists between school performance, quality of life, dental caries, and dental pain in children between 6 and 8 years of age. METHODS: All 6- to 8-year-old children enrolled in the second year of the six public schools in Paranoá-FD were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. In total, 374 consented. Dental caries was recorded according to the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index by two trained examiners...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Dong-Xiao Hong, Yu-Long Yun, Yi-Xin Guan, Shan-Jing Yao
Parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34)-loaded dry powders were fabricated from aqueous solution for pulmonary administration using supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM). Herein, chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO) was selected as a carrier in an effort to enhance transmucosal absorption of the drug. Well-defined, separated and spherical PTH(1-34)/CSO composite microparticles were obtained, and the particles size could be well controlled with narrow distribution. Aerodynamic performance was determined using next generation impactor (NGI), and the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) ranged strictly 1-5 μm range with fine particle fraction (FPF) up to 63...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Amanda A Cardoso, Timothy J Brodribb, Christopher J Lucani, Fábio M DaMatta, Scott A M McAdam
The air-seeding threshold water potential establishes a hydraulic limit on the ability of woody species to survive in water-limiting environments, but herbs may be more plastic in terms of their ability to adapt to drying conditions. Here we examined the capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves to adapt to reduced water availability by modifying the sensitivity of xylem and stomata to soil water deficit. We found that sunflower plants grown under water-limited conditions significantly adjusted leaf osmotic potential, which was linked to a prolongation of stomatal opening as soil dried and a reduced sensitivity of photosynthesis to water-stress induced damage...
May 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Maxime Lafond, Akiko Watanabe, Shin Yoshizawa, Shin-Ichiro Umemura, Katsuro Tachibana
Nanobubbles (NBs) are of high interest for ultrasound (US) imaging as contrast agents and therapy as cavitation nuclei. Because of their instability (Laplace pressure bubble catastrophe) and low sensitivity to US, reducing the size of commonly used microbubbles to submicron-size is not trivial. We introduce stabilized NBs in the 100-250-nm size range, manufactured by agitating human serum albumin and perfluoro-propane. These NBs were exposed to 3.34- and 5.39-MHz US, and their sensitivity to US was proven by detecting inertial cavitation...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao Tan, Xiaoqian Shu, Jiujia Guo, Keshab Parajuli, Xidong Zhang, Zhipeng Duan
Ultrasound can be used to induce cell resonance and cavitation to inhibit cyanobacterial growth, but it can also lead to increase in dissolved nutrients because of cell disruption. This study investigated the process from cell inactivation to disruption of Microcystis aeruginosa. Algal cells were sonicated (at 35 kHz) under various intensities and durations. Results showed that chlorophyll a content and F v /F m values decreased slightly within the first 5 min. Superoxide dismutase activity was stimulated and its peak value appeared at the fifth minute...
May 9, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zhiwu Xu, Zhengwei Li, Jiaqi Li, Zhipeng Ma, Jiuchun Yan
To prevent the formation of Al/Mg intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of Al3 Mg2 and Al12 Mg17 , dissimilar Al/Mg were ultrasonic-assisted soldered using Sn-based filler metals. A new IMC of Mg2 Sn formed in the soldered joints during this process and it was prone to crack at large thickness. The thickness of Mg2 Sn was reduced to 22 μm at 285 °C when using Sn-3Cu as the filler metal. Cracks were still observed inside the blocky Mg2 Sn. The thickness of Mg2 Sn was significantly reduced when using Sn-9Zn as the filler metal...
September 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tomasz Dorf, Katarzyna Perkowska, Magdalena Janiszewska, Inés Ferrer, Joaquim Ciurana
Ultrasonic micro-moulding technology was used to process high performance polymer polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) due to investigate mechanical and chemical characteristics of manufacturing parts. Both the processing window and dependence between the main input parameters, in this case amplitude, plunger velocity and ultrasonic exposure time and their influence on the mechanical properties were appointed. The experiments showed that each available amplitude level (58 µm, 52.2 µm, 46.4 µm, 40.6 µm) are suitable to produce specimens characterised by high mechanical strength but only when combined with the appropriate values of the rest of the parameters...
September 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Wen Deng, Yulong An, Guoliang Hou, Shuangjian Li, Huidi Zhou, Jianmin Chen
Inconel 718 was used as the substrate and preheated at different temperatures to deposit yttrium stabilized zirconia (denoted as YSZ) coatings by atmospheric plasma spraying. The microstructure of the as-deposited YSZ coatings and those after cavitation-erosion tests were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and their hardness and toughness as well as cavitation-erosion resistance were evaluated in relation to the effect of substrate preheating temperature. Results indicate that the as-deposited YSZ coatings exhibit typical layered structure and consist of columnar crystals...
September 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Valentin Couvreur, Glenn Ledder, Stefano Manzoni, Danielle A Way, Erik B Muller, Sabrina E Russo
Trees grow by vertically extending their stems, so accurate stem hydraulic models are fundamental to understanding the hydraulic challenges faced by tall trees. Using a literature survey, we showed that many tree species exhibit continuous vertical variation in hydraulic traits. To examine the effects of this variation on hydraulic function, we developed a spatially-explicit, analytical water transport model for stems. Our model allows Huber ratio, stem-saturated conductivity, pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, leaf area, and transpiration rate to vary continuously along the hydraulic path...
May 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Daniela Pinter, Thomas Gattringer, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Seifert-Held, Markus Kneihsl, Simon Fandler, Alexander Pichler, Christian Barro, Sebastian Eppinger, Lukas Pirpamer, Gerhard Bachmaier, Stefan Ropele, Joanna M Wardlaw, Jens Kuhle, Michael Khalil, Franz Fazekas
We aimed to explore the morphological evolution of recent small subcortical infarcts (RSSIs) over 15 months. Moreover, we hypothesized that quantitative lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and serum neurofilament light (NfL) levels predict subsequent lacunar cavitation. We prospectively studied 78 RSSI patients, who underwent pre-defined follow-up investigations three and 15 months poststroke using 3 T MRI including high-resolution T1 sequences. To identify potential predictors of cavitation, we determined RSSI size and quantitative ADC values, and serum NfL using the SIMOA technique...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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