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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107870/identifications-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-hiv-1-patients-in-peninsular-malaysia
#1
Rozainanee Mohd Zain, Nabila Ibrahim, Suriani Ismail, Jeyanthi Suppiah, Nor Aziyah Mat Rahim, Ravindran Thayan
OBJECTIVE: To determine drug resistance mutations and the HIV-1 subtypes among antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 patients in Peninsular Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 45 samples from four hospitals that provide HIV viral load services were subjected to the amplification of the protease and two third of reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Drug resistance mutation (DRM) interpretation reports the presence of mutations related to protease inhibitors (PIs), Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based on analysis using Stanford HIV database program...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104465/heroin-use-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-restriction-factors-and-type-i-interferon-expression-and-facilitates-hiv-1-replication
#2
Jia-Wu Zhu, Feng-Liang Liu, Dan Mu, De-Yao Deng, Yong-Tang Zheng
Heroin use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV-1 infection, as a result of immunosuppression to a certain extent. Host restriction factors are recently identified cellular proteins with potent antiviral activities. Whether heroin use impacts on the in vivo expression of restriction factors that result in facilitating HIV-1 replication is poorly understood. Here we recruited 432 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 164 non-IDUs at high-risk behaviors. Based on serological tests, significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was observed among IDUs compared with non-IDUs...
January 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104138/a2-to-b-blood-type-incompatible-deceased-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-a-recipient-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#3
R C Forbes, A DeMers, B P Concepcion, D R Moore, H M Schaefer, D Shaffer
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of the Kidney Allocation System in the United States in December 2014, transplant centers can list eligible B blood type recipients for A2 organ offers. There have been no prior reports of ABO incompatible A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) recipients to guide clinicians on enrolling or performing A2 to B transplantations in HIV+ candidates. We are the first to report a case of A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in an HIV+ recipient with good intermediate-term results...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103895/feasibility-of-antiretroviral-treatment-monitoring-in-the-era-of-decentralized-hiv-care-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Minh D Pham, Lorena Romero, Bruce Parnell, David A Anderson, Suzanne M Crowe, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of HIV patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to ensure patient benefits and the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of ART programs. Prompted by WHO recommendations for expansion and decentralization of HIV treatment and care in low and middle income countries, we conducted a systematic review to assess the feasibility of treatment monitoring in these settings. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was developed using a combination of MeSH and free text terms relevant to HIV treatment and care, health service delivery, health service accessibility, decentralization and other relevant terms...
January 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#5
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103248/effect-of-the-latent-reservoir-on-the-evolution-of-hiv-at-the-within-and-between-host-levels
#6
Hilje M Doekes, Christophe Fraser, Katrina A Lythgoe
The existence of long-lived reservoirs of latently infected CD4+ T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV, and has been extensively studied in this light. However, the effect of these reservoirs on the evolutionary dynamics of the virus has received little attention. Here, we present a within-host quasispecies model that incorporates a long-lived reservoir, which we then nest into an epidemiological model of HIV dynamics. For biologically plausible parameter values, we find that the presence of a latent reservoir can severely delay evolutionary dynamics within a single host, with longer delays associated with larger relative reservoir sizes and/or homeostatic proliferation of cells within the reservoir...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100971/tricuspid-valve-replacement-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-with-severe-tricuspid-regurgitation-secondary-to-remote-endocarditis
#7
Merle Myerson, Ehrin J Armstrong, Eduard Poltavskiy, Jose Fefer, Heejung Bang
Surgical intervention for severe tricuspid regurgitation secondary to remote infective endocarditis has been infrequent, especially in patients also infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the case of a 62-year-old HIV-positive man, with a 24-year history of endocarditis caused by intravenous heroin use, who presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation. The patient was initially asymptomatic, was taking antiretroviral medications, and had a satisfactory CD4 count and an undetectable viral load, so we decided to manage the regurgitation conservatively...
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100831/coexistence-of-potent-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-and-antibody-sensitive-viruses-in-a-viremic-controller
#8
Natalia T Freund, Haoqing Wang, Louise Scharf, Lilian Nogueira, Joshua A Horwitz, Yotam Bar-On, Jovana Golijanin, Stuart A Sievers, Devin Sok, Hui Cai, Julio C Cesar Lorenzi, Ariel Halper-Stromberg, Ildiko Toth, Alicja Piechocka-Trocha, Harry B Gristick, Marit J van Gils, Rogier W Sanders, Lai-Xi Wang, Michael S Seaman, Dennis R Burton, Anna Gazumyan, Bruce D Walker, Anthony P West, Pamela J Bjorkman, Michel C Nussenzweig
Some HIV-1-infected patients develop broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that when passively transferred to mice or macaques can treat or prevent infection. However, bNAbs typically fail to neutralize coexisting autologous viruses due to antibody-mediated selection against sensitive viral strains. We describe an HIV-1 controller expressing HLA-B57*01 and HLA-B27*05 who maintained low viral loads for 30 years after infection and developed broad and potent serologic activity against HIV-1. Neutralization was attributed to three different bNAbs targeting nonoverlapping sites on the HIV-1 envelope trimer (Env)...
January 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100241/personalized-life-expectancy-and-treatment-benefit-index-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Yanni Xiao, Xiaodan Sun, Sanyi Tang, Yicang Zhou, Zhihang Peng, Jianhong Wu, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) within host includes typical stages and the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is shown to be effective in slowing down this progression. There are great challenges in describing the entire HIV disease progression and evaluating comprehensive effects of ART on life expectancy for HIV infected individuals on ART. METHODS: We develop a novel summative treatment benefit index (TBI), based on an HIV viral dynamics model and linking the infection and viral production rates to the Weibull function...
January 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095920/accuracy-of-who-immunological-criteria-in-identifying-virological-failure-among-hiv-infected-adults-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-mwanza-north-western-tanzania
#10
Daniel W Gunda, Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Semvua B Kilonzo, Bonaventura C T Mpondo
BACKGROUND: Optimal HIV treatment monitoring remains a big challenge in resource limited settings. Guidelines recommend the use of clinical and immunological criteria in resource limited settings due to unavailability of viral load monitoring; however their utility is questionable. This study aimed at assessing the accuracy of immunological criteria in detecting treatment failure among HIV infected Tanzanian adults receiving first line ART. METHODS: A clinic based cross sectional study was conducted between February and July 2011 at Bugando Medical centre (BMC) HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC) involving HIV infected patients aged 18 years and above, receiving first line ART; followed up for at least 1 year...
January 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093538/prevalence-and-determinants-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-an-underdeveloped-rural-region-of-southwestern-china
#11
Ya Yang, Yibiao Zhou, Wanting Cheng, Xiang Pan, Penglei Xiao, Yan Shi, Jianchuan Gao, Xiuxia Song, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang
Few studies have focused on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in resource-challenged settings in China. We report a community-based cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection and its risk factors and associations with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 12.6% (95% confidence interval = 11.0-14.3). Individuals living in households with ≥ 5 family members and raising domestic pigs tended to have a greater risk of Cryptosporidium infection...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092168/associations-between-at-risk-alcohol-use-substance-use-and-smoking-with-lipohypertrophy-and-lipoatrophy-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#12
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089557/lower-total-and-regional-grey-matter-brain-volumes-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection-associations-with-hiv-disease-severity-substance-use-and-cognition
#13
C Paula Lewis-De Los Angeles, Paige L Williams, Yanling Huo, Shirlene D Wang, Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Kathleen Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Sharon Nichols, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7 years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087069/safety-tolerability-and-antiviral-effect-of-rg-101-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-phase-1b-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Meike H van der Ree, J Marleen de Vree, Femke Stelma, Sophie Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Svend Rietdijk, Richard Molenkamp, Janke Schinkel, Ad C van Nuenen, Ulrich Beuers, Salah Hadi, Marten Harbers, Eva van der Veer, Kai Liu, John Grundy, Amy K Patick, Adam Pavlicek, Jacqueline Blem, Michael Huang, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Neil W Gibson, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: miR-122 is an important host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect of a single dose of RG-101, a hepatocyte targeted N-acetylgalactosamine conjugated oligonucleotide that antagonises miR-122, in patients with chronic HCV infection with various genotypes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 1B study, patients were randomly assigned to RG-101 or placebo (7:1)...
January 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086929/early-virological-failure-and-hiv-drug-resistance-in-ugandan-adults-co-infected-with-tuberculosis
#15
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Alexandra U Scherrer, Brian Magambo, Andrew Kambugu, Jan Fehr, Barbara Castelnuovo
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels. METHODS: HIV-1 plasma viral loads, CD4 cell count measurements, and efavirenz serum concentrations were done in TB/HIV co-infected adults...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081178/gender-differences-in-hiv-care-among-criminal-justice-involved-persons-baseline-data-from-the-care-corrections-study
#16
Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081038/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-antiretroviral-treatment-on-n-terminal-prohormone-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-as-surrogate-of-myocardial-function
#17
Christopher Schuster, Christina Binder, Robert Strassl, Maximilian C Aichelburg, Emma Blackwell, Noemi Pavo, Michael Ramharter, Martin Hülsmann, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Armin Rieger, Georg Goliasch
OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive cardiovascular hormones such as the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are produced upon ventricular stretch and play a central role in neurohumoral pathways of the heart regulating cardiovascular remodeling and volume homeostasis. The impact of HIV infection on these neurohumoral pathways of the heart and its potential reversibility by combinations of antiretroviral therapies remain unclear. METHODS: We assessed serum levels of NT-proBNP in 219 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected patients with a normal cardiac and renal status at treatment initiation and after attainment of viremic control...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079719/feasibility-of-using-hiv-care-continuum-outcomes-to-identify-geographic-areas-for-targeted-hiv-testing
#18
Amanda D Castel, Irene Kuo, Meriam Mikre, Toni Young, Meredith Haddix, Suparna Das, Geoffrey Maugham, Carol Reisen
BACKGROUND: Improved detection and linkage to care of previously undiagnosed HIV infections require innovative approaches to testing. We sought to determine the feasibility of targeted HIV testing in geographic areas, defined by continuum of care parameters, to identify HIV-infected persons needing linkage or engagement in care. METHODS: Using HIV surveillance data from Washington, DC, we identified census tracts that had an HIV prevalence >1% and were either above (higher risk areas-HRAs) or below (lower risk areas-LRAs) the median for 3 indicators: monitored viral load, proportion of persons out of care (OOC), and never in care...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079718/longitudinal-hiv-care-trajectories-in-north-carolina
#19
Kimberly A Powers, Erika Samoff, Mark A Weaver, Lynne A Sampson, William C Miller, Peter A Leone, Heidi Swygard
BACKGROUND: Long-term HIV care and treatment engagement is required for maximal clinical and prevention benefits, but longitudinal care patterns are poorly understood. We used the last 10 years' worth of HIV surveillance data from North Carolina to describe longitudinal HIV care trajectories from diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of all persons newly diagnosed with HIV in North Carolina between March 31, 2006 and March 31, 2015 (N = 16,207)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079717/-out-of-care-hiv-case-investigations-a-collaborative-analysis-across-6-states-in-the-northwest-us
#20
Julia C Dombrowski, Joanna Bove, James C Roscoe, Jessica Harvill, Caislin L Firth, Shireen Khormooji, Jason Carr, Peter Choi, Courtney Smith, Sean D Schafer, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: HIV care continuum estimates derived from laboratory surveillance typically assume that persons without recently reported CD4 count or viral load results are out of care. METHODS: We conducted a multistate project (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming) to ascertain the status of HIV cases that appeared to be out of care during a 12-month period. We used laboratory surveillance to identify cases in all states but Idaho, where viral load reporting is not mandatory, requiring us to rely on clinic records...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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