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D Faria, C S Abreu, M Buciumeanu, N Dourado, O Carvalho, F S Silva, G Miranda
This work presents a novel texture design for implants surface functionalization, through the creation of line-shaped textures on Ti6Al4V surfaces and subsequent sintering of hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder into the designated locations. HAp-rich locations were designed to avoid HAp detachment during insertion, thus guaranteeing an effective osseointegration. This process starts by creating textured lines using a Nd:YAG laser, filling these lines with HAp powder and sintering HAp using a CO2 laser. The adhesion of HAp is known to be influenced by HAp sintering parameters, especially laser power and scanning speed and also by the textured lines manufacturing...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yvonne Wagner, Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien
PURPOSE: To determine the caries prevalence and experience in Thuringian infants and to assess their caries risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects were participants in a regional preventive programme, a birth cohort study with the aim of preventing caries. In the first year of life, children were invited to a dental examination at the Jena University Hospital. Dental caries was scored using WHO diagnostic criteria at the d1-level without radiography. Children were categorised as being of low, moderate or high risk for caries according to the caries-risk assessment tool of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD)...
July 25, 2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Tsung-Han Liu, Ken-Ichi Yuyama, Takato Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Eri Chatani, Hiroshi Miyasaka, Teruki Sugiyama, Hiroshi Masuhara
Femtosecond (fs) laser-induced crystallization as a novel crystallization technique was proposed for the first time by our group, where crystallization time can be significantly shortened under fs laser irradiation. Similarly, we have further extended our investigation to amyloid fibril formation also known as a nucleation-dependence process. Here we demonstrate that necessary time for amyloid fibril formation can be much shortened by fs laser irradiation leading to favorable enhancement. The enhancement was confirmed by both spectral measurements and direct observations of amyloid fibrils...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Pengying Wu, Yali Jia, Fei Qu, Yue Sun, Pan Wang, Kun Zhang, Chuanshan Xu, Quanhong Liu, Xiaobing Wang
Targeting drug delivery remains a challenge in various disease treatment including cancer. The local drug deposit could be greatly enhanced by some external stimuli-responsive systems. Here we develop pluronic P123/F127 polymeric micelles (M) encapsulating curcumin (Cur) that are permeabilized directly by focused ultrasound, in which ultrasound triggers drug release. Tumor preferential accumulation and site-specific sonochemotherapy were then evaluated. Cur-loaded P123/F127 mixed micelles (Cur-M) exhibited longer circulating time and increased cellular uptake compared to free Cur...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pooya Movahed, Wayne Kreider, Adam D Maxwell, Barbrina Dunmire, Jonathan B Freund
Therapeutic ultrasound can drive bubble activity that damages soft tissues. To study the potential mechanisms of such injury, transparent agar tissue-mimicking phantoms were subjected to multiple pressure wave bursts of the kind being considered specifically for burst wave lithotripsy. A high-speed camera recorded bubble activity during each pulse. Various agar concentrations were used to alter the phantom's mechanical properties, especially its stiffness, which was varied by a factor of 3.5. However, the maximum observed bubble radius was insensitive to stiffness...
July 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Maria Anderson, Göran Dahllöf, Fernanda Cunha Soares, Margaret Grindefjord
OBJECTIVE: This study describes caries progression at tooth-surface level in children from 1-3 years of age and the impact of biannual treatment with fluoride varnish. METHODS: Children who participated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial and had shown signs of dental caries were included in this study (n=801). International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used to classify dental caries. The present study compared children receiving a standard yearly intervention to children receiving the same standard preventive intervention supplemented with an application of fluoride varnish every half year...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
Wanying Ma, Ying Zhang, Xueling Zheng, Tinghe Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) has been used for cancer prodrug therapy to realize the targeted release of active drugs, but there yet lacks a means to modulate the CPG2 activity. Here ultrasound was used to modulate the CPG2 activity. METHODS: The activity of insonated CPG2 was determined, and then underlying biochemical (i.e., monomer, dimer and conformation) and ultrasonic (i.e., heat and cavitation) mechanisms were explored. RESULTS: Ultrasound (1...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yang Shen, Kyuichi Yasui, Tong Zhu, Muthupandian Ashokkumar
A new model of single cavitation bubble dynamics has been developed to include the effect of bulk liquid viscosity in addition to the effects of evaporation/condensation of water vapor, thermal conduction and the compressibility of a liquid. In this study, the liquid viscosity is divided into two parts: viscosity at the bubble interface (μ') and viscosity of the bulk liquid (μ). A set of numerical calculations with and without μ has been completed under different viscosities (0.001-0.014 Pa s) to quantitatively analyze the effect of μ on single cavitation bubble dynamics...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiasheng Guo, Chenliang Cai, Guangyao Xu, Yanye Yang, Juan Tu, PinTong Huang, Dong Zhang
Sonoporation has been widely accepted as a significant tool for gene delivery as well as some bio-effects like hemolysis, bringing in high demands of looking into its underlying mechanism. A two-dimensional (2D) boundary element method (BEM) model was developed to investigate microbubble-cell interaction, especially the morphological and mechanical characteristics around the close-to-bubble point (CP) on cell membrane. Based on time evolution analysis of sonoporation, detailed information was extracted from the model for analysis, including volume expansion ratio of the bubble, areal expansion ratio of the cell, jet velocity and CP displacement...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Dongliang Zhang, Mei Li, Kai Gao, Jianfei Li, Yujun Yan, Xingyu Liu
In this study, we investigated an alternative to the conventional hydrochloric acid leaching of roasted bastnaesite. The studies suggested that the rare earth oxyfluorides in non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite can be selectively leached only at elevated temperatures Further, the Ce(IV) in oxidatively roasted bastnaesite does not leach readily at low temperatures, and it is difficult to induce it to form a complex with F(-) ions in order to increase the leaching efficiency. Moreover, it is inevitably reduced to Ce(III) at elevated temperatures...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yucheng Lei, Hongxia Chang, Xiaokai Guo, Tianqing Li, Longren Xiao
Liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is applied in the Accelerator Driven transmutation System (ADS) as the high-power spallation neutron targets and coolant. A 19.2kHz ultrasonic device was deployed in liquid LBE at 550°C to induce short and long period cavitation erosion damage on the surface of weld joint, SEM and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to map out the surface properties, and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) was applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in the micro region of the surface...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Huakai Shao, Aiping Wu, Yudian Bao, Yue Zhao, Lei Liu, Guisheng Zou
The interactions at the interface between planar Ag3Sn and liquid Sn under ultrasonic irradiation were investigated. An intensive thermal grooving process occurred at Ag3Sn grain boundaries due to ultrasonic effects. Without ultrasonic application, planar shape of Ag3Sn layer gradually evolved into scalloped morphology after the solid-state Sn melting, due to a preferential dissolution of the intermetallic compounds from the regions at grain boundaries, which left behind the grooves embedding in the Ag3Sn layer...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Eakkasit Thasirisap, Naratip Vittayakorn, Panpailin Seeharaj
This study reported a novel approach to optimize the photocatalytic property of anatase TiO2 particles by delaminating their outer surface into highly reactive nanosheets via the sono-assisted exfoliation method. To modify the surface, TiO2 particles were dispersed in aqueous solution of 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH), followed by irradiation with high intensity ultrasonic wave (20kHz, 150W/cm(2)) for 60min. The intercalation and exfoliation processes were accelerated with the driving force of the extreme acoustic cavitation leading to the delamination of TiO2 nanosheets with highly reactive exposed {001} facets from the mother TiO2 crystals...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yi Min, Zhenxing Shi, Chengjun Liu
Under the application of ultrasound, the organic polymers can be degraded for the reason of breakage of C-C or C-N bond induced by the cavitation effect, similar to organic polymers, the silicate melts are also one typical polymer connected with Si-O bonds. To verify the prediction of the depolymerization of silicate melt, the ultrasound was applied to one kind of silicate melt for the first time via a special designed experimental system. Results showed that, under the applying of the ultrasound, the Si-O (bridged O) bonds in the structure units of the silicate melt can be broken, which decreases the polymerization degree and the viscosity...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Feng Wang, Iakovos Tzanakis, Dmitry Eskin, Jiawei Mi, Thomas Connolley
The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al3Ti, Si and Al3V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Saurabh Joshi, Parag R Gogate, Paulo F Moreira, Reinaldo Giudici
In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Hanyang Gao, Guoxin Hu, Kun Liu, Liqun Wu
Waterborne nanoemulsion of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A type epoxy resin (DGEBA) with droplet size of around 124nm was prepared by using an ultrasonic-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) technique in an autoclave reactor at a low temperature (32°C). A view cell positioned in-line with the ultrasonic probe allowed observation of the emulsification process. From the image analysis and droplet size measurement, the influence mechanisms of the ultrasonic power, the degree of mixing of scCO2 with DGEBA, the adding amount of emulsifier, and the system pressure on emulsification process and emulsion droplet size were investigated...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Qihao Chen, Sanbao Lin, Chunli Yang, Chenglei Fan, Hongliang Ge
Under the action of acoustic waves during an ultrasonic-assisted tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process, a grain of a TIG weld of aluminum alloy is refined by nucleation and grain fragmentation. Herein, effects of ultrasound on grain fragmentation in the TIG weld of aluminum alloy are investigated via systematic welding experiments of pure aluminum. First, experiments involving continuous and fixed-position welding are performed, which demonstrate that ultrasound can break the grain of the TIG weld of pure aluminum...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Lei Qiao, Yuping Wu, Sheng Hong, Jianfeng Zhang, Wei Shi, Yugui Zheng
Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings were prepared on the AISI 321 steel substrate by the high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technology. The effect of selected parameters (oxygen flow, kerosene flow and spray distance) on the cavitation erosion resistance (denoted as Rc) of the coating were investigated by using the Taguchi method. Statistical tools such as design of experiments (DOE), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to meet the expected objective...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Abdul Wahab Jatoi, Farooq Ahmed, Muzamil Khatri, Anwaruddin Tanwari, Zeeshan Khatri, Hoik Lee, Ick Soo Kim
We first time report ultrasonic dyeing of the Nylon 6 nanofibers with two disperse dyes CI Disperse blue 56 and CI Disperse Red 167:1 by utilising ultrasonic energy during dyeing process. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning and dyed via batchwise method with and without sonication. Results revealed that ultrasonic dyeing produce higher color yield (K/S values) and substantially reduces dyeing time from 60min for conventional dyeing to 30min can be attributed to breakage of dye aggregate, transient cavitation near nanofiber surface and mass transfer within/between nanofibers...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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