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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633859/stability-of-cavitation-structures-in-a-thin-liquid-layer
#1
Pengfei Wu, Lixin Bai, Weijun Lin, Jiuchun Yan
The inception and evolution of acoustic cavitation structures in thin liquid layers under different conditions and perturbations are investigated experimentally with high speed photography. The stability and characterization of cavitation structures are quantified by image analysis methods. It is found that cavitation structures (shape of bubble cloud and number of bubbles) are stable under unaltered experimental conditions, and the cavitation bubble cloud will return to the original structure and remain stable even in the face of large perturbations...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633854/an-investigation-of-lipase-catalysed-sonochemical-synthesis-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Sneha R Bansode, Virendra K Rathod
Ultrasonic irradiation has recently gained attention of researchers for its process intensification in numerous reactions. Earlier ultrasound was known for its application either to deactivate enzyme activity or to disrupt the cell. However, in recent years, practice of ultrasonic irradiation began to emerge as a tool for the activation of the enzymes under mild frequency conditions. The incorporation of ultrasound in any of enzymatic reactions not only increases yield but also accelerates the rate of reaction in the presence of mild conditions with better yield and less side-products...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633849/effects-of-bovine-serum-albumin-on-a-single-cavitation-bubble
#3
Shuibao Qi, Badreddine Assouar, Weizhong Chen
The dynamics and sonoluminescence (SL) of a single cavitation bubble in bovine serum albumin (BSA) aqueous solutions have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A phase-locked integral imaging has been used to record the bubble pulsation evolutions. The results show that, under the optimum driving condition, the endurable driving pressure, maximum radius, radius compression ratio and SL intensity of the cavitation bubble increase correspondingly with the increase of BSA concentrations within the critical micelle concentration, which indicates that the addition of BSA increases the power capability of the cavitation bubble...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633847/the-role-of-ultrasound-in-hydrogen-removal-and-microstructure-refinement-by-ultrasonic-argon-degassing-process
#4
Xuan Liu, Cheng Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jilai Xue, Qichi Le
In this work, the role of ultrasound in hydrogen removal and microstructure refinement by the ultrasonic argon degassing has been fully investigated by the experimental work in water and AZ91-0.4Ca magnesium melt, respectively. Ultrasound is able to break up argon gas into numbers of small bubbles and drive them diving deeply to the bottom of water, which are responsible for the efficient degassing regime of ultrasonic argon process. The argon flowrate plays a dominant role in promoting hydrogen removal effect...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633839/permeability-recovery-of-damaged-water-sensitive-core-using-ultrasonic-waves
#5
Nasir Khan, Chunsheng Pu, Xu Li, Yanlong He, Lei Zhang, Cheng Jing
It is imperative to recover the well productivity lose due to formation damage nearby wellbore during variant well operations. Some indispensable issues in conventional techniques make ultrasonic technology more attractive due to simple, reliable, favorable, cost-effective, and environment friendly nature. This study proposes the independent and combined use of ultrasonic waves and chemical agents for the treatment of already damaged core samples caused by exposure to distilled water. Results elucidate that ultrasonic waves with optimum (20kHz, 1000W) instead of maximum frequency and power worked well in the recovery owing to peristaltic transport caused by matching of natural frequency with acoustic waves frequency...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633836/a-parametric-review-of-sonochemistry-control-and-augmentation-of-sonochemical-activity-in-aqueous-solutions
#6
REVIEW
Richard James Wood, Judy Lee, Madeleine J Bussemaker
In this review the phenomenon of ultrasonic cavitation and associated sonochemistry is presented through system parameters. Primary parameters are defined and considered, namely; pressure amplitude, frequency and reactor design; including transducer type, signal type, vessel-transducer ratio, liquid flow, liquid height, liquid temperature and the presence of a reflective plate. Secondary parameters are similarly characterised and involve the use of gas and liquid additives to influence the chemical and physical environments...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633817/computational-study-of-state-equation-effect-on-single-acoustic-cavitation-bubble-s-phenomenon
#7
Kaouther Kerboua, Oualid Hamdaoui
Many models have been established to study the evolution of the bubble dynamics and chemical kinetics within a single acoustic cavitation bubble during its oscillation. The content of the bubble is a gas medium that generates the evolution of a chemical mechanism governed by the internal bubble conditions. These gases are described by a state equation, linking the pressure to the volume, temperature and species amounts, and influencing simultaneously the dynamical, the thermal and the mass variation in the cavitation bubble...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633816/a-derivation-of-the-stable-cavitation-threshold-accounting-for-bubble-bubble-interactions
#8
Matthieu Guédra, Corentin Cornu, Claude Inserra
The subharmonic emission of sound coming from the nonlinear response of a bubble population is the most used indicator for stable cavitation. When driven at twice their resonance frequency, bubbles can exhibit subharmonic spherical oscillations if the acoustic pressure amplitude exceeds a threshold value. Although various theoretical derivations exist for the subharmonic emission by free or coated bubbles, they all rest on the single bubble model. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression of the subharmonic threshold for interacting bubbles in a homogeneous, monodisperse cloud...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633811/effects-and-mechanism-of-ultrasonic-irradiation-on-solidification-microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-binary-tial-alloys
#9
Ruirun Chen, Deshuang Zheng, Tengfei Ma, Hongsheng Ding, Yanqing Su, Jingjie Guo, Hengzhi Fu
In spite of their high temperature and reactivity, the binary TiAl alloys are successfully imposed by the ultrasonic irradiation and the microstructure evolution, solidification behaviors and mechanical properties are elaborately investigated. After ultrasonic irradiation, a high quality ingot without shrinkage defects and element segregation is obtained and the coarse dendrite structure is well modified into fine non-dendrite globular grains. The coarse lamellar colony and lamellar space of Ti44Al alloy is refined from 685μm to 52μm and 1185nm to 312nm, respectively (similarly, 819μm to 102μm and 2085nm to 565nm for Ti48Al alloy)...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633809/extraction-of-olive-oil-assisted-by-high-frequency-ultrasound-standing-waves
#10
Pablo Juliano, Fabian Bainczyk, Piotr Swiergon, Made Ian Maheswara Supriyatna, Claudia Guillaume, Leandro Ravetti, Pablo Canamasas, Giancarlo Cravotto, Xin-Qing Xu
High-frequency ultrasound standing waves (megasonics) have been demonstrated to enhance oil separation in the palm oil process at an industrial level. This work investigated the application of megasonics in the olive oil process on laboratory and pilot scale levels. Sound pressure level and cavitational yield distribution were characterised with hydrophones and luminol to determine associated physical and sonochemical effects inside the reactor. The effect of water addition (0%, 15%, and 30%), megasonic power levels (0%, 50%, and 100%), and malaxation time (10min, 30min, and 50min) was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) in a 700g batch extraction process...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633808/impact-of-mr-guided-boiling-histotripsy-in-distinct-murine-tumor-models
#11
Martijn Hoogenboom, Dylan C Eikelenboom, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Arend Heerschap, Pieter Wesseling, Martijn H den Brok, Jurgen J Fütterer, Gosse J Adema
Interest in mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is rapidly growing. Boiling histotripsy (BH) is applied for mechanical fragmentation of soft tissue into submicron fragments with limited temperature increase using the shock wave and cavitation effects of HIFU. Research on BH has been largely limited to ex vivo experiments. As a consequence, the in vivo pathology after BH treatment and the relation to preexistent tissue characteristics are not well understood. This study reports on in vivo MR guided BH treatment, either with 100 or 200 pulses per focal spot, in three different subcutaneous mouse tumor models: a soft-tissue melanoma (B16OVA), a compact growing thymoma (EL4), and a highly vascularized neuroblastoma (9464D)...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633378/the-cost-of-avoiding-freezing-in-stems-trade-off-between-xylem-resistance-to-cavitation-and-supercooling-capacity-in-woody-plants
#12
Nadia S Arias, Fabián G Scholz, Guillermo Goldstein, Sandra J Bucci
Stems and leaves of Olea europaea L. (olive) avoid freezing damage by substantial supercooling during the winter season. Physiological changes during acclimation to low temperatures were studied in five olive cultivars. Water relations and hydraulic traits, ice nucleation temperature (INT) and temperatures resulting in 50% damage (LT50) were determined. All cultivars showed a gradual decrease in INT and LT50 from the dry and warm summer to the wet and cold winter in Patagonia, Argentina. During acclimation to low temperatures there was an increase in leaf cell wall rigidity and stomatal conductance (gs), as well as a decrease in leaf apoplastic water content, leaf water potential (Ψ), sap flow and stem hydraulic conductivity (ks)...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633335/pulmonary-tb-varying-radiological-presentations-in-individuals-with-hiv-in-soweto-south-africa
#13
Jesne Kistan, Fatima Laher, Kennedy Otwombe, Ravindre Panchia, Nohemie Mawaka, Limakatso Lebina, Andreas Diacon, Bavesh Kana, Neil Martinson
Background: HIV-uninfected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) commonly present with radiological features of upper lobe cavitatory disease. In contrast, individuals with HIV and PTB may present differently. This study compared radiological features of individuals with laboratory-confirmed PTB by HIV status from the largest study in South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults recruited between 2012 and 2015 with laboratory-confirmed PTB in Soweto, South Africa...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626283/assessment-of-cavitation-in-artificial-approximal-dental-lesions-with-near-ir-imaging
#14
Jacob C Simon, Cynthia L Darling, Daniel Fried
Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization...
January 28, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625955/experiment-of-vitreous-liquefaction-induced-by-c3f8
#15
Jing Wang, Qiuming Li
To investigate the effect and safety of vitreous liquefaction induced by C3F8 (an inert gas) injected into vitreous cavit of rabbit eyes. 24 rabbits (48 eyes) were randomly divided into four groups, named group A, group B, group C and group D, with 6 rabbits in each group. The right eye in each rabbit was taken as the experimental eye while the left as the control eye. The experimental eyes in group A were injected with 0.1mL disinfectant air; the experimental eyes in group B, group C and group D were all injected with C3F8 0...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625857/validation-of-the-visible-occlusal-plaque-index-vopi-in-estimating-caries-lesion-activity
#16
J C Carvalho, H D Mestrinho, L S Oliveira, M M Varjão, N Aimée, V Qvist
OBJECTIVE: The present study appraises the construct validity of the Visible Occlusal Plaque Index (VOPI) along with its sub-types, convergent and discriminant validity. METHODS: 618 10-15year old Brazilian adolescents were included. The VOPI has a four-point ordinal scale ranging from no plaque to heavy plaque. VOPI scores and caries status on permanent molars were mapped and recorded at individual anatomical sites of the groove-fossa-system and at surface level...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621326/resin-infiltration-of-deproteinised-natural-occlusal-subsurface-lesions-improves-initial-quality-of-fissure-sealing
#17
Andrej M Kielbassa, Ina Ulrich, Rita Schmidl, Christoph Schüller, Wilhelm Frank, Vanessa D Werth
The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the infiltration capability and rate of microleakage of a low-viscous resin infiltrant combined with a flowable composite resin (RI/CR) when used with deproteinised and etched occlusal subsurface lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System code 2). This combined treatment procedure was compared with the exclusive use of flowable composite resin (CR) for fissure sealing. Twenty premolars and 20 molars revealing non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions were randomly divided into two groups and were meticulously cleaned and deproteinised using NaOCl (2%)...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621243/retrospective-evaluation-of-patients-with-organizing-pneumonia-is-cryptogenic-organizing-pneumonia-different-from-secondary-organizing-pneumonia
#18
Saliha Yılmaz, Berna Akıncı Özyürek, Yurdanur Erdoğan, Burcu Cirit Koçer, Funda Demirağ, Yeliz Dadalı, Sertaç Büyükyaylacı Özden
Introduction: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is an uncommon clinic opathological situation among lung diseases. If no underlying cause can be detected, it is named as cryptogenic OP (COP). In this study, the etiologic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed as OP in our hospital in the last ten years were evaluated retrospectively. It was also aimed to make a comparison between COP and secondary OP patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty-five patients diagnosed as OP pathologically in the 10 year period from August 2003 to August 2013 were included into that study...
March 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618494/radiation-dynamics-of-a-cavitation-bubble-in-a-liquid-filled-cavity-surrounded-by-an-elastic-solid
#19
Catherine Drysdale, Alexander A Doinikov, Philippe Marmottant
A specific cavitation phenomenon occurs inside the stems of trees. The internal pressure in tree conduits can drop down to significant negative values, which causes the nucleation of bubbles. The bubbles exhibit high-frequency oscillations just after their nucleation. In the present study, this phenomenon is modeled by taking into account acoustic waves produced by bubble oscillations. A dispersion equation is derived, which is then used to calculate the resonance frequency and the attenuation coefficient of the bubble oscillations...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618424/preventive-and-therapeutic-proximal-sealing-a-3-5-year-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-follow-up
#20
Cristian P Basili, Claes Göran Emilson, Gonzalo C Corvalan, Maria Paz Moran, Carlos Torres, Mariela D Quiroz, Santiago Sergio Gomez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this split-mouth, randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of proximal sealing for avoiding the development of new caries lesions or arresting incipient caries lesions on the mesial surface of first permanent molars (6m) abutting lesions on the distal surface of second primary molars (05d) in children at high caries risk. METHODS: A total of 61 children 8-10 years old were selected based on the caries status of the proximal sites of 05d and 6m...
June 16, 2017: Caries Research
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