keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

HIV viral load

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040165/dating-violence-against-hiv-infected-youth-in-south-africa-associations-with-sexual-risk-behavior-medication-adherence-and-mental-health
#1
Rachel Kidman, Avy Violari
BACKGROUND: As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth - an important step towards effective intervention. SETTING: Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Self-report surveys were completed by 129 perinatal HIV-infected female youth (aged 13-24)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039992/polymerase-chain-reaction-and-goldmann-witmer-coefficient-to-examine-the-role-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-uveitis
#2
Derrick Smit, David Meyer, Jean Maritz, Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes
PURPOSE: To use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Goldmann-Witmer Coefficient (GWC) calculation to search for evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes uveitis. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study where participants with positive multiplex EBV PCR results were further investigated by: 1) real-time PCR for EBV viral loads (VL) and 2) EBV GWC. RESULTS: Eleven of 106 consecutive uveitis patients (10.4%) had positive multiplex PCR for EBV on aqueous humor sampling and 7/11 (63...
October 17, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033943/human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-and-type-i-interferons-where-sex-makes-a-difference
#3
REVIEW
Susanne Maria Ziegler, Marcus Altfeld
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemic continues to represent a global health problem that is over-proportionally affecting women from sub-Saharan Africa. Besides social and environmental factors, the modulation of immunological pathways by sex hormones and gene dosage effects of X chromosomal-encoded genes have been suggested to lead to differential outcomes in HIV-1 disease. Women present with lower HIV-1 loads early in infection. However, the progression to AIDS for the same level of viremia is faster in women than in men...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033797/white-matter-abnormalities-in-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure
#4
Marcin Jankiewicz, Martha J Holmes, Paul A Taylor, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Background: Due to changes in guidelines and access to treatment, more children start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infancy. With few studies examining the long-term effects of perinatal HIV infection and early ART on neurodevelopment, much is still unknown about brain maturation in the presence of HIV and ART. Follow-up studies of HIV infected (HIV+) children are important for monitoring brain development in the presence of HIV infection and ART. Methods: We use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) in 65 HIV+ and 46 control (HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed uninfected (HU)) 7-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030134/a1at-polymorphisms-may-be-associated-with-clinical-characteristics-of-retrovirus-infections-in-a-mixed-ethnic-population-from-the-brazilian-amazon-region
#5
Thalita Camêlo da Silva Ferreira, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Gustavo Adolfo Argañaraz, Ricardo Ishak, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Enrique Roberto Argañaraz
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the association of alpha-1-antrypsin deficiency (S and Z polymorphisms), with HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infection. METHODS: Blood samples from 201 HIV-1 and 115 HTLV-1 infected individuals were examined and compared with 300 healthy controls. Genotyping of A1AT (S and Z) and quantification of plasma viral load were performed using RT-PCR and TCD4+/CD8+ cell count was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The wild-type MM genotype showed a higher frequency in the three groups investigated...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029647/renal-manifestations-of-hiv-during-the-antiretroviral-era-in-south-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review
#6
Shirelle Assaram, Nombulelo P Magula, Suman Mewa Kinoo, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 650,000 patients may develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related renal disease in South Africa. South Africa has recently adopted WHO policy, stipulating that all HIV-infected patients have access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count. METHODS: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Worldcat.org and EBSCO host databases from July 2015 to December 2015. Eligibility criteria included articles pertaining to renal manifestations of HIV in South Africa from 2004 to 2015 in adult patients (≥ 18 years)...
October 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029317/the-critical-role-of-supply-chains-in-preventing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#7
Thomas Minior, Meaghan Douglas, Dianna Edgil, Meena Srivastava, John Crowley, Jacqueline Firth, Ilana Lapidos-Salaiz, Jason Williams, Lana Lee
The functioning of the supply chain may be a driving factor behind the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Additionally, the effectiveness of supply chains will likely impact the scale-up of both viral-load monitoring and HIVDR testing. This article describes the complexities of global supply chains relevant for LMICs and presents early data on stock-outs and drug substitutions in several countries supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029206/dissecting-hiv-virulence-heritability-of-setpoint-viral-load-cd4-t-cell-decline-and-per-parasite-pathogenicity
#8
Frederic Bertels, Alex Marzel, Gabriel Leventhal, Venelin Mitov, Jacques Fellay, Huldrych F Günthard, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Manuel Battegay, Andri Rauch, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra U Scherrer, Viktor Müller, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Roger Kouyos, Roland R Regoes
Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as" per-parasite pathogenicity". Using viral load and CD4+ T cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence - measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells - and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029178/expansion-of-viral-load-testing-and-the-potential-impact-on-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance
#9
Helen M Chun, Yaa F Obeng-Aduasare, Laura N Broyles, Dennis Ellenberger
Increasing the volume, strengthening the quality, and proactively using data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load testing are pivotal to limiting the threat of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) accumulation,and allow for optimal case-based HIVDR surveillance. Triangulation of viral load (VL) and HIVDR testing data could be pursued to answer key questions and translate data and results for program and public policy. Identification of virologic failure and early management mitigates the greater risk of HIVDR...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028661/changes-in-viral-suppression-status-among-hiv-patients-receiving-care-united-states-2014
#10
Nicole Crepaz, Tian Tang, Gary Marks, H Irene Hall
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in viral suppression status among HIV patients receiving care in 2014 and the extent of viral suppression among persons with infrequent care visits. METHODS: Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System from 33 jurisdictions with complete reporting of CD4 and viral load tests, we created four viral suppression status groups based on their first and last viral loads in 2014: both suppressed, first unsuppressed and last suppressed (improved), first suppressed and last unsuppressed (worsened), and both unsuppressed...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028659/differences-in-acute-retroviral-syndrome-by-hiv-1-subtype-in-a-multicentre-cohort-study-in-africa
#11
Eduard J Sanders, Matthew A Price, Etienne Karita, Anatoli Kamali, William Kilembe, Linda-Gail Bekker, Shabir Lakhi, Mubiana Inambao, Omu Anzala, Patricia E Fast, Jill Gilmour, Kimberly A Powers
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) may be used to identify patients with acute HIV-1 infection who seek care. ARS symptoms in African adults differ by region. We assessed whether reporting of ARS was associated with HIV-1 subtype in a multicentre African cohort study representing countries with predominant HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D. METHODOLOGY: ARS symptoms were assessed in adults enrolling ≤6 weeks after the estimated date of infection (EDI) in an acute and early HIV-1 infection cohort study...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027878/are-prophylactic-antibiotic-agents-indicated-in-anorectal-surgery-for-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#12
Shaivi A Patel, Robert J Kucejko, Edward A Fazendin, Juan L Poggio
BACKGROUND: With increased survival among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), surgeons have been seeing more cases of anal dysplasia and cancer. There is, however, no data on the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in HIV-positive patients undergoing elective anorectal procedures, nor on the administration of prophylactic antibiotic agents. We reviewed a HIV-positive population that has undergone elective anorectal biopsy of areas of dysplasia observed on office anoscopy to assess the need for antibiotic prophylaxis...
October 13, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026869/associations-between-antiretroviral-treatment-and-avascular-bone-necrosis-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#13
Cornelia Bayard, Bruno Ledergerber, Markus Flepp, Thanh Lecompte, Estelle Moulin, Matthias Hoffmann, Rainer Weber, Cornelia Staehelin, Caroline Di Benedetto, Christoph A Fux, Philip E Tarr, Barbara Hasse
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly protease inhibitors (PI) have been implicated as a risk factor. We aimed to study the associations of ART with the occurrence of AVN among Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants (SHCS). METHODS: We used incidence density sampling to perform a case control study within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) comparing prospectively collected AVN cases and controls by conditional logistic regression analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026792/antiretroviral-drug-resistance-mutations-among-hiv-treatment-failure-patients-in-tehran-iran
#14
Molood Farrokhi, Samaneh Moallemi, Reza Shirkoohi, Reza Golmohammadi, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Sara Sardashti, Ladan Abbasian, Kazem Baesi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine drug resistance mutations in patients with virological failure and find correlation between HIV drug resistance test and viral load. METHODS: Blood sample was collected from 51 patients who suspicious treatment failure in the center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2015. Viral voluntary counseling and testing load test was done and the patients with viral load above 1000 copies choose for detection of drug resistance mutations by genotyping method (29 patients)...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026166/virus-and-host-specific-differences-in-oral-human-herpesvirus-shedding-kinetics-among-ugandan-women-and-children
#15
Laura Matrajt, Soren Gantt, Bryan T Mayer, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jackson Orem, Anna Wald, Lawrence Corey, Joshua T Schiffer, Corey Casper
Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026137/opiate-use-inhibits-tlr9-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-possible-role-in-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#16
Yanyan Liao, Junjun Jiang, Bingyu Liang, Fumei Wei, Jiegang Huang, Peijiang Pan, Jinming Su, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Li Ye, Hao Liang
The molecular mechanism of opiate use promoting HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. TLR9 is expressed in many immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, which can recognize viruses and viral products and consequently induce the production of antiviral factors and initiate immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chronic viral infections can overcome and impair TLR9 pathway. We aimed to explore whether opiate use enhances HIV infection through inhibition of TLR9 pathway via a population-based study...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023549/supraphysiologic-control-over-hiv-1-replication-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells-expressing-a-re-engineered-cd4-based-chimeric-antigen-receptor
#17
Rachel S Leibman, Max W Richardson, Christoph T Ellebrecht, Colby R Maldini, Joshua A Glover, Anthony J Secreto, Irina Kulikovskaya, Simon F Lacey, Sarah R Akkina, Yanjie Yi, Farida Shaheen, Jianbin Wang, Keith A Dufendach, Michael C Holmes, Ronald G Collman, Aimee S Payne, James L Riley
HIV is adept at avoiding naturally generated T cell responses; therefore, there is a need to develop HIV-specific T cells with greater potency for use in HIV cure strategies. Starting with a CD4-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that was previously used without toxicity in clinical trials, we optimized the vector backbone, promoter, HIV targeting moiety, and transmembrane and signaling domains to determine which components augmented the ability of T cells to control HIV replication. This re-engineered CAR was at least 50-fold more potent in vitro at controlling HIV replication than the original CD4 CAR, or a TCR-based approach, and substantially better than broadly neutralizing antibody-based CARs...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023355/utility-of-mobile-communication-devices-as-a-tool-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-and-young-adults-in-argentina
#18
Erica Stankievich, Adriana Malanca, Irene Foradori, Silvina Ivalo, Marcelo Losso
BACKGROUND: Optimal adherence is critical to achieve the benefits of antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of mobile devices as a strategy to improve adherence to ART, measured by Viral Load (VL) in HIV+ patients less than 25 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a cohort of HIV+ patients less than 25 years of age. HIV+ patients, on ART, VL >1000 copies/mL, using mobile devices and suboptimal adherence (SOA) were included...
October 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022532/hiv-positive-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-audit
#19
P Mkoko, R I Raine
BACKGROUND: The indications for and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission of HIV-positive patients in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify indications for ICU admission and determine factors associated with high ICU and hospital mortality in HIV-positive patients. METHODS: We reviewed case records of HIV-positive patients admitted to the medical and surgical ICUs at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021641/zidovudine-lamivudine-vs-abacavir-lamivudine-vs-tenofovir-emtricitabine-in-fixed-dose-combinations-as-initial-treatment-for-hiv-patients-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
Juan Carlos Alzate Angel, Marcela María Duque Molina, Héctor Iván García García
INTRODUCTION: Initial treatment of the HIV is based on the use of three drugs, two of which are nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. There are three combinations of these drugs which have been approved by different guidelines, each with divergent results in terms of efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of these three combinations. METHODS: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials comparing fixed doses of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate / Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), Abacavir / Lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and Zidovudine / Lamivudine (ZDV/3TC)...
June 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
keyword
keyword
57962
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"