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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779162/beyond-social-desirability-bias-investigating-inconsistencies-in-self-reported-hiv-testing-and-treatment-behaviors-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-north-west-province-south-africa
#1
Alyssa C Mooney, Chadwick K Campbell, Mary-Jane Ratlhagana, Jessica S Grignon, Sipho Mazibuko, Emily Agnew, Hailey Gilmore, Scott Barnhart, Adrian Puren, Starley B Shade, Teri Liegler, Sheri A Lippman
This mixed-methods study used qualitative interviews to explore discrepancies between self-reported HIV care and treatment-related behaviors and the presence of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in a population-based survey in South Africa. ARV analytes were identified among 18% of those reporting HIV-negative status and 18% of those reporting not being on ART. Among participants reporting diagnosis over a year prior, 19% reported multiple HIV tests in the past year. Qualitative results indicated that participant misunderstandings about their care and treatment played a substantial role in reporting inaccuracies...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778782/acyclovir-lipid-nanocapsules-gel-for-oromucosal-delivery-a-preclinical-evidence-of-efficacy-in-the-chicken-pouch-membrane-model
#2
Darine Abozaid, Alyaa Ramadan, Heba Barakat, Nawal Khalafallah
The study aimed to develop a patient-friendly acyclovir gel with improved efficacy in viral mouth infections, in response to patients' need for an intraoral acyclovir product. Acyclovir was loaded in lipid nanocapsules in gel form, and formulae were evaluated for oromucosal delivery. Lipid nanocapsules were prepared by the phase inversion method. Formulae were optimized to achieve maximum acyclovir entrapment and minimum acyclovir precipitation. Colloidal properties, and pharmaceutical performance indicators were assessed...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778195/antigenicity-characterization-of-four-representative-natural-reassortment-ibdvs-isolated-from-commercial-three-yellow-chickens-from-southern-china-reveals-different-subtypes-co-prevalent-in-the-field
#3
Guo Chen, Xiumiao He, Lin Yang, Ping Wei
The antigenic relationships between the natural reassortment field strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and between the field strains and the vaccine strains are poorly understood. In the present study, the antigenicity of four representative natural reassortment IBDV isolates designated JS7, GD10111, NN1005 and NN1172 from southern China during the years 2005-2011 and their antigenic relationship with the most commonly used vaccine strain B87 were investigated in vivo. For this purpose, cross-challenge studies were performed on 28-day-old birds, which were 2 weeks post-vaccination by oil-emulsion vaccines (OEVs) prepared from the four field viruses and B87, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778179/recombinant-adenovirus-delivered-soluble-cd163-and-sialoadhesin-receptors-protected-pigs-from-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#4
Wenlong Xia, Zhi Wu, Changming Guo, Shanyuan Zhu, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaoli Xia, Huaichang Sun
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important swine diseases affecting pig industry worldwide. Sialoadehesin (Sn) and CD163 are the two specific receptors for PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages. Our previous study showed that the soluble Sn receptor Sn4D-Fc and soluble CD163 receptor SRCR59-Fc expressed by the two recombinant adenoviral (rAd) vectors have an additive anti-PRRSV effect in vitro. In the present study, rAd-Sn4D-Fc and rAd-SRCR59-Fc were inoculated into pigs, and the efficient expression of Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc proteins was detected by ELISA...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777854/dissolving-polymeric-microneedle-arrays-for-enhanced-site-specific-acyclovir-delivery
#5
Boonnada Pamornpathomkul, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat, Ismaiel A Tekko, Lalitkumar Vora, Helen O McCarthy, Ryan F Donnelly
Acyclovir is widely indicated for the treatment of herpes labialis (cold sores), typically caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). However, topical acyclovir has poor efficacy, due to its low skin permeability. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the ability of dissolving polymeric microneedle (MN) arrays to improve the local delivery of acyclovir. Acyclovir-loaded dissolving MN arrays (0.49 cm2 ) were formulated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® S-97 with 361 needles per array (589 ± 9...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777446/the-degree-of-hiv-1-amino-acid-variability-is-strictly-related-to-different-disease-progression-rates
#6
Rossana Scutari, Monica Faieta, Roberta D'Arrigo, Lavinia Fabeni, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Claudio Casoli, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Claudia Alteri, Stefano Aquaro
The aim of this study is to evaluate the amino acid variability of HIV-1 Gp41, C2-V3, and Nef in a group of patients characterized by different disease progression rates. HIV-1 sequences were collected from 19 Long term non progressor patients (LTNPs), 9 slow progressors (SPs), and 11 rapid progressors (RPs). Phylogenetic trees were estimated by MEGA 6. Differences in amino acid variability among sequences belonging to the 3 groups have been evaluated by amino acid divergence, Shannon entropy analysis, and the number of amino acid mutations (defined as amino acid variations compared with HxB2)...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774022/acute-zika-virus-infection-in-an-endemic-area-shows-modest-proinflammatory-systemic-immunoactivation-and-cytokine-symptom-associations
#7
Jéssica Barletto de Sousa Barros, Paulo Alex Neves da Silva, Rosemary de Carvalho Rocha Koga, Patrícia Gonzalez-Dias, José Rodrigues Carmo Filho, Patrícia Resende Alo Nagib, Verônica Coelho, Helder I Nakaya, Simone Gonçalves Fonseca, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann Pfrimer
An early immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may determine its clinical manifestation and outcome, including neurological effects. However, low-grade and transient viremia limits the prompt diagnosis of acute ZIKV infection. We have investigated the plasma cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profiles of 36 individuals from an endemic area displaying different symptoms such as exanthema, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, hyperemia, swelling, itching, and nausea during early-phase infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773090/vsita-an-improved-approach-of-target-amplification-in-the-identification-of-viral-pathogens
#8
Yi Zhang, Chen Zhang, Bo Li, Yang Li, Xiao Zhou He, Acher Li, Wei Wu, Su Xia Duan, Fang Zhou Qiu, Ji Wang, Xin Xin Shen, Meng Jie Yang, De Xin Li, Xue Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Unbiased next generation sequencing (NGS) is susceptible to interference from host or environmental sequences. Consequently, background depletion and virome enrichment techniques are usually needed for clinical samples where viral load is much lower than background sequences. METHODS: A viral Sequence Independent Targeted Amplification (VSITA) approach using a set of non-ribosomal and virus-enriched octamers (V8) was developed and compared with traditionally used random hexamers (N6)...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772762/paradoxical-effect-of-chloroquine-treatment-in-enhancing-chikungunya-virus-infection
#9
Pierre Roques, Simon-Djamel Thiberville, Laurence Dupuis-Maguiraga, Fok-Moon Lum, Karine Labadie, Frédéric Martinon, Gabriel Gras, Pierre Lebon, Lisa F P Ng, Xavier de Lamballerie, Roger Le Grand
Since 2005, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged and caused numerous outbreaks in the world, and finally, was introduced into the Americas in 2013. The lack of CHIKV-specific therapies has led to the use of non-specific drugs. Chloroquine, which is commonly used to treat febrile illnesses in the tropics, has been shown to inhibit CHIKV replication in vitro. To assess the in vivo effect of chloroquine, two complementary studies were performed: (i) a prophylactic study in a non-human primate model (NHP); and (ii) a curative study "CuraChik", which was performed during the Reunion Island outbreak in 2006 in a human cohort...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772748/drug-delivery-strategies-for-antivirals-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#10
REVIEW
Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772652/gp120-v5-is-targeted-by-the-first-wave-of-sequential-neutralizing-antibodies-in-shiv-sf162p3n-infected-rhesus-macaques
#11
Manxue Jia, Hong Lu, Xiang-Peng Kong, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Xueling Wu
Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection provides a relevant animal model to study HIV-1 neutralization breadth. With previously identified SHIVSF162P3N infected rhesus macaques that did or did not develop neutralization breadth, we characterized the transmitted/founder viruses and initial autologous/homologous neutralizing antibodies in these animals. The plasma viral load and blood CD4 count did not distinguish macaques with and without breadth, and only one tested homologous envelope clone revealed a trend for macaques with breadth to favor an early homologous response...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771862/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-thalassemic-children
#12
Shivadatta Padhi, Sudhir Maharshi, Gaurav K Gupta, Kapil Garg, Sandeep Nijhawan
OBJECTIVES: There is limited data on the efficacy and safety of directly acting antiviral therapy (DAA) for chronic hepatitis C in pediatric population. The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of DAA in chronic hepatitis C β-thalassemic major pediatric patients. METHODS: Prospective study was conducted from September 2015 to January 2017. All β-thalassemic major chronic hepatitis C pediatric patients with age between 5 and 14 years were included in this study...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771783/hiv-1-drug-resistance-among-ugandan-adults-attending-an-urban-out-patient-clinic
#13
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Nadine Bachmann, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandra U Scherrer, Maria Nanyonjo, Anne Kapaata, Pontiano Kaleebu, Huldrych F Günthard, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-infected Ugandans, a setting with over 15 years of public-sector access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and where virological monitoring was only recently introduced. SETTING: This study was conducted in the adults' out-patient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: HIV genotyping was performed in ART naïve patients and in treatment experienced patients on ART for ≥ six months with virological failure (≥1000 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771296/nationwide-cohort-study-of-antiretroviral-therapy-timing-treatment-dropout-and-virological-failure-in-china-2011-2015
#14
Yan Zhao, Zunyou Wu, Jennifer M McGoogan, Yiyi Sha, Decai Zhao, Ye Ma, Ron Brookmeyer, Roger Detels, Julio S G Montaner
Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) are still being diagnosed late, rendering the benefits of "early" antiretroviral therapy (ART; based on CD4 count) unattainable. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the benefits of "immediate" ART (based on the time interval between diagnosis and treatment, regardless of CD4 count). Methods: A nationwide cohort of PLWH in China who initiated ART January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014 and had baseline CD4 results >200 cells/μL were censored at 12 months, dropout, or death, whichever was first...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771270/effect-of-conversion-from-calcineurin-inhibitors-to-everolimus-on-hepatitis-c-viremia-in-adult-kidney-transplant-recipients
#15
Larissa Sgaria Pacheco, Valter Duro Garcia, Ronivan Luis Dal Prá, Bruna Doleys Cardoso, Mariana Ferras Rodrigues, Helen Kris Zanetti, Gisele Meinerz, Jorge Neumann, Diego Gnatta, Elizete Keitel
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is no specific immunosuppressive protocol for hepatitis C (HCV)-positive renal transplants recipients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the conversion effect to everolimus (EVR) on HCV in adult kidney recipients. METHOD: This is an exploratory single-center, prospective, randomized, open label controlled trial with renal allograft recipients with HCV-positive serology. Participants were randomized for conversion to EVR or maintenance of calcineurin inhibitors...
May 14, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770748/the-effect-of-switching-protease-inhibitors-to-raltegravir-on-endothelial-function-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Maaike Krikke, Kiki Tesselaar, Guido E L van den Berk, Sigrid A Otto, Laura H Freriks, Steven F L van Lelyveld, Frank J L Visseren, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends
Objective Lipid management is one of the cornerstones of cardiovascular risk reduction. Treatment of HIV infection with protease inhibitors (PIs) may cause dyslipidaemia, whilst the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) has a relatively favorable effect on plasma lipids. We examined the effect of switching from PIs to RAL on endothelial function, and its effect on immunological and inflammatory parameters. Methods We performed a 16-week open-label prospective crossover study: 8 weeks intervention (switch PIs to RAL) and 8 weeks control (unchanged cART regimen)...
April 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770747/cd16-expressing-monocytes-correlate-with-arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-art-na%C3%A3-ve-men
#17
Ling Luo, Yang Han, Xiaojing Song, Ting Zhu, Yong Zeng, Taisheng Li
Objectives To determine the association of the markers of monocyte activation and arterial stiffness among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve men. Methods Sixty HIV-infected ART-naïve men and 20 HIV-uninfected male controls without symptoms or history of cardiovascular disease were recruited. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as the marker of arterial stiffness and determined using a pulse pressure analyzer. The percentage of CD16-expressing monocytes was used as a marker of monocyte activation...
April 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769442/distinct-biomarker-signatures-in-hiv-acute-infection-associate-with-viral-dynamics-and-reservoir-size
#18
Jeffrey E Teigler, Louise Leyre, Nicolas Chomont, Bonnie Slike, Ningbo Jian, Michael A Eller, Nittaya Phanuphak, Eugène Kroon, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Leigh Anne Eller, Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nelson L Michael, Hendrik Streeck, Shelly J Krebs
Estimating the size of the viral reservoir is critical for HIV cure strategies. Biomarkers in peripheral circulation may give insights into the establishment of the viral reservoir in compartments not easily accessible. We therefore measured systemic levels of 84 soluble biomarkers belonging to a broad array of immune pathways in acute HIV infection in both antiretroviral therapy-naive (ART-naive) individuals as well as individuals who began ART upon early detection of HIV infection. These biomarkers were measured longitudinally during acute and chronic infection and their relationship to viral reservoir establishment and persistence was assessed...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768691/detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-among-chronic-and-potential-occult-hbv-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#19
Arifa Akram, S M Rashedul Islam, Saif Ullah Munshi, Shahina Tabassum
Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) usually occurs due to the transfusion of blood or blood products from chronic HBV (CHB) or occult HBV infected (OBI) patients. Besides serological tests e.g. HBsAg and anti-HBc (total), detection of HBV-DNA is necessary for the diagnosis of OBI patients. Different nucleic acid tests (NATs) including real-time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) are used for the detect HBV-DNA. The NATs are expensive and require technical expertise which are barriers to introducing them in resource-limited settings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767684/ultrasensitive-hiv-1-viral-load-as-a-marker-of-treatment-choice-for-simplification-strategies
#20
Sidonie Lambert-Niclot, Maxime Grude, Jean-Luc Meynard, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Philippe Flandre, Jacques Izopet, Laetitia Moinot, Vincent Bouteloup, Vincent Calvez, Christine Katlama, Pierre-Marie Girard, Laurence Morand-Joubert
Background: We pooled the results of three randomized trials that compared the efficacy of PI/r monotherapy and standard triple therapy as maintenance therapy and evaluated: 1) the distribution of ultrasensitive viral load (USVL) at week 96 (W96), 2) factors associated with virological success (VL<50 copy/mL) at W96, and 3) factors associated with USVL<1 copy/ml (c/ml) at W96. Methods: Virological failure was defined as two consecutive measurements of HIV-1 RNA viral load >50 copies/mL and was analyzed in intention-to-treat...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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