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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436334/acute-hiv-infection-advances-in-mechanisms-and-prophylactic-therapeutic-management
#1
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Amman Abid
Human infection by HIV is spreading rapidly. The spread of the virus is generally organized and transmission can be rectal, oral, or penile. Several types of cells are susceptible to viral invasion. The appearance of symptoms during infection can vary, but the presence of the virus can be confirmed by testing for the antigen p24. The ELISA test is used to detect viral p24 antigen and antiviral antibodies. This technique is approved for the purposes of clinical practice. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is usually a costly and lengthy treatment for HIV infection...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434809/real-world-performance-of-the-new-us-hiv-testing-algorithm-in-medical-settings
#2
Kara G Marson, Robert Marlin, Phong Pham, Stephanie E Cohen, Diane Jones, Marguerite Roemer, Philip J Peters, Barbara Haller, Christopher D Pilcher
BACKGROUND: Our medical center laboratory recently adapted its 24/7, two-hourly testing program to use an ARCHITECT-Multispot-viral load (AR-MS-VL) algorithm in place of a previous rapid test-immunofluorescence (RT-IF) algorithm. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated screening test performance, acute case detection, turnaround time and ability to resolve HIV status under the new algorithm. STUDY DESIGN: We considered consecutive HIV tests from January to November 2015...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434689/early-childhood-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-prior-to-the-first-hepatitis-b-vaccine-dose-is-rare-among-babies-born-to-hiv-infected-and-non-hiv-infected-mothers-in-gulu-uganda
#3
E Seremba, J P Van Geertruyden, R Ssenyonga, C K Opio, J M Kaducu, J B Sempa, R Colebunders, P Ocama
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. METHODS: We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively...
April 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#4
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432928/a-humanized-mouse-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay-with-higher-sensitivity-than-in-vitro-qvoa-in-detecting-latently-infected-cells-from-individuals-on-art-with-undetectable-viral-loads
#5
Paige Charlins, Kimberly Schmitt, Leila Remling-Mulder, Louise E Hogan, Emily Hanhauser, Kristen S Hobbs, Frederick Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich, Ramesh Akkina
Assays that can verify full viral eradication are essential in the context of achieving a cure for HIV/AIDS. In vitro quantitative viral out growth assays (qVOA) are currently the gold standard for measuring latent HIV-1 but these assays often fail to detect very low levels of replication-competent virus. Here we investigated an alternative in vivo approach for sensitive viral detection using humanized mice (hmVOA). Peripheral blood CD4+ T cell samples from HIV subjects on stable ART with undetectable viral loads by RT-PCR were first assayed by in vitro qVOA...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431573/a-highly-pathogenic-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-effectively-produces-infectious-virions-compared-with-a-less-pathogenic-virus-in-cell-culture
#6
Shoya Iwanami, Yusuke Kakizoe, Satoru Morita, Tomoyuki Miura, Shinji Nakaoka, Shingo Iwami
BACKGROUND: The host range of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is quite narrow. Therefore, analyzing HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo has been limited owing to lack of appropriate animal model systems. To overcome this, chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that encode HIV-1 Env and are infectious to macaques have been developed and used to investigate the pathogenicity of HIV-1 in vivo. So far, we have many SHIV strains that show different pathogenesis in macaque experiments...
April 21, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429289/the-nature-and-consequences-of-cognitive-deficits-among-tobacco-smokers-with-hiv-a-comparison-to-tobacco-smokers-without-hiv
#7
Joseph D Harrison, Jessica A Dochney, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Anita Hole, Karam Mounzer, Steven Siegel, Robert A Schnoll, Rebecca L Ashare
HIV-infected smokers lose more years of life to tobacco-related disease than HIV. Since neurocognitive deficits are common among those with HIV and are associated with smoking persistence, these deficits may be a unique barrier to smoking cessation among HIV-infected smokers. Documenting unique differences in and correlates of cognition among HIV-infected smokers is a critical step towards developing a population-specific tobacco cessation treatment. We compared neurocognitive function between HIV-infected (n = 103) and HIV-uninfected smokers (n = 70), accounting for demographic and smoking-related variables...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428094/cxcr6-gene-characterization-in-two-ethnically-distinct-south-african-populations-and-association-with-viraemic-disease-control-in-hiv-1-infected-black-south-african-individuals
#8
Anabela C P Picton, Maria Paximadis, Richard E Chaisson, Neil A Martinson, Caroline T Tiemessen
CXCR6 genetic variation was described for HIV-1-uninfected black (n=41) and Caucasian (n=40) South Africans. We also investigated the CXCR6 rs2234358 and rs2234355 single nucleotide polymorphisms in HIV-1 disease control in 124 HIV-1-infected drug-naïve black individuals [elite controllers (n=11), viraemic controllers (VCs, n=30), high viral load long-term nonprogressors (HVL LTNPs, n=11) and progressors (n=72)] compared to healthy controls (HCs; n=232). The rs2234358-T allele was underrepresented in VCs (40...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427421/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-biomarkers-of-iron-status-are-associated-with-csf-viral-load-antiretroviral-therapy-and-demographic-factors-in-hiv-infected-adults
#9
Stephanie M Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Donald R Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize CSF iron-related biomarkers in HIV+ adults and explore their relationships to known predictors of HAND. METHODS: We quantified total iron, transferrin and heavy-chain (H)-ferritin by immunoassay in CSF sampled by lumbar puncture in 403 HIV+ participants in a multi-center, observational study and evaluated biomarker associations with demographic and HIV-related correlates of HAND [e...
April 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426837/the-high-prevalence-of-hpv-and-hpv16-european-variants-in-cervical-and-anal-samples-of-hiv-seropositive-women-with-normal-pap-test-results
#10
Lays Paula Bondi Volpini, Neide Aparecida Tosato Boldrini, Luciana Bueno de Freitas, Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Liliana Cruz Spano
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-seropositive women are more likely to have anogenital cancer, and high risk-HPV (HR-HPV) infection is the main associated factor. Between August 2013 and December 2015, we conducted a descriptive study to determine the HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in cervical and anal samples of HIV-seropositive women with a normal Pap test. The viral DNA was amplified by PCR using the PGMY09/11 set of primers. Reverse line blot (RLB), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing assays were used to determine the HPV genotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425903/improving-linkage-to-hiv-care-at-low-threshold-sti-hiv-testing-sites-an-evaluation-of-the-immediate-staging-pilot-project-in-vancouver-british-columbia
#11
Bobbi Brownrigg, Darlene Taylor, Felicia Phan, Irvine Sandstra, Rochelle Stimpson, Rolando Barrios, Richard Lester, Gina Ogilvie
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the Immediate Staging Pilot Project (ISPP) was to improve linkage to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care by increasing the number of referrals made to HIV care, and to decrease the time between diagnosis and linkage to care for newly diagnosed HIV clients. This pilot had the potential to decrease HIV transmission at a population level by engaging clients in treatment earlier. SETTING: The Bute Street Clinic and Health Initiative for Men Clinic on Davie in Vancouver, British Columbia are low-threshold public health facilities providing HIV/STI testing primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM)...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422785/role-of-nonneutralizing-antibodies-in-vaccines-and-or-hiv-infected-individuals
#13
Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased body of evidence gathered over time indicate that antibodies are capable of many inhibitory mechanisms, virus neutralization being just one of them. Nonneutralizing antibodyactivities interfering with HIV replication can also lead to a decrease in viral load and even in-vivo protection. RECENT FINDINGS: It was previously believed that neutralizing antibodies can achieve sterilizing protection mainly by using their neutralization capacities against the infecting virus directly at the portal of virus entry...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422610/joint-bent-cable-tobit-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#14
Getachew A Dagne
In this article, we show how to estimate a transition period for the evolvement of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or other related treatments in the framework of developing a Bayesian method for jointly analyzing time to event and longitudinal data. For HIV/AIDS longitudinal data, developmental trajectories of viral loads tend to show a gradual change from a declining trend after initiation of treatment to an increasing trend without an abrupt change. Such characteristics of trajectories are also associated with a time-to-event process...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#15
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419007/persistence-of-hepatitis-b-immunity-following-3-dose-infant-primary-series-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents-and-immunologic-response-to-revaccination
#16
Keswadee Lapphra, Paveena Oungkananukit, Supawan Saihongthong, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Orasi Wittawatmongkol, Supattra Rungmaitree, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: HIV infection may alter immunologic response and the establishment of immune memory to infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. This study aimed to determine the need to revaccinate perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional serologic tests for HBV, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag), anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) were performed in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414330/hiv-persistence-in-tissue-macrophages-of-humanized-myeloid-only-mice-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Jenna B Honeycutt, William O Thayer, Caroline E Baker, Ruy M Ribeiro, Steven M Lada, Youfang Cao, Rachel A Cleary, Michael G Hudgens, Douglas D Richman, J Victor Garcia
Despite years of fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV persists in its hosts and is never eradicated. One major barrier to eradication is that the virus infects multiple cell types that may individually contribute to HIV persistence. Tissue macrophages are critical contributors to HIV pathogenesis; however, their specific role in HIV persistence during long-term suppressive ART has not been established. Using humanized myeloid-only mice (MoM), we demonstrate that HIV infection of tissue macrophages is rapidly suppressed by ART, as reflected by a rapid drop in plasma viral load and a dramatic decrease in the levels of cell-associated viral RNA and DNA...
April 17, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414260/retention-in-hiv-care-and-viral-suppression-individual-and-neighborhood-level-predictors-of-racial-ethnic-differences-florida-2015
#18
Diana M Sheehan, Kristopher P Fennie, Daniel E Mauck, Lorene M Maddox, Spencer Lieb, Mary Jo Trepka
The objective of this study was to estimate racial/ethnic differences in retention in HIV care and viral suppression and to identify related individual and neighborhood determinants. Florida HIV surveillance records of cases aged ≥13 years diagnosed during the years 2000-2014 were analyzed. Retention in care was defined as evidence of ≥2 or more laboratory tests, receipts of prescription, or clinical visits at least 3 months apart during 2015. Viral load suppression was defined as a viral load of <200 copies/mL for the last test in 2015...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#19
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411524/the-network-structure-of-sex-partner-meeting-places-reported-by-hiv-infected-msm-opportunities-for-hiv-targeted-control
#20
Meredith Brantley, Christina Schumacher, Jamie Perin, Amelia Greiner Safi, Jonathan M Ellen, Ravikiran Muvva, Patrick Chaulk, Jacky M Jennings
Baltimore, Maryland ranks among U.S. cities with the highest incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV screening at sex partner meeting places or venues frequented by MSM with new diagnoses and/or high HIV viral load may reduce transmission by identifying and linking infected individuals to care. We investigated venue-based clustering of newly diagnosed MSM to identify high HIV transmission venues. HIV surveillance data from MSM diagnosed between October 2012-June 2014 and reporting ≥1 sex partner meeting place were examined...
April 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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