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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816721/drop-in-cd4-counts-below-200-cells-%C3%A2%C2%B5l-after-reaching-or-starting-from-values-higher-than-350-cells-%C3%A2%C2%B5l-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-virological-suppression
#1
Nicola Gianotti, Giulia Marchetti, Andrea Antinori, Annalisa Saracino, Andrea Gori, Giuliano Rizzardini, Miriam Lichtner, Alessandra Bandera, Cristina Mussini, Enrico Girardi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to quantify the risk of a drop in CD4+ counts below 200 cells/µL after reaching values >350 cells/µL on antiretroviral therapy (or after starting antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ count >350 cells/µL) in the absence of virological failure. SETTING: Ambulatory care services, Italy. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the ICONA Foundation Study cohort who started ART with >350 CD4+/μL, or with ≤350 CD4+/µL and reached values >350 cells/µL after virological suppression (VS, defined by two consecutive viral loads ≤50 copies/mL)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814592/fever-and-generalised-lymphadenopathy-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-a-diagnostic-challenge
#2
Bernardo Neves, Pedro Raimundo, Pedro Farinha
Fever and generalised lymphadenopathy is a common presentation of a variety of diseases and a thorough investigation is often necessary for appropriate diagnosis.We present a 53-year-old male patient admitted with fever, weight loss of 15 kg in 3 months and abdominal discomfort. Examination was only remarkable for axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Blood tests showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, cholestasis and a previously unknown HIV-1 infection with lymphocyte CD4 +count of 239 cells/mm(3) and viral load 3...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814523/screening-of-fda-approved-drugs-for-inhibitors-against-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#3
Shaobo Wang, Yang Liu, Jiao Guo, Peilin Wang, Leike Zhang, Gengfu Xiao, Wei Wang
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, is a major cause of acute viral encephalitis in humans. There is no approved drug available for JEV-specific treatment, and the vaccines are not effective against all clinical JEV isolates. Herein, a high-throughput screening was performed against JEV from an FDA-approved drug library. Five hit drugs were identified that inhibited JEV infection with a selective index > 10. Antiviral activities of these five hit drugs against other flavivirus, including Zika virus, were also validated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814330/novel-remote-electronic-medication-supply-model-for-opioid-dependent-outpatients-with-polypharmacy-first-long-term-case-study
#4
Samuel S Allemann, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Johannes Strasser, Marc Vogel, Marcel Stoeckle, Kurt E Hersberger, Isabelle Arnet
BACKGROUND: Patients with substance use disorders grow older thanks to effective treatments. Together with a high prevalence of comorbidities, psychological problems, and low social support, these patients are at high risk for medication non-adherence. Established treatment facilities face challenges to accommodate these complex patients within their setting. Electronic medication management aids (e-MMAs) might be appropriate to simultaneously monitor and improve adherence for these patients...
August 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#5
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813216/kinetics-of-zika-viral-load-in-semen
#6
LETTER
Franck de Laval, Séverine Matheus, Thomas Labrousse, Antoine Enfissi, Dominique Rousset, Sébastien Briolant
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 7, Page 697-699, August 2017.
August 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810670/journey-towards-universal-viral-load-monitoring-in-maputo-mozambique-many-gaps-but-encouraging-signs
#7
Sarah Swannet, Tom Decroo, Sheila M T L de Castro, Caroline Rose, Ruggero Giuliani, Lucas Molfino, Ana W Torrens, Walter S E D Macueia, Sharon Perry, Tony Reid
Introduction: Viral load (VL) monitoring for people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is extremely challenging in resource-limited settings. We assessed the VL testing scale-up in six Médecins Sans Frontières supported health centres in Maputo, Mozambique, during 2014-15. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, routine programme data were used to describe VL testing uptake and results, and multi-variate logistical regression to estimate predictors of VL testing uptake and suppression...
July 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810166/humanized-mouse-models-of-latent-hiv-infection
#8
REVIEW
Maud Deruaz, Andrew M Tager
Antiretroviral therapy can efficiently control HIV viral replication, resulting in low viral loads and sustained CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-infected persons. However, fast viral rebound occurs in most infected persons when therapy is interrupted. The principal component of persistent infection is a latent but replication-competent HIV reservoir. The long half-life of this reservoir is a major barrier to cure, and its elimination is the target of important research efforts. Animal models that can recapitulate this aspect of human infection are needed to examine the HIV reservoir in tissues in vivo, and to test eradication strategies...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809929/pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-a-priority-population-for-hiv-viral-load-monitoring
#9
Landon Myer, Shaffiq Essajee, Laura N Broyles, D Heather Watts, Maia Lesosky, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Elaine J Abrams
Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809089/inverted-quasi-spherical-droplets-on-polydopamine-tio2-substrates-for-enhancing-gene-delivery
#10
Seung-Hyun Kim, Mihyun Lee, Mira Cho, Il-Sun Kim, Kook In Park, Haeshin Lee, Jae-Hyung Jang
Devising efficient gene delivery systems is crucial to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of gene-cell therapy approaches. Herein, inverted quasi-spherical (iQS) droplet systems, which enhance gene delivery efficiencies by reducing the path lengths of gene vectors, mediating motions of vectors at early stages, and raising the contact frequencies of vectors with cells, are developed by adopting the principle of 3D hanging-drop cell culture. Micrometer-sized polydopamine (pDA) holes are created on superhydrophobic titanium isopropoxide (TiO2 )-coated substrates by physical scraping; droplets are loaded on the pDA holes, and inversion of the substrate generates iQS droplets with large contact angles...
August 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808731/biomacromolecules-as-tools-and-objects-in-nanometrology-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#11
Payam Hashemi, Luise Luckau, Petra Mischnick, Sarah Schmidt, Rainer Stosch, Bettina Wünsch
Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are the most important classes of biopolymers. The inherent properties of biomacromolecules are contrary to those of well-defined small molecules consequently raising a number of specific challenges which become particularly apparent if biomacromolecules are treated as objects in quantitative analysis. At the same time, their specific functional ability of molecular recognition and self-organization (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, DNA) enables us to make biomacromolecules serving as molecular tools in biochemistry and molecular biology, or as precisely controllable dimensional platforms for nanometrological applications...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808319/ip-10-levels-as-an-accurate-screening-tool-to-detect-acute-hiv-infection-in-resource-limited-settings
#12
Lucía Pastor, Aina Casellas, Jorge Carrillo, Sergi Alonso, Erica Parker, Laura Fuente-Soro, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the period prior to seroconversion characterized by high viral replication, hyper-transmission potential and commonly, non-specific febrile illness. AHI detection requires HIV-RNA viral load (VL) determination, which has very limited access in low-income countries due to restrictive costs and implementation constraints. We sought to identify a biomarker that could enable AHI diagnosis in scarce-resource settings, and to evaluate the feasibility of its implementation. HIV-seronegative adults presenting at the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique, with reported-fever were tested for VL...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807912/safety-and-efficacy-of-mhaa4549a-a-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-in-a-human-influenza-a-challenge-model-a-phase-2-randomized-trial
#13
Jacqueline M McBride, Jeremy J Lim, Tracy Burgess, Rong Deng, Michael A Derby, Mauricio Maia, Priscilla Horn, Omer Siddiqui, Daniel Sheinson, Haiyin Chen-Harris, Elizabeth M Newton, Dimitri Fillos, Denise Nazzal, Carrie M Rosenberger, Maikke B Ohlson, Rob Lambkin-Williams, Hosnieh Fathi, Jeffrey M Harris, Jorge A Tavel
BACKGROUND: MHAA4549A, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the hemagglutinin stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV), is being developed as a therapeutic for patients hospitalized with severe IAV infection. Safety and efficacy of MHAA4549A were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in a human IAV-challenge model. METHODS: One hundred healthy volunteers were inoculated with A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) IAV and, 24-36 hours later, administered a single intravenous dose of either placebo, MHAA4549A (400, 1200, or 3600 mg) or a standard oral dose of oseltamivir...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807813/norovirus-loads-in-stool-specimens-of-cancer-patients-with-norovirus-gastroenteritis
#14
Taojun He, Tracy A McMillen, Yuanyuan Qiu, Liang Hua Chen, Xuedong Lu, Xiao-Li Pang, Mini Kamboj, Yi-Wei Tang
In immunocompromised patients with norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis, the relationship between fecal NoV load and clinical complications has not been examined. In this study, a validated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was used to determine viral loads NoV genogroup I and II (GI and GII) in NoV positive stool specimens of cancer patients. A total of 234 specimens from 152 patients were positive for NoV, including 201 of GII and 33 of GI. Geometric mean of logarithmic copies (GMLC) per gram of stool (w/w) of NoV-GII were 9...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805469/long-chain-triglycerides-based-self-nanoemulsifying-oily-formulations-sneofs-of-darunavir-with-improved-lymphatic-targeting-potential
#15
Babita Garg, Sarwar Beg, Ranjot Kaur, Rajendra Kumar, Om Prakash Katare, Bhupinder Singh
The current studies entail systematic development of SNEOFs containing long-chain triglycerides for improving lymphatic targeting of darunavir for complete inhibition of HIV progression. As per QbD-oriented approach for formulation development, the QTPP was defined and CQAs were earmarked. Preformulation equilibrium solubility and phase diagram studies, and risk assessment through FMEA studies identified Lauroglycol 90, Tween 80 and Transcutol HP as the lipid, emulgent and cosolvent, respectively, for formulating SNEOFs of darunavir...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802027/performance-evaluation-of-the-bioneer-accupower%C3%A2-hiv-1-quantitative-rt-pcr-kit-comparison-with-the-roche-cobas%C3%A2-ampliprep-cobas-taqman%C3%A2-hiv-1-test-ver-2-0-for-quantification-of-hiv-1-viral-load-in-indonesia
#16
Agus Susanto Kosasih, Christine Sugiarto, Hubertus Hosti Hayuanta, Runingsih Juhaendi, Lyana Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Measurement of viral load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients is essential for the establishment of a therapeutic strategy. Several assays based on qPCR are available for the measurement of viral load; they differ in sample volume, technology applied, target gene, sensitivity and dynamic range. The Bioneer AccuPower® HIV-1 Quantitative RT-PCR is a novel commercial kit that has not been evaluated for its performance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Bioneer AccuPower® HIV-1 Quantitative RT-PCR kit...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801835/fabrication-of-acyclovir-loaded-flexible-membrane-vesicles-fmvs-evidence-of-preclinical-efficacy-of-antiviral-activity-in-murine-model-of-cutaneous-hsv-1-infection
#17
Gajanand Sharma, Kanika Thakur, Arvind Setia, Basant Amarji, Mini P Singh, Kaisar Raza, Om Prakash Katare
The present investigation focuses on the development and evaluation of acyclovir-loaded flexible membrane vesicles (ACY-FMVs) and evaluates their targeting potential to localize the drug into skin layers. The drug-loaded FMVs were prepared by thin-film hydration method and characterized for various attributes including micromeritics, entrapment efficiency, vesicle shape, size, and degree of deformability. The values of particle size and zeta potential of the developed carrier system were found to be 453.7 nm and - 11...
August 11, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801271/comparative-evaluation-of-microbial-translocation-products-lps-scd14-igm-endocab-in-hiv-1-infected-indian-individuals
#18
Neema Negi, Ravinder Singh, Ashutosh Sharma, Bimal Kumar Das, Madhu Vajpayee
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and IgM Endocab levels have been reported to be associated with disease progression in HIV-1 infection. In this longitudinal study, plasma levels of different microbially translocated products (LPS, sCD14, Endocab) was investigated in HIV-1 infected Indian Individuals stratified as Rapid (R), Viremic slow (VS), Slow progressors (S) and healthy controls. METHOD: Ten healthy and twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were enrolled...
August 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801074/rational-heart-transplant-from-hepatitis-c-donor-new-antiviral-weapons-conquer-the-trojan
#19
Robert L Gottlieb, Teena Sam, Suzanne Y Wada, James F Trotter, Sumeet K Asrani, Brian Lima, Susan M Joseph, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Stawinski, Shelley A Hall
BACKGROUND: Donors with hepatitis C (HCV) viremia are rarely utilized for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTx) due to post-transplant risks. New, highly effective HCV antivirals may alter the landscape. METHODS: An adult patient unsuitable for bridging mechanical support therapy accepted a heart transplant offer from a donor with HCV viremia. Upon daily logarithmic rise in HCV viral load and adequate titers to ensure successful genotyping, once daily sofosbuvir 400 mg / velpatasvir 100 mg (Epclusa) was initiated empirically pending HCV genotype (genotype 3a confirmed after initiation of therapy)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799299/a-comparative-study-of-csf-viral-rna-loads-between-hiv-positive-patients-with-neurological-manifestations-and-neurologically-asymptomatic-hiv-patients
#20
A D Mathur, S Devesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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