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Viral load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142126/hpv-replication-regulation-by-acetylation-of-a-conserved-lysine-in-the-e2-protein
#1
Yanique Thomas, Elliot J Androphy
The Papillomavirus (PV) E2 protein is a sequence specific DNA binding protein that recruits cellular factors to its genome in infected epithelial cells. E2 also binds to and loads the viral E1 DNA helicase at the origin of replication. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PV E2 have been identified as potential regulators E2 functions. We recently reported lysine (K) 111 as a target of p300 acetylation in bovine (B)PV. The di-lysines at 111 and 112 are conserved in almost all papillomaviruses. We pursued a mutational approach to query the functional significance of lysine in human (H)PV E2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141350/-comparison-of-different-methods-in-dealing-with-hiv-viral-load-data-with-diversified-missing-value-mechanism-on-hiv-positive-msm
#2
Z Jiang, Z Dou, W L Song, J Xu, Z Y Wu
Objective: To compare results of different methods: in organizing HIV viral load (VL) data with missing values mechanism. Methods We used software SPSS 17.0 to simulate complete and missing data with different missing value mechanism from HIV viral loading data collected from MSM in 16 cities in China in 2013. Maximum Likelihood Methods Using the Expectation and Maximization Algorithm (EM), regressive method, mean imputation, delete method, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) were used to supplement missing data respectively...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141336/-data-distribution-and-transformation-in-population-based-sampling-survey-of-viral-load-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#3
Z Dou, J Chen, Z Jiang, W L Song, J Xu, Z Y Wu
Objective: To understand the distribution of population viral load (PVL) data in HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM), fit distribution function and explore the appropriate estimating parameter of PVL. Methods: The detection limit of viral load (VL) was ≤ 50 copies/ml. Box-Cox transformation and normal distribution tests were used to describe the general distribution characteristics of the original and transformed data of PVL, then the stable distribution function was fitted with test of goodness of fit...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141246/evaluation-of-temporal-virological-responses-to-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-plus-ribavirin-among-genotype-3a-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#4
Abida Raza, Muhammad Ovais, Hafsa Aziz, Asim Anwar, Javaid Irfan, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Mukhtar
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine the impact of rapid virological response (RVR) and early virological response (EVR) on sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C genotype 3a individuals. METHODS: The patients were given antiviral therapy with IFN-α-2b, 3 million units 3 times a week and 800-1,200 mg of ribavirin daily adjusted to the patient's body weight (<60 kg 800 mg day-1, and >60 kg 1,200 day-1). The patients received this combination therapy for 24 weeks...
November 16, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141155/neutrophil-mediated-suppression-of-influenza-induced-pathology-requires-cd11b-cd18-mac-1
#5
Tamar Tak, Tomasz P Rygiel, Guruswamy Karnam, Okan W Bastian, Louis Boon, Marco Viveen, Frank E Coenjaerts, Linde Meyaard, Leo Koenderman, Janesh Pillay
Severe influenza virus infection can lead to life-threatening pathology through immune-mediated tissue damage. In various experimental models, this damage is dependent on T-cells. There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of neutrophils in influenza-mediated pathology. Neutrophils are often regarded as cells causing tissue damage, but in recent years it has become clear that a subset of human neutrophils is capable of suppressing T-cells, which is dependent on Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that immune suppression by neutrophils can reduce T-cell mediate pathology after influenza infection...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140937/sapovirus-in-fecal-and-nasopharyngeal-swab-samples-of-children-with-symptoms-of-acute-gastroenteritis
#6
Thairiny Neres Silva, Nathânia Dábilla, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso, Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa, Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida, Menira Souza
The study included 102 hospitalized children aged 0 to 72 months, with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. One fecal and one nasopharyngeal swab sample were obtained from each child. Samples were screened for sapovirus and viral loads were determined. Sapovirus was detected in 18.6% of fecal samples and in 36.3% of nasopharyngeal swab samples. High viral loads were detected.
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140541/regulatory-t-cells-in-acute-dengue-viral-infection
#7
Eresha Jayaratne, Dulharie Wijeratne, Samitha Fernando, Achala Kamaladasa, Laksiri Gomes, Ananda Wijewickrama, Graham Stuart Ogg, Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige
Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be expanded in acute dengue, their role in pathogenesis and their relationship to clinical disease severity, and extent of viraemia have not been fully evaluated. The frequency of Tregs was assessed in 56 adult patients with acute dengue, by determining the proportion of FOXP3 expressing CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells (FOXP3+ cells). DENV viral loads were measured by quantitative real time PCR and DENV specific T cell responses were measured by ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays to overlapping peptide pools of DENV-NS3, NS1 and NS5...
November 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140110/il-21-therapy-controls-immune-activation-and-maintains-antiviral-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Gema Méndez-Lagares, Ding Lu, David Merriam, Christopher A Baker, François Villinger, Koen K A Van Rompay, Joseph M McCune, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicate during acute infection in lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, before disseminating systemically. Localized replication and associated loss of gut-resident CD4(+) T cells occur regardless of the portal of entry of the virus (e.g., intravenous vs. rectal). Thus, HIV and SIV are tropic for gut tissue, and their pathogenesis requires the special environment of the intestine. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are important contributors to microbial defense in the gut that are vulnerable to HIV infection and whose loss is associated with translocation of microbial products to the systemic circulation, leading to chronic immune activation and disease progression...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137673/a-cheap-and-open-hiv-viral-load-technique-applicable-in-routine-analysis-in-a-resource-limited-setting-with-a-wide-hiv-genetic-diversity
#9
Elodie Téclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo T, Martin Zekeng, Valérie Ngono, Laure Ngono, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Richard Njouom, Anfumbom Kfutwah
BACKGROUND: HIV infection in Cameroon is characterized by a great viral diversity with all HIV-1 groups (M, N, O, and P) and HIV-2 in circulation. HIV group determination is very important if tailored viral load analysis and treatments are to be applied. In our laboratory, HIV viral load is carried out using two platforms; Biocentric and Abbott depending on the HIV group identified. Biocentric which quantifies HIV-1 group M is a cheap and open system useful in resource limited settings...
November 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136142/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-foxo3-negatively-regulates-natural-killer-cell-function-and-viral-clearance-in-myocarditis
#10
Madlen Loebel, Luise Holzhauser, Jelka A Hartwig, Praphulla C Shukla, Konstantinos Savvatis, Alexander Jenke, Martina Gast, Felicitas Escher, Sonya C Becker, Sandra Bauer, Andrea Stroux, Antje Beling, Meike Kespohl, Sandra Pinkert, Henry Fechner, Uwe Kuehl, Dirk Lassner, Wolfgang Poller, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Tanja Zeller, Stefan Blankenberg, Anna-Pia Papageorgiou, Stephane Heymans, Ulf Landmesser, Carmen Scheibenbogen, Carsten Skurk
Aims: Foxo3 is a transcription factor involved in cell metabolism, survival, and inflammatory disease. However, mechanistic insight in Foxo3 effects is still limited. Here, we investigated the role of Foxo3 on natural killer (NK) cell responses and its effects in viral myocarditis. Methods and results: Effects of Foxo3 on viral load and immune responses were investigated in a model of coxsackie virus B3 myocarditis in wild-type (WT) and Foxo3 deficient mice. Reduced immune cell infiltration, viral titres, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac tissue were observed in Foxo3-/- mice 7 days post-infection (p...
November 9, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136032/virological-response-and-resistance-among-hiv-infected-children-receiving-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-without-virological-monitoring-in-uganda-and-zimbabwe-observational-analyses-within-the-randomised-arrow-trial
#11
Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Moira J Spyer, Victor Musiime, Philippa Musoke, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret J Thomason, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Immaculate Nkanya, Oscar Senfuma, Boniface Mudenge, Nigel Klein, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Although WHO recommends viral load (VL) monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART), availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine) with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135578/when-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-fails-preventing-pretreatment-drug-resistance-in-african-children
#12
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Job Calis, Ragna Boerma, Kim Sigaloff, Clement Zeh, Peter Mugyenyi, Sulaimon Akanmu, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
: The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV. Given high levels of resistance, WHO recommends the use of protease inhibitors as part of first-line pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) to optimize treatment response, but costs and logistic challenges restrict access...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135575/chronic-kidney-disease-incidence-and-survival-of-thai-hiv-infected-patients
#13
Wannarat Pongpirul, Krit Pongpirul, Jintanat Ananworanich, Virat Klinbuayaem, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Wisit Prasithsirikul
OBJECTIVES: As data on chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence among Asian HIV patients has been limited, the present study aimed to estimate the CKD incidence in HIV-infected patients who received standard antiretroviral therapy in Thailand and to compare baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients who developed CKD with those who do not. DESIGN: A multicenter, observational prospective cohort of HIV patients with normal kidney functions who received standard antiretroviral therapy...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135573/evidence-of-inflammasome-activation-and-formation-of-monocyte-derived-apoptosis-associated-speck-like-protein-containing-a-caspase-recruitment-domain-specks-in-hiv-1-positive-patients
#14
Fareed Ahmad, Neha Mishra, Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Bernardo S Franklin, Eicke Latz, Reinhold E Schmidt, Lukas Bossaller
OBJECTIVE: The formation of large intracellular protein aggregates of the inflammasome adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) (PYCARD) is a hallmark of inflammasome activation. ASC speck-forming cells release the highly proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in addition to ASC specks into the extracellular space during pyroptotic cell death. There ASC specks can propagate inflammation to other nonactivated cells or tissues. HIV-1 retroviral infection triggers inflammasome activation of abortively infected CD4 T cells in secondary lymphatic tissues...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134815/people-diagnosed-with-hiv-and-in-care-in-italy-in-2014-results-from-the-second-national-survey
#15
Laura Camoni, Mariangela Raimondo, Roberta Urciuoli, Simone Iacchini, Barbara Suligoi, Patrizio Pezzotti
We conducted a second National survey in all Italian Infectious Disease clinics to assess the number of people diagnosed and linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy and viral load suppressed. In 2014, 100,049 (0.16 per 100 residents) people diagnosed and linked to care were estimated, corresponding to an increase of 6.3% compared to the survey conducted in 2012. Among people diagnosed and linked to care, 91.9% were on antiretroviral therapy (increase of 11.4% compared to 2012), and among these, 87...
November 14, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134335/quantitative-analysis-of-senecavirus-a-in-tissue-samples-from-naturally-infected-newborn-piglets
#16
Alais Maria Dall Agnol, Flavia Megumi Miyabe, Raquel Arruda Leme, Thalita Evani Silva Oliveira, Selwyn Arlington Headley, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Alice Fernandes Alfieri
In this study, we determined the distribution of senecavirus A (SVA) and viral RNA load in different organs and tissues of naturally infected piglets. A TaqMan-based qRT-PCR assay was performed using RNA extracted from brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, small intestine, spleen, urinary bladder, and tonsils of seven newborn piglets. SVA was detected in 57 out of 70 tissue samples (81.4%). Viral loads ranged from 4.07 to 10.38 log10 genomic copies per g of tissue. The results show that SVA has tropism for various organs in naturally infected newborn piglets, especially for tonsils, spleen, lungs, and liver...
November 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132400/hospitalization-causes-and-outcomes-in-hiv-patients-in-the-late-antiretroviral-era-in-colombia
#17
María Fernanda Álvarez Barreneche, Carlos Andrés Restrepo Castro, Alicia Hidrón Botero, Juan Pablo Villa Franco, Ivan Mauricio Trompa Romero, Laura Restrepo Carvajal, Alejandro Eusse García, Adriana Ocampo Mesa, Lina María Echeverri Toro, Glenys Patricia Porras Fernández de Castro, Jaime Mauricio Ramírez Rivera, Carlos Andrés Agudelo Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. METHODS: Patients admitted with HIV/AIDS at six hospitals in Medellin, Colombia between August 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132293/genomic-regions-associated-with-host-response-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-vaccination-and-co-infection-in-nursery-pigs
#18
Jenelle R Dunkelberger, Nick V L Serão, Ziqing Weng, Emily H Waide, Megan C Niederwerder, Maureen A Kerrigan, Joan K Lunney, Raymond R R Rowland, Jack C M Dekkers
BACKGROUND: The WUR1000125 (WUR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) can be used as a genetic marker for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), PRRS vaccination, and co-infection with porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b). Objectives of this study were to identify genomic regions other than WUR associated with host response to PRRS vaccination and PRRSV/PCV2b co-infection and regions with a different effect on host response to co-infection, depending on previous vaccination for PRRS...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131651/increased-echocardiographic-pulmonary-pressure-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-individuals-in-the-veterans-aging-cohort-study
#19
Evan L Brittain, Meredith S Duncan, Joyce Chang, Olga V Patterson, Scott L DuVall, Cynthia A Brandt, Kaku A So-Armah, Matthew Goetz, Kathleen Akgun, Kristina Crothers, Courtney Zola, Joon Kim, Cynthia Gibert, Margaret Pisani, Alison Morris, Priscilla Hsue, Hilary A Tindle, Amy Justice, Matthew Freiberg
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and prognostic impact of increased pulmonary pressure among HIV-infected individuals in the antiretroviral therapy era is not well described. METHODS: This study evaluated 8,296 veterans referred for echocardiography with reported pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) estimates from the Veterans Aging Cohort study, an observational cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected veterans matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and clinical site...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130621/realizing-the-potential-of-routine-viral-load-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
EDITORIAL
Wafaa M El-Sadr, Miriam Rabkin, John Nkengasong, Deborah L Birx
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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