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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342281/phenotypic-analysis-of-hiv-1-e157q-integrase-polymorphism-and-impact-on-virological-outcome-in-patients-initiating-an-integrase-inhibitor-based-regimen
#1
Charlotte Charpentier, Isabelle Malet, Elisabeth Andre-Garnier, Alexandre Storto, Laurence Bocket, Corinne Amiel, Laurence Morand-Joubert, Camille Tumiotto, Thuy Nguyen, Anne Maillard, Audrey Rodallec, Marie Leoz, Brigitte Montes, Véronique Schneider, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Julia Dina, Coralie Pallier, Audrey Mirand, Catherine Roussel, Anne Signori-Schmuck, Stéphanie Raymond, Vincent Calvez, Constance Delaugerre, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Diane Descamps
Objectives: To assess the phenotypic susceptibility of the E157Q polymorphism in HIV-1 integrase (IN) and the virological outcome of patients infected with E157Q-mutated virus initiating an IN inhibitor (INI)-based regimen. Methods: This was a multicentre study assessing IN sequences from INI-naive patients among 17 French HIV clinical centres. E157Q site-directed mutants in pNL4.3 and pCRF02_AG contexts were assessed in a recombinant phenotypic assay. Results: Prevalence of the E157Q polymorphism was 2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340620/delivery-of-tapasin-modified-ctl-epitope-peptide-via-cytoplasmic-transduction-peptide-induces-ctls-by-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-in-vivo
#2
Shanshan Wu, Xiaohua Chen, Yuyan Tang, Yi Zhang, Dan Li, Jie Chen, Jieling Wang, Zhenghao Tang, Guoqing Zang, Yongsheng Yu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a vital role in viral control and clearance. Recent studies have elucidated that Tapasin, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, is a well-known molecule that appears to be essential in peptide-loading process. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway plays an important role in immune response regulation and cytokines secretion. We have previously verified that fusion protein CTP-HBcAg18-27-Tapasin could facilitate the maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and enhance specific CTLs responses in vitro, which might be associated with the activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway...
January 11, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338752/structural-alteration-of-dna-induced-by-viral-protein-r-of-hiv-1-triggers-the-dna-damage-response
#3
Kenta Iijima, Junya Kobayashi, Yukihito Ishizaka
BACKGROUND: Viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein of HIV-1, which is potentially involved in the infection of macrophages and the induction of the ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)-mediated DNA damage response (DDR). It was recently proposed that the SLX4 complex of structure-specific endonuclease is involved in Vpr-induced DDR, which implies that aberrant DNA structures are responsible for this phenomenon. However, the mechanism by which Vpr alters the DNA structures remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338738/rapid-hiv-disease-progression-following-superinfection-in-an-hla-b-27-05-b-57-01-positive-transmission-recipient
#4
Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C Matthews, Philip J R Goulder
BACKGROUND: The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expressing both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01. One subject maintained low-to-undetectable viral loads for more than a decade of follow up. The other progressed to AIDS in < 3 years. RESULTS: The rapid progressor was the recipient within a known transmission pair, enabling virus sequences to be tracked from transmission...
January 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338735/mental-health-service-utilization-is-associated-with-retention-in-care-among-persons-living-with-hiv-at-a-university-affiliated-hiv-clinic
#5
Lauren A Saag, Ashutosh R Tamhane, D Scott Batey, Michael J Mugavero, Ellen F Eaton
BACKGROUND: Mental health (MH) comorbidities reduce retention in care for persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor health outcomes. Optimizing retention in primary care is vital, as poor retention is associated with delayed receipt of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, ARV non-adherence, and poor health outcomes, including failure to suppress viral load, decreased CD4 counts, and clinically significant ARV drug resistance. We hypothesized that MH service utilization would be associated with improved retention in care for patients with HIV and MH comorbidities...
January 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337847/hiv-care-continuum-disparities-among-bisexual-black-men-and-the-mediating-effect-of-psychosocial-co-morbidities
#6
M Reuel Friedman, Jordan M Sang, Leigh A Bukowski, Derrick D Matthews, Lisa A Eaton, H Fisher Raymond, Ron Stall
INTRODUCTION: Differences across the HIV care continuum between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO) are emerging in recent literature but have not been comprehensively documented among Black MSM. Although MSMW have lower HIV prevalence than MSMO, they are more likely to be HIV-positive unaware and be virally unsuppressed. Explanatory factors for these differences have not previously been assessed. METHODS: Between 2014-2016, we surveyed sexually active Black MSM ≥18 years old at Black Gay Pride events in six U...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337617/intrapulmonary-delivery-of-cpg-odn-microdroplets-provides-protection-against-escherichia-coli-septicemia-in-neonatal-broiler-chickens
#7
Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Shelly Popowich, Thushari Gunawardana, Ashish Gupta, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Ruwani Karunarathna, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Suresh K Tikoo, Marianna Foldvari, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) motifs (CpG-ODN) are effective immunostimulatory agents against a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases in different animals including poultry. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo injection of CpG-ODN confers protection in neonatal chickens against bacterial septicemias. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of needle-free intrapulmonary (IPL) delivery of CpG-ODN microdroplets against Escherichia coli infection in neonatal chicks...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337165/establishment-of-intracellular-tenofovir-diphosphate-as-the-key-determinant-for-in-vitro-in-vivo-translation-of-antiviral-efficacy
#8
Bennett Ma, Aline Barth, Carolyn M McHale, Ming-Tain Lai
In vitro evaluation of tenofovir disproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) revealed comparable antiviral effects with respect to the tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) level in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), despite the EC50 values determined based on prodrug concentrations were nearly two orders of magnitude apart. In vivo EC50 obtained from meta-analyses were in good agreement with the in vitro results, indicating intracellular TFV-DP can be employed for in vitro-in vivo translation of viral inhibition for tenofovir prodrugs...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335060/characteristics-of-long-term-nonprogressors-and-viremia-controllers-infected-with-hiv-1-via-contaminated-blood-donations-or-transfusions-conducted-20-years-earlier
#9
Jia Liu, Pan Ying Fan, Xiu Juan Xue, Jiang Zhou Yan, Guo Qing Sun, Chun Hua Liu, Sui An Tian, Ning Li, Ding Yong Sun, Qian Zhu, Zhe Wang
To characterize long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and viremia controllers (VCs), infected with HIV-1 through contaminated blood donation or transfusion between 1992 and 1996 in Henan, China. LTNPs and VCs were defined by CD4+T lymphocyte (CD4) count and viral load (VL). Of 29,294 patients infected with HIV-1 via contaminated blood donation or transfusion that had conducted for more than 20 years, 92 were LTNPs/VCs. There were 70 LTNPs (0.24%), 43 VCs (0.15%), and 48 LTNPs+VCs- (0.16%). VCs had a significantly lower CD4 nadir, compared to LTNPs and LTNPs+VCs-, and no significant differences for the highest VL and HIV-1 DNA...
December 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334886/factors-associated-with-recent-unsuppressed-viral-load-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-care-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#10
D Joseph Davey, Z Abrahams, M Feinberg, M Prins, C Serrao, B Medeossi, E Darkoh
Unsuppressed viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs when treatment fails to suppress a person's VL and is associated with decreased survival and increased HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with unsuppressed VL (VL > 400 copies/ml) in patients currently in care on first-line ART for ≥ 6 months attending South African public healthcare facilities. We analysed electronic medical records of ART patients with a VL result on record who started ART between January 2004 and April 2016 from 271 public health facilities...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334553/post-treatment-controllers-after-treatment-interruption-in-chronically-hiv-infected-patients
#11
Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Laura Comi, Annapaola Callegaro
OBJECTIVE: Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. We report three cases who started cART during chronic infection. DESIGN: Patients were treated and monitored according to Italian guidelines...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334550/chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-subsequent-hiv-viral-load-among-women-with-hiv-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Sarah J Willis, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Christopher B Hurt, Svenja Albrecht, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Augenbraun, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L French, Aley G Kalapila, Roksana Karim, Marion G Peters, Michael Plankey, Eric C Seaberg, Phyllis C Tien, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE(S): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). DESIGN: HIV RNA was measured every six months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000-2015. METHODS: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334178/factors-associated-with-perceived-accuracy-of-the-undetectable%C3%A2-%C3%A2-untransmittable-slogan-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-implications-for-messaging-scale-up-and-implementation
#13
H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has shown high efficacy of HIV treatment for reducing the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners. As the efficacy of treatment as prevention (TasP) has proliferated, a new messaging campaign, Undetectable = Untransmittable, has been gaining popularity. The purpose of this paper was to assess factors associated with the perceived accuracy of this TasP messaging strategy among a large and diverse sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in order to inform subsequent efforts at large-scale and implementation of the HIV prevention message...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331844/assessing-the-risk-of-cmv-reactivation-and-reconstitution-of-antiviral-immune-response-post-bone-marrow-transplantation-by-the-quantiferon-cmv-assay-and-real-time-pcr
#14
Adalbert Krawczyk, Jessica Ackermann, Birgit Goitowski, Rudolf Trenschel, Markus Ditschkowski, Jörg Timm, Hellmut Ottinger, Dietrich W Beelen, Nico Grüner, Melanie Fiedler
BACKGROUND: CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331843/performance-of-genotypic-algorithms-for-predicting-tropism-for-hiv-1-crf01_ae-recombinant
#15
C Soulie, L Morand-Joubert, J Cottalorda, C Charpentier, P Bellecave, L Le Guen, S Yerly, B Montes, S Fafi-Kremer, J Dina, V Avettand-Fenoel, C Amiel, C Roussel, C Pallier, K Zafilaza, S Sayon, A Signori-Schmuck, A Mirand, M A Trabaud, S Berger, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus about the performances of genotypic rules for predicting HIV-1 non-B subtype tropism. Three genotypic methods were compared for CRF01_AE HIV-1 tropism determination. METHODS: The V3 env region of 207 HIV-1 CRF01_AE and 178 B subtypes from 17 centers in France and 1 center in Switzerland was sequenced. Tropism was determined by Geno2Pheno algorithm with false positive rate (FPR) 5% or 10%, the 11/25 rule or the combined criteria of the 11/25, net charge rule and NXT/S mutations...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330339/hiv-positive-kidney-donor-selection-for-hiv-positive-transplant-recipients
#16
Elmi Muller, Zunaid Barday
The risks associated with transplanting HIV-positive kidneys into HIV-positive recipients have not been well studied. Since 2008, 43 kidneys from 25 HIV-positive deceased donors have been transplanted into patients who are HIV positive in Cape Town, South Africa. Among the donors, 19 (76%) died secondary to trauma. The average age for donors was 34 (interquartile range, 19-52) years old. In some donors, only one kidney was used because of a limited number of suitable recipients on the waiting list. Only two donors had been previously exposed to antiretroviral triple therapy...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329280/status-of-hiv-epidemic-control-among-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-aged-15-24-years-seven-african-countries-2015-2017
#17
Kristin Brown, Daniel B Williams, Steve Kinchen, Suzue Saito, Elizabeth Radin, Hetal Patel, Andrea Low, Stephen Delgado, Owen Mugurungi, Godfrey Musuka, Beth A Tippett Barr, E Amaka Nwankwo-Igomu, Leala Ruangtragool, Avi J Hakim, Thokozani Kalua, Rose Nyirenda, Gertrude Chipungu, Andrew Auld, Evelyn Kim, Danielle Payne, Nellie Wadonda-Kabondo, Christine West, Elizabeth Brennan, Beth Deutsch, Anteneh Worku, Sasi Jonnalagadda, Lloyd B Mulenga, Kumbutso Dzekedzeke, Danielle T Barradas, Haotian Cai, Sundeep Gupta, Stanley Kamocha, Margaret A Riggs, Karampreet Sachathep, Wilford Kirungi, Joshua Musinguzi, Alex Opio, Sam Biraro, Elizabeth Bancroft, Jennifer Galbraith, Herbert Kiyingi, Mansoor Farahani, Wolfgang Hladik, Edith Nyangoma, Choice Ginindza, Zandile Masangane, Fortune Mhlanga, Zandile Mnisi, Pasipamire Munyaradzi, Amos Zwane, Sean Burke, Felix B Kayigamba, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Ruben Sahabo, Trong T Ao, Chiara Draghi, Caroline Ryan, Neena M Philip, Fausta Mosha, Aroldia Mulokozi, Phausta Ntigiti, Angela A Ramadhani, Geoffrey R Somi, Cecilia Makafu, Veronicah Mugisha, Julius Zelothe, Kayla Lavilla, David W Lowrance, Rennatus Mdodo, Elizabeth Gummerson, Paul Stupp, Kyaw Thin, Koen Frederix, Stefania Davia, Amee M Schwitters, Stephen D McCracken, Yen T Duong, David Hoos, Bharat Parekh, Jessica E Justman, Andrew C Voetsch
In 2016, an estimated 1.5 million females aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (3.4%) is more than double that for males in the same age range (1.6%) (1). Progress was assessed toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 targets for adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa (90% of those with HIV infection aware of their status, 90% of HIV-infected persons aware of their status on antiretroviral treatment [ART], and 90% of those on treatment virally suppressed [HIV viral load <1,000 HIV RNA copies/mL]) (2) using data from recent Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) surveys in seven countries...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328964/a-european-multicenter-study-on-the-analytical-performance-of-the-veris-hbv-assay
#18
Patrick Braun, Rafael Delgado, Monica Drago, Diana Fanti, Hervé Fleury, Jacques Izopet, Alessandra Lombardi, Alessandro Mancon, Maria Angeles Marcos, Karine Sauné, Siobhan O Shea, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, John Ramble, Pascale Trimoulet, Jordi Vila, Duncan Whittaker, Alain Artus, Daniel Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B viral load monitoring is an essential part of managing patients with chronic Hepatits B infection. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay for use on the fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical performance of the VERIS HBV Assay at multiple European virology laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: Precision, analytical sensitivity, negative sample performance, linearity and performance with major HBV genotypes/subtypes for the VERIS HBV Assay was evaluated...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#19
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328473/detection-of-high-grade-neoplasia-in-air-dried-cervical-pap-smears-by-a-microrna-based-classifier
#20
Mikhail K Ivanov, Sergei E Titov, Sergei A Glushkov, Victoria V Dzyubenko, Anastasia V Malek, Polina A Arkhangelskaya, Roman B Samsonov, Andrey A Mikhetko, Elena V Bakhidze, Igor V Berlev, Nikolay N Kolesnikov
Recent studies have shown that changes in the expression levels of certain microRNAs correlate with the degree of severity of cervical lesions. The aim of the present study was to develop a microRNA-based classifier for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN ≥2) in cytological samples from patients with different high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) viral loads. For this purpose, raw RT-qPCR data for 25 candidate microRNAs, U6 snRNA and human DNA in air-dried PAP smears from 174 women with different cervical cytological diagnoses, 144 of which were HR-HPV-positive [40 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 34 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (L-SIL), 57 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (H-SIL), 43 invasive cancers], were statistically processed...
January 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
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