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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926631/correction-randomized-controlled-trials-to-define-viral-load-thresholds-for-cytomegalovirus-pre-emptive-therapy
#1
Paul D Griffiths, Emily Rothwell, Mohammed Raza, Stephanie Wilmore, Tomas Doyle, Mark Harber, James O'Beirne, Stephen Mackinnon, Gareth Jones, Douglas Thorburn, Frank Mattes, Gaia Nebbia, Sowsan Atabani, Colette Smith, Anna Stanton, Vincent C Emery
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163722.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926406/risk-factors-for-anal-hsil-in-hiv-positive-msm-is-targeted-screening-possible
#2
Matthijs L Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Elske Marra, Henry J C de Vries, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Jan M Prins
OBJECTIVE: HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) are at increased risk for developing anal squamous cell carcinoma (aSCC). Detection of precursor lesions of anal cancer (anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; HSIL) is cumbersome and expensive. Our objective was to identify potential risk factors for anal HSIL in HIV-positive MSM to develop more stringent screening criteria. DESIGN: We studied a cohort of MSM screened by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) at three HIV clinics in Amsterdam, the Netherlands...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926398/association-of-a-3-untranslated-region-polymorphism-in-pcsk9-with-hiv-viral-load-and-cd4-levels-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-women
#3
Mark H Kuniholm, Hua Liang, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Seble Kassaye, Marek Nowicki, Beverly E Sha, Emilia J Pawlowski, Stephen J Gange, Bradley E Aouizerat, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Michael I Bukrinsky, Vinayaka R Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: We examined 2,050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1,066 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve women...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924462/quantification-of-active-and-latent-form-of-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-umbilical-cord-blood-donors-by-real-time-pcr
#4
E Abedi, M Kheirandish, Z Sharifi, S Samiee, P Kokhaei, Z Pourpak, M J Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is believed to be a highly valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of active and latent human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in UCB donors in Iranian population. METHODS: A total of 825 UCB samples was collected under standard procedures and analyzed for the presence of CMV DNAs in buffy coat (latent infection) and plasma (active infection). DNA was extracted from buffy coat and plasma samples separately and tested with quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924449/outcomes-after-sofosbuvir-containing-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-in-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-a-real-world-study
#5
Fanpu Ji, Wenjun Wang, Shuangsuo Dang, Shengbang Wang, Burong Li, Dan Bai, Wenxue Zhao, Hong Deng, Changyin Tian, Zongfang Li
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have been used for decompensated cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the benefits in Chinese patients with decompensated cirrhosis are unclear. METHODS: Thirty patients with HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis were administered sofosbuvir-containing regimens at our hospital between April and December 2015. The efficacy and safety of the treatments was determined by sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR 12), change of liver function and adverse events...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923653/effects-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibitor-everolimus-on-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
A Frey, E-M Ecker, K Piras-Straub, A Walker, T G Hofmann, J Timm, B B Singer, G Gerken, K Herzer
BACKGROUND: The influence of immunosuppressants on hepatitis C virus (HCV) re-infection after liver transplantation, particularly mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, remains unclear. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of everolimus (EVR) on HCV replication activity in the context of underlying molecular mechanisms, with focus on the pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML). METHODS: HCV viral load was recorded in 40 patients with post-transplant HCV re-infection before and 8 weeks after introduction of EVR...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923622/enzyme-linked-immunospot-assay-as-a-complementary-method-to-assess-and-monitor-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-on-pre-emptive-antiviral-therapy-a-single-center-experience
#7
E Favi, R Santangelo, S Iesari, M Morandi, G E Marcovecchio, E M Trecarichi, M P Salerno, M Ferraresso, F Citterio, J Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease represents a major cause of post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. To estimate the risk of infection and monitor response to antiviral therapy, current guidelines suggest combination of viral load monitoring with direct assessment of CMV-specific immune response. We used enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) for the evaluation of CMV-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients with CMV viremia and investigated how information gained could help manage CMV infection...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922411/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-delivery-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-of-oncolytic-reovirus
#8
Xing Zhao, Weiwei Ouyang, Cariad Chester, Shiqi Long, Nianxue Wang, Zhixu He
Oncolytic viruses (OV) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic modality in cancer treatment. OV selectively infect and kill tumor cells, while sparing untransformed cells. The direct cytotoxic effects combined with the capacity to trigger an immune response make OV an appealing combination partner in the burgeoning field of cancer immunotherapy. One of the leading OV therapeutic candidates is the double-stranded RNA virus reovirus. In order to improve the oncolytic activity of reovirus and allow for systemic administration despite the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were explored as cell carriers for reovirus delivery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921551/zika-virus-rna-detection-in-asymptomatic-blood-donors-during-an-outbreak-in-the-northeast-region-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-2016
#9
Svetoslav N Slavov, Marta R Hespanhol, Evandra S Rodrigues, José E Levi, Eugênia M A Ubiali, Dimas T Covas, Simone Kashima
BACKGROUND: In 2015, there was a large Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil. The proportion of asymptomatic infections is very high, and it is possible for transfusion-transmitted ZIKV (TT-ZIKV) infection to occur. The prevalence of asymptomatic ZIKV infection among Brazilian blood donors during this epidemic outbreak is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma samples obtained between October 2015 and May 2016 from 1393 volunteer blood donors were tested for ZIKV RNA...
September 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921542/pathogen-inactivation-of-dengue-virus-in-red-blood-cells-using-amustaline-and-glutathione
#10
Maite Aubry, Andrew Laughhunn, Felicia Santa Maria, Marion C Lanteri, Adonis Stassinopoulos, Didier Musso
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus primarily transmitted through mosquito bite; however, DENV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) have been reported and asymptomatic DENV RNA-positive blood donors have been identified in endemic countries. DENV is considered a high-risk pathogen for blood safety. One of the mitigation strategies to prevent arbovirus TTIs is pathogen inactivation. In this study we demonstrate that the amustaline and glutathione (S-303/GSH) treatment previously found effective against Zika virus in red blood cells (RBCs) is also effective in inactivating DENV...
September 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918411/combining-cd4-recovery-and-cd4-cd8-ratio-restoration-as-an-indicator-for-evaluating-the-outcome-of-continued-antiretroviral-therapy-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Shui Shan Lee, Ngai Sze Wong, Bonnie Chun Kwan Wong, Ka Hing Wong, Kenny Chi Wai Chan
OBJECTIVES: Immune recovery following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is commonly assessed by the degree of CD4 reconstitution alone. In this study, we aimed to assess immune recovery by incorporating both CD4 count and CD4:CD8 ratio. DESIGN: Observational cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical data from Chinese HIV-positive patients attending the largest HIV service in Hong Kong and who had been on HAART for ≥4 years were accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Optimal immune outcome was defined as a combination of a CD4 count ≥500/μL and a CD4:CD8 ratio ≥0...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918126/high-cmv-igg-antibody-levels-are-associated-to-a-lower-cd4-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-women
#12
Marina Giuliano, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Haswell Jere, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Fausto Ciccacci, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi, Sandro Mancinelli
BACKGROUND: Virtually all HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa have evidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and levels of specific anti-CMV IgG have been suggested to represent more intense reactivation of subclinical infection. Studies have also shown direct influence of CMV on lymphocytes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if levels of anti-CMV specific antibodies could impact on the immunological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-infected pregnant women...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917721/low-levels-of-the-immunoregulator-semaphorin-4d-cd100-in-sera-of-hiv-patients
#13
Z Vadas, D Elbirt, S Radian, S Bezalel-Rosenberg, K Mahlab-Guri, E Toubi, I Asher, Z Sthoeger
INTRODUCTION: Semaphorin-4D (CD100), generated by CD4/CD8 cells, plays an important role in T cells activation. It also regulates B cell differentiation via its receptor the CD72. Both have soluble forms - sCD100/sCD72. METHODS: sCD100 and sCD72 levels were determined by ELISA (MyBioSource, USA). RESULTS: 28 chronic HIV patients and 50 matched healthy volunteers participated in our study. Before treatment, CD4 cell counts were 267±216cells/mcl and viral load (VL) was 586,675±1,897,431copies/ml...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917488/gene-expression-regulation-of-the-tlr9-and-myd88-dependent-pathways-in-rock-bream-against-rock-bream-iridovirus-rbiv-infection
#14
Myung-Hwa Jung, Sung-Ju Jung
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), which is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus, causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. To date, the innate immune defense mechanisms of rock bream against RBIV is unclear. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of genes related to TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in RBIV-infected rock bream in high, low or no mortality conditions. In the high mortality group (100% mortality at 15 days post infection (dpi)), high levels of TLR9 and MyD88 expressions (6...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916898/a-strengths-based-case-management-intervention-to-reduce-hiv-viral-load-among-people-who-use-drugs
#15
Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin, Megan Comfort, Christina Powers, Helen Cheng, Andrea M Lopez, Robert O Murdoch, Torsten B Neilands, Jennifer Lorvick
Engaging highly marginalized HIV positive people in sustained medical care is vital for optimized health and prevention efforts. Prior studies have found that strengths-based case management helps link people who use drugs to HIV care. We conducted a pilot to assess whether a strengths-based case management intervention may help people who use injection drugs (PWID) or smoke crack cocaine (PWSC) achieve undetectable HIV viral load. PWID and PWSC were recruited in Oakland, California using targeted sampling methods and referral from jails and were tested for HIV...
September 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915998/predictors-of-humoral-response-to-recommended-vaccines-in-hiv-infected-adults
#16
Olga Tsachouridou, Eirini Christaki, Lemonia Skoura, Adamantini Georgiou, Sideris Nanoudis, Dimitra Vasdeki, Maria-Anna Ntziovara, Georgia Kotoreni, Evropi Forozidou, Paraskevi Tsoukra, Georgios Germanidis, Symeon Metallidis
Humoral response to vaccination has been found to be inadequate in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We retrospectively assessed antibody responses to three routinely recommended vaccines, against hepatitis B, hepatitis A and S. pneumoniae, in HIV-infected individuals. Data regarding age at HIV diagnosis, years of infection, sex, nationality, HIV mode of transmission, CD4 cell count, nadir CD4 count, plasma viral load, HIV stage, insurance status, educational level and treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) were collected...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915452/bk-virus-replication-in-renal-transplant-recipients-analysis-of-potential-risk-factors-may-contribute-in-reactivation
#17
Mohammad Shenagari, Ali Monfared, Hadise Eghtedari, Aydin Pourkazemi, Tolou Hasandokht, Masoud Khosravi, Babak Asharfkhani
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing problem of BK virus infection during post renal transplant surveillance, it is necessary to distinguish the main risk factors leading to reactivation of latent BK virus. Up to now, some probable risk factors have been investigated in some studies, but the results have been confusing and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to determine the frequency and potential risk factors that may play a role in BK polyomavirus reactivation and nephropathy...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915317/the-theoretical-reliability-of-pcr-based-fish-viral-diagnostic-methods-is-critically-affected-when-they-are-applied-to-fish-populations-with-low-prevalence-and-virus-loads
#18
C P Dopazo, P Moreno, J G Olveira, J J Borrego
AIMS: The reliability of PCR techniques is an important issue in viral diagnosis, and it is even crucial when they must be applied for detection of viruses in asymptomatic carriers. The problems will arise when the aim is to study fish wild populations, where the viral loads and prevalence values are extremely low. We have evaluated several PCR procedures employed by two laboratories for monitoring fish captured in several oceanographic campaigns performed in the Gulf of Cádiz. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the reliability of different diagnostics test used, we have re-analyzed fish samples that had been previously subjected to diagnosis for a surveillance of viruses performed in 2010-2011 in wild fish populations...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914169/development-of-an-algorithm-for-determination-of-the-likelihood-of-virological-failure-in-hiv-positive-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-decentralized-care
#19
Anton Reepalu, Taye Tolera Balcha, Sten Skogmar, Per-Erik Isberg, Patrik Medstrand, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Early identification of virological failure (VF) limits occurrence and spread of drug-resistant viruses in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Viral load (VL) monitoring is therefore recommended, but capacities to comply with this are insufficient in many low-income countries. Clinical algorithms might identify persons at higher likelihood of VF to allocate VL resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to construct a VF algorithm (the Viral Load Testing Criteria; VLTC) and compare its performance to the 2013 WHO treatment failure criteria...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913765/treatment-of-theiler-s-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease-with-teriflunomide
#20
Francesca Gilli, Libin Li, Darlene B Royce, Krista D DiSano, Andrew R Pachner
Teriflunomide is an oral therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), showing both anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Currently, it is uncertain whether one or both of these properties may explain teriflunomide's beneficial effect in MS. Thus, to learn more about its mechanisms of action, we evaluated the effect of teriflunomide in the Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) model, which is both a viral infection and an excellent model of the progressive disability of MS...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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