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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338805/risk-factors-for-infectiousness-of-patients-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Y A Melsew, T N Doan, M Gambhir, A C Cheng, E McBryde, J M Trauer
We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies assessing tuberculosis (TB) patient-related risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Meta-analyses were conducted for sputum smear-positivity, lung cavitation and HIV seropositivity of index patients with both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) pooled using random effect models. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review. We found that demographic characteristics such as age and sex were not significant risk factors, while behaviours such as smoking and alcohol intake were associated with infectiousness although inconsistently...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334967/risk-factors-and-treatment-of-pneumothorax-secondary-to-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-clinical-analysis-of-25-cases
#2
REVIEW
Xuhua Shi, Yongfeng Zhang, Yuewu Lu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors and treatment strategies for pneumothorax secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHOD: Retrospective analysis of cases with pneumothorax secondary to GPA from our own practice and published on literature. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients, 18 males and 7 females, mean age 44 ± 15.7 years, were analyzed. Diagnosis included pneumothorax (11 cases), hydropneumothorax (n = 5), empyema (n = 8) and hemopneumothorax (n = 1)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330510/shaping-and-controlled-fragmentation-of-liquid-metal-droplets-through-cavitation
#3
M S Krivokorytov, Q Zeng, B V Lakatosh, A Yu Vinokhodov, Yu V Sidelnikov, V O Kompanets, V M Krivtsun, K N Koshelev, C D Ohl, V V Medvedev
Targeting micrometer sized metal droplets with near-infrared sub-picosecond laser pulses generates intense stress-confined acoustic waves within the droplet. Spherical focusing amplifies their pressures. The rarefaction wave nucleates cavitation at the center of the droplet, which explosively expands with a repeatable fragmentation scenario resulting into high-speed jetting. We predict the number of jets as a function of the laser energy by coupling the cavitation bubble dynamics with Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329687/bubble-induced-color-doppler-feedback-correlates-with-histotripsy-induced-destruction-of-structural-components-in-liver-tissue
#4
Jonathan J Macoskey, Xi Zhang, Timothy L Hall, Jiaqi Shi, Shahaboddin Alahyari Beig, Eric Johnsen, Fred T Lee, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
Bubble-induced color Doppler (BCD) is a histotripsy-therapy monitoring technique that uses Doppler ultrasound to track the motion of residual cavitation nuclei that persist after the collapse of the histotripsy bubble cloud. In this study, BCD is used to monitor tissue fractionation during histotripsy tissue therapy, and the BCD signal is correlated with the destruction of structural and non-structural components identified histologically to further understand how BCD monitors the extent of treatment. A 500-kHz, 112-element phased histotripsy array is used to generate approximately 6- × 6- × 7-mm lesions within ex vivo bovine liver tissue by scanning more than 219 locations with 30-1000 pulses per location...
January 9, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327088/amplification-of-pressure-waves-in-laser-assisted-endodontics-with-synchronized-delivery-of-er-yag-laser-pulses
#5
Nejc Lukač, Matija Jezeršek
When attempting to clean surfaces of dental root canals with laser-induced cavitation bubbles, the resulting cavitation oscillations are significantly prolonged due to friction on the cavity walls and other factors. Consequently, the collapses are less intense and the shock waves that are usually emitted following a bubble's collapse are diminished or not present at all. A new technique of synchronized laser-pulse delivery intended to enhance the emission of shock waves from collapsed bubbles in fluid-filled endodontic canals is reported...
January 11, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326340/rare-cause-of-pulmonary-cavitation-in-a-75-year-old-man
#6
Jaffar Al-Sheikhli, Hussein Taqi, John Drake, Ayaaz Habib
A 75-year-old man of Asian descent presented to the acute medical unit with signs and symptoms suggestive of a community-acquired pneumonia. He had multiple comorbidities and was relatively immunocompromised as a result. Initial investigations supported the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by a cavitating lung lesion, and the patient was treated as per hospital guidelines. He continued to deteriorate despite appropriate therapy and developed a hydropneumothorax, requiring the insertion of a chest drain...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319254/cavitating-lung-lesions-with-encephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-long-standing-sjogren-s-syndrome-an-elusive-cause
#7
Siddharth Jain, Animesh Ray, Manish Soneja, S Leve Joseph Devarajan, Shyam Madabhushi, Anitha Swamy, T Naveen, S K Sharma
A known case of primary Sjogren's syndrome with chronic kidney disease presented with respiratory symptoms and subsequent altered sensorium. Chest imaging suggested cavitating lung lesions in both the lungs. Serum c-ANCA was positive without any upper respiratory tract involvement or active urinary sediments. Treatment with appropriate anti-microbials produced no improvement in the respiratory or neurological parameters. MRI brain revealed tell-tale signs of CNS vascultis. A diagnosis of GPA was made as per European Medical Agency algorithm and the patient was started on immune-suppressants to which there was dramatic response...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316625/interfacial-reaction-and-imc-growth-of-an-ultrasonically-soldered-cu-sac305-cu-structure-during-isothermal-aging
#8
Yulong Li, Weifeng Long, Xiaowu Hu, Yanshu Fu
In order to accelerate the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in a soldering structure, Cu/SAC305/Cu was first ultrasonically spot soldered and then subjected to isothermal aging. Relatively short vibration times, i.e., 400 ms and 800 ms, were used for the ultrasonic soldering. The isothermal aging was conducted at 150 °C for 0, 120, 240, and 360 h. The evolution of microstructure, the IMC layer growth mechanism during aging, and the shear strength of the joints after aging were systemically investigated...
January 6, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314083/tree-hydraulic-traits-are-co-ordinated-and-strongly-linked-to-climate-of-origin-across-a-rainfall-gradient
#9
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Brendan Choat, Remko A Duursma, Paul D Rymer, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Plant hydraulic traits capture the impacts of drought stress on plant function, yet vegetation models lack sufficient information regarding trait coordination and variation with climate-of-origin across species. Here, we investigated key hydraulic and carbon economy traits of 12 woody species in Australia from a broad climatic gradient, with the aim of identifying the coordination among these traits and the role of climate in shaping cross-species trait variation. The influence of environmental variation was minimized by a common garden approach, allowing us to factor out the influence of environment on phenotypic variation across species...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313946/impact-of-different-detection-criteria-on-caries-estimates-and-risk-assessment
#10
Luana Severo Alves, Cristiano Susin, Nailê Damé-Teixeira, Marisa Maltz
AIM: This study aimed to compare the prevalence and extent of dental caries according to the standard World Health Organization (WHO), modified WHO and International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren and to assess the impact of these detection criteria on the assessment of sociodemographic risk indicators for dental caries. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey used a multistage probability sampling strategy to select a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren...
January 5, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311210/a-phase-field-crystal-alloy-model-for-late-stage-solidification-studies-involving-the-interaction-of-solid-liquid-and-gas-phases
#11
Nan Wang, Gabriel Kocher, Nikolas Provatas
We present a multiphase binary alloy phase-field-crystal model. By introducing density difference between solid and liquid into a previous alloy model, this new fusion leads to a practical tool that can be used to investigate formation of defects in late-stage alloy solidification. It is shown that this model can qualitatively capture the liquid pressure drop due to solidification shrinkage in confined geometry. With an inherited gas phase from a previous multiphase model, cavitation of liquid from shrinkage-induced pressure is also included in this framework...
February 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305924/mechanistic-understanding-the-bioeffects-of-ultrasound-driven-microbubbles-to-enhance-macromolecule-delivery
#12
REVIEW
Peng Qin, Tao Han, Alfred C H Yu, Lin Xu
Ultrasound-driven microbubbles can trigger reversible membrane perforation (sonoporation), open interendothelial junctions and stimulate endocytosis, thereby providing a temporary and reversible time-window for the delivery of macromolecules across biological membranes and endothelial barriers. This time-window is related not only to cavitation events, but also to biological regulatory mechanisms. Mechanistic understanding of the interaction between cavitation events and cells and tissues, as well as the subsequent cellular and molecular responses will lead to new design strategies with improved efficacy and minimized side effects...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305128/motion-sensitized-sprite-measurements-of-hydrodynamic-cavitation-in-fast-pipe-flow
#13
Alexander Adair, Igor V Mastikhin, Benedict Newling
The pressure variations experienced by a liquid flowing through a pipe constriction can, in some cases, result in the formation of a bubble cloud (i.e., hydrodynamic cavitation). Due to the nature of the bubble cloud, it is ideally measured through the use of non-optical and non-invasive techniques; therefore, it is well-suited for study by magnetic resonance imaging. This paper demonstrates the use of Conical SPRITE (a 3D, centric-scan, pure phase-encoding pulse sequence) to acquire time-averaged void fraction and velocity information about hydrodynamic cavitation for water flowing through a pipe constriction...
January 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302305/lemierre-syndrome-a-diagnostic-dilemma-in-paediatric-patients
#14
Fatemeh Rafati, Vishal Bhalla, Varun Chillal, Mani Thyagarajan
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare disease of the head and neck, characterized by an initial infection, usually within the oropharynx, which can develop into a septic thrombophlebitis. It can involve the jugular vein, facial veins and respiratory tract. A 7-year-old child attended our institution with a 1-week history of fever and cough. Initial imaging demonstrated a large left sided empyema with multiple cavitating lung lesions and persisting pneumothoraces secondary to the development of a bronchopleural fistula...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301527/calibration-of-dentists-for-caries-management-by-risk-assessment-research-in-a-practice-based-research-network-cambra-pbrn
#15
Peter Rechmann, Bonnie Jue, William Santo, Beate M T Rechmann, John D B Featherstone
BACKGROUND: To prove that Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) can be successfully implemented in dental practices outside of the university setting, dentists in the San Francisco Bay Area (CA) were approached to participate in a Practice Based Research Network (PBRN) study. The overall goal of the CAMBRA-PBRN study was to recruit 30 dentists to perform a two-year study involving approximately 900 patients. Goal of the calibration study was to standardize and calibrate dentists potentially participating in the CAMBRA-PBRN study...
January 4, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299245/distinguish-water-utilization-strategies-of-trees-growing-on-earth-rocky-mountainous-area-with-transpiration-and-water-isotopes
#16
Guodong Jia, Ziqiang Liu, Lixin Chen, Xinxiao Yu
Water stress is regarded as a global challenge to forests. Unlike other water-limited areas, the water use strategies of rocky mountainous forests, which play an important ecohydrological role, have not received sufficient attention. To prove our hypothesis that species adopt different water use strategies to avoid competition of limited water resources, we used site abiotic monitoring, sap flow and stable isotope method to study the biophysiological responses and water use preferences of two commonly distributed forest species, Pinus tabuliformis (Pt) and Quercus variabilis (Qv)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298564/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-scarring-necrosis-and-cavitation-based-on-histopathological-findings-in-dogs-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-evaluation-of-multiple-diffusion-parameters-and-their-correlations-with-histopathological-findings
#17
Hakyoung Yoon, Won-Jin Moon, Sang-Soep Nahm, Jaehwan Kim, Kidong Eom
The use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the characterization of various lesion types in dogs with spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize scarring [loose immature scarring (LIMS), intermediate mature scarring (IMS), and dense mature scarring (DMS)], necrosis, cavitation, and acute hemorrhage using multiple DTI parameters and determine the correlations between the DTI parameters and histopathological finding in dogs with controlled SCI. All imaging data were obtained from the lumbar spinal cord (from L1 to L3) of normal and SCI dogs using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297448/score-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-clinical-presumption-of-tuberculosis-in-a-low-prevalence-area
#18
T Delory, H Ferrand, N Grall, E Casalino, M Lafarge, B Melot, D Hajage, C Charpentier, M Aubier, F Tubach, E Bouvet, N Gault, Y Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVES: To develop a diagnostic predictive model for the identification of patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at high risk for active disease and those requiring nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing and/or preventive respiratory isolation in low-incidence, high-income countries. DESIGN: A 1:1 case-control study was conducted in consecutive immunocompetent patients with presumed PTB hospitalised between 2009 and 2012 in Paris, France...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290559/parallel-saltational-evolution-of-ultrafast-movements-in-snapping-shrimp-claws
#19
Tomonari Kaji, Arthur Anker, Christian S Wirkner, A Richard Palmer
How do stunning functional innovations evolve from unspecialized progenitors? This puzzle is particularly acute for ultrafast movements of appendages in arthropods as diverse as shrimps [1], stomatopods [2], insects [3-6], and spiders [7]. For example, the spectacular snapping claws of alpheid shrimps close so fast (∼0.5 ms) that jetted water creates a cavitation bubble and an immensely powerful snap upon bubble collapse [1]. Such extreme movements depend on (1) an energy-storage mechanism (e.g., some kind of spring) and (2) a latching mechanism to release stored energy quickly [8]...
December 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289726/caries-arrest-by-topical-fluorides-in-preschool-children-30-month-results
#20
D Duangthip, M C M Wong, C H Chu, E C M Lo
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of three applications of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution at yearly interval and three applications of SDF solution or sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish at weekly interval at baseline in arresting active caries in the primary teeth of preschool children. METHODS: Children aged 3-4 years (n = 371) who had at least one active caries lesion (ICDAS codes 3-6) in their primary teeth were randomly allocated into three groups: Group 1 - annual application of 30% SDF solution; Group 2 - three applications of 30% SDF at weekly intervals; and Group 3 - three applications of 5% NaF varnish at weekly intervals...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
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