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HIV viral load

Andreza Lemos Salvio, Amanda de Oliveira Lopes, Adilson José de Almeida, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Lyana Ribeiro Pinto Lima, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Fernando Samuel Sion, Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Vanessa Salete de Paula
AIMS: To improve RT-qPCR with an internal control and a synthetic standard curve to detect HEV in HIV coinfected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) synthetic curve were designed, compared to the international reference panel for HEV genotypes, and tested to quantify and detect a reference panel for HEV genotypes. The detection limit of the RNA synthetic curve (50 copies/mL) was better than the DNA synthetic curve (100 copies/mL) and the WHO standard curve (250 copies/mL)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
J R Winter, A L Adamu, R K Gupta, H R Stagg, V Delpech, I Abubakar
In countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence, TB is concentrated in vulnerable populations, including people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), who have a substantially greater risk of TB than people without HIV. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies evaluating the risk factors for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) or active TB in PLHIV in countries with TB incidence 10 per 100 000 population. Due to the number of risk factors evaluated and heterogeneity in study designs, we present summary data and a narrative synthesis...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Mariana Veloso Meireles, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic factors associated with attrition in the 3 steps of the HIV continuum of care related to the 90-90-90 targets - access to diagnosis, treatment initiation, and virologic suppression, in Brazilian adults (15 years or older), in 2016.Programmatic data were obtained from 2 information systems from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which register all antiretroviral therapy (ART) dispensations and all CD4 and viral load counts (VL) performed within the country's public health system...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Orlando da Costa Ferreira-Júnior, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza-Júnior, Célia Landmann Szwarcwald
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) bear a high burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In this paper, we estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV = hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV = hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis and co-infections in the second Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey among FSW in Brazil. METHOD: The survey was conducted in 12 Brazilian cities from July to November 2016. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 350 FSW in each city...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vandana Saxena, Manisha Ghate, Shubhangi Bichare, Ishrat Khan, Raj Majumdar, Mansa Angadi, Smita Kulkarni, Ramesh Paranjape, Madhuri Rajeev Thakar
OBJECTIVE: The activation of effector immune cells at the cervicovaginal mucosa (CVM) might influence the cervical HIV load and thus the secondary transmission; however limited information is available about the innate effector cells at CVM during HIV infection. In this study we quantified and assessed the activation of the effector immune cells at the CVM of HIV infected women with different disease outcomes: non-progressive HIV disease (LTNPs) and chronic HIV-infected (CHI) and their relationship with cervical viral shedding...
June 14, 2018: AIDS
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Patricia Brasil, Andre Machado Siqueira, Heruza Einsfeld Zogbi, Bianca de Santis Gonçalves, Aline da Silva Santos, Otilia Lupi, Rogerio Valls de Souza, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Clarisse da Silveira Bressan, Mauymi Duarte Wakimoto, Eliane Saraiva de Araújo, Ingrid Cardoso Dos Santos, Ingebourg Georg, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
BackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsHIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical suspected arboviral disease from an ongoing cohort were followed from February through December 2015...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Paulo José Lorenzoni, Renata Dal-Prá Ducci, Giuliano Ohde Dalledone, Claudia Suemi Kamoi Kay, Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Lineu Cesar Werneck, Rosana Hermínia Scola
HIV-associated motor neuron disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome associated with HIV infection, is a rare manifestation of HIV infection. HIV-associated MND has only been identified in few cases to date. We analysed two Brazilian patients with HIV infection who developed MND. The diagnosis of HIV infection was concomitant with diagnosis of MND in one patient and it occurred eight years before the MND symptoms in another patient. The manifestation of MND in our patients with HIV infection was similar to classic ALS...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Vanessa El Kamari, Corrilynn O Hileman, Pierre M Gholam, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapies are needed to limit progression of fatty liver diseases in patients with HIV infection. We analyzed data from a prospective study of the effects of rosuvastatin (a statin) on hepatic steatosis in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from a double-blind trial of adult patients with HIV infection (78% male; 68% African American; mean age, 46 years; body mass index, 29 kg/m2 ; HIV1 RNA<1000 copies/mL; LDL-cholesterol <130 mg/dL) receiving antiretroviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Emily Ghassemi, Jennifer Smith, Laura Owens, Charles Herring, Melissa Holland
OBJECTIVES: To compare antiretroviral adherence (measured as the proportion of days covered [PDC]) and change in viral load in insured, HIV-infected, adult outpatients enrolled and not enrolled in a medication synchronization program. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, pilot cohort study. Fifty-eight insured, HIV-infected, outpatients at least 18 years of age receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 3 months as of August 2015 were included...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Ryan K Dean, Rogin Subedi, Ashraya Karkee
Chylous ascites is an uncommon finding of triglyceride-rich lymph in the peritoneal cavity. There are a variety of reported etiologies for chylous ascites; however, the reporting of chylous ascites among AIDS/HIV-positive patients is quite uncommon. This finding as a complication of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is even more unusual. Here we report a case of an HIV-positive man with a history of colonic Mycobacterium avium complex who developed chylous ascites in the setting of increasing CD4 counts and decreasing viral load, suggestive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Duncan MacKellar, Daniel Williams, Bonsile Bhembe, Makhosazana Dlamini, Johnita Byrd, Lenhle Dube, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Trong Ao, Ishani Pathmanathan, Andrew F Auld, Pamela Faura, Nomthandazo Lukhele, Caroline Ryan
To achieve epidemic control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sub-Saharan African countries are striving to diagnose 90% of HIV infections, initiate and retain 90% of HIV-diagnosed persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and achieve viral load suppression* for 90% of ART recipients (90-90-90) (1). In Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), the country with the world's highest estimated HIV prevalence (27.2%), achieving 90-90-90 depends upon improving access to early ART for men and young adults with HIV infection, two groups with low ART coverage (1-3)...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
A Provoost, M Dramé, L Cotte, L Cuzin, R Garraffo, D Rey, F Raffi, I Poizot-Martin, P Pugliese, F Bani-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been reportedly associated with a higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) but results are conflicting. AIMS: To determine whether there is an association between chronic HCV and the incidence of DM, and to study the role of factors such as cirrhosis, IFN-based HCV therapy, sustained virologic response (SVR) and chronic HBV infection among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) followed in a large French multicentre cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era...
June 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Matthew J Mimiaga, Bradley N Gaynes, Richard Moore, Katerina Christopoulos, Conall O'Cleirigh, David Grelotti, Sonia Napravnik, Heidi Crane, Michael Mugavero
Background: The effect of depressive symptoms over time on progression through the HIV treatment cascade is complex and poorly characterized. Methods: We included participants from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems Cohort who were ART-naïve, had at least one viral load and HIV appointment measure after ART initiation, and had a depressive symptom measure within 6 months of ART initiation. Recent depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and categorized using a validated cut-point (PHQ-9 > 10)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Huihui Chong, Jing Xue, Yuanmei Zhu, Zhe Cong, Ting Chen, Yan Guo, Qiang Wei, Yusen Zhou, Chuan Qin, Yuxian He
T-20 (enfuvirtide) is the only approved viral fusion inhibitor, which is used for treatment of HIV-1 infection; however, it has relatively low antiviral activity and easily induces drug resistance. We recently reported a T-20-based lipopeptide fusion inhibitor (LP-40) showing improved anti-HIV activity (Ding et al J Virol, 2017). In this study, we designed LP-50 and LP-51 by refining the structure and function of LP-40. Two new lipopeptides showed dramatically enhanced secondary structures and binding stability and were exceptionally potent inhibitors of HIV-1, HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian-human chimeric virus (SHIV), with mean IC50 values at very low picomolar concentrations...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Susanna K P Lau, George C S Lo, Franklin W N Chow, Rachel Y Y Fan, James J Cai, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromyces marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. We report the discovery of a novel partitivirus, Talaromyces marneffei partitivirus -1 (TmPV1). TmPV1 was detected in 7 (12.7%) of 55 clinical T. marneffei isolates. Complete genome sequencing of the seven TmPV1 isolates revealed two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid protein, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that TmPV1 occupied a distinct clade among the members of the genus Gammapartitivirus Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of isometric, nonenveloped viral particles of 30 to 45 nm in diameter, compatible with partitiviruses, in TmPV1-infected T...
June 12, 2018: MBio
Emmanouil Papasavvas, Steven M Lada, Jocelin Joseph, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Livio Azzoni, Karam Mounzer, Jay R Kostman, Douglas Richman, Luis J Montaner
OBJECTIVE: The impact of short-term analytical antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruptions on the levels of cellular HIV and of residual activation after subsequent ART-mediated plasma HIV viral load re-suppression remains under active investigation. DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 23 ART-suppressed, chronically HIV-1-infected subjects were evaluated at the initiation of an analytical treatment interruption (ATI), during ATI, and following plasma re-suppression of HIV with ART...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Alison J Hughes, Amadeia Rector, Veronica Jimenez, Jon Brock, Susan Scheer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize disparities in cumulative plasma HIV burden in a sample of adults accessing HIV care in San Francisco, California. DESIGN: Observational cohort and supplemental HIV surveillance data. METHODS: Data from the San Francisco Medical Monitoring Project 2012-2014 cycles and HIV surveillance data were used to create an analytic cohort followed for two years. Matched HIV viral load (VL) test results from HIV surveillance were used to create five viral outcome measures: any unsuppressed VL (>200 copies/mL), any transmittable VL (>1500 copies/mL), person-time spent unsuppressed, person-time spent transmittable, and 2-year viremia copy-years, a measure of cumulative plasma HIV burden...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Qiang Xia, Bisrat Abraham, Dipal Shah, Chitra Ramaswamy, Sarah L Braunstein, Lucia V Torian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transition process from pediatric to adult care among persons with perinatal HIV infection in New York City (NYC). DESIGN: A retrospective pre-post study and a matched exposed/unexposed nested cohort study. METHODS: Using data from the NYC HIV registry, a retrospective pre-post study was performed among persons who transitioned from pediatric to adult care to assess pre- and post-transition retention in care (≥1 CD4/viral load in a 12-month period), CD4 count, and viral suppression (≤200 copies/mL)...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Sophie Jose, Valerie Delpech, Alison Howarth, Fiona Burns, Teresa Hill, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional HIV care continuum is widely used to assess the success of HIV care programmes among populations of people with HIV and the potential for ongoing transmission. We aimed to investigate whether a longitudinal continuum, which incorporates loss to follow-up and mortality, might provide further insights about the performance of care programmes. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, we included individuals who entered the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2004, and were linked to the national HIV cohort database (HIV and AIDS Reporting System)...
June 2018: Lancet HIV
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