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HIV viral load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452580/measuring-integrated-hiv-dna-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-provides-insights-about-how-reservoirs-are-formed-and-maintained
#1
REVIEW
Marilia Rita Pinzone, Una O'Doherty
The identification of the most appropriate marker to measure reservoir size has been a great challenge for the HIV field. Quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA), the reference standard to quantify the amount of replication-competent virus, has several limitations, as it is laborious, expensive, and unable to robustly reactivate every single integrated provirus. PCR-based assays have been developed as an easier, cheaper and less error-prone alternative to QVOA, but also have limitations. Historically, measuring integrated HIV DNA has provided insights about how reservoirs are formed and maintained...
February 17, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451870/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-rilpivirine-plus-abacavir-and-lamivudine-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-undetectable-viral-load
#2
Nadia Galizzi, Laura Galli, Andrea Poli, Nicola Gianotti, Elisabetta Carini, Alba Bigoloni, Giuseppe Tambussi, Silvia Nozza, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna, Daniela Mancusi, Roberta Termini
INTRODUCTION: A regimen with rilpivirine (RPV), abacavir (ABC) and lamivudine (3TC) is simple and may allow the sparing of tenofovir and protease inhibitors. However, data on use of this combination as a strategy of switch are limited. Aims of the study were to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this regimen. METHODS: Retrospective study on HIV-1 infected patients followed at the Infectious Disease Department of the San Raffaele Scientific Institute, HBsAg-negative, HLA B5701-negative, with no documented resistance to RPV, ABC and 3TC, with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL who started RPV plus ABC/3TC from March 2013 to September 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449101/evaluation-of-a-convenient-vaccination-schedule-against-hepatitis-b-in-hiv-patients-with-undetectable-hiv-viral-load
#3
Sofia Kourkounti, Theodoros Retsas, Vassilios Paparizos, Antonios Tsimpidakis, Violetta Kapsimali, Dimitrios Rigopoulos
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for all HIV-positive individuals but the standard schedule is not satisfactory. High or more doses have also been studied with variable results. We compared a vaccination schedule with a higher dose but fewer shots to the standard scheme (HBVaxPro 40 μg versus Engerix 20 μg at 0, 1, and 6 months). Of the 63 patients vaccinated with HBVaxPro 79%, 65% and 47% seroconverted at month 1, 12 and 24 after vaccination, respectively. A total of 137 patients received Engerix and showed lower response rates (68%, 53% and 38%, respectively)...
February 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448879/extending-access-to-care-accross-the-rural-us-south-preliminary-results-from-the-alabama-ehealth-programme
#4
Kriti M Jain, Prashanth Bhat, Cathy Maulsby, Alexandria Andersen, Tomas Soto, Ashley Tarrant, David R Holtgrave, Erin Nortrup, Melissa Werner, Laurie Dill
Purpose Using a mixed-methods formative evaluation, the purpose of this study was to provide a broad overview of the Alabama eHealth programme set-up and initial patient outcomes. The Alabama eHealth programme uses telemedicine to provide medical care to people living with HIV in rural Alabama. It was led by a community-based organisation, Medical Advocacy and Outreach (MAO), and supported by AIDS United and the Corporation for National Community Service's Social Innovation Fund with matching support from non-federal donors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444185/humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-after-a-booster-dose-of-hbv-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
Vania Giacomet, Michela Masetti, Pilar Nannini, Federica Forlanini, Mario Clerici, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Daria Trabattoni
OBJECTIVE: HBV vaccine induces protective antibodies only in 23-56% of HIV-infected children. The aim of our study is to evaluate the immunologic effects of a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: 53 young HIV-infected patients in whom HBV vaccination did not elicit protective Ab titers were enrolled. All patients were on ART with optimal immunological and viral response. METHOD: All patients received a booster dose of HBV vaccine (HBVAXPRO 10 μg i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439582/diversity-of-hiv-1-in-aquitaine-south-western-france-2012-2016
#6
Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson, Alexi Groppi, Macha Nikolski, Herve J Fleury
We have estimated the prevalence of the different viral subtypes between January 2012 and December 2016 in HIV-1-infected patients of the Aquitaine region (south-west part of France) who had a routine HIV-1 genotype resistance testing (GRT) centralized at the Bordeaux University Hospital. GRT was performed on viral RNA (1784 samples) before treatment initiation or at failure whereas proviral DNA was used as template (1420 samples) in the event of a treatment switch in patients with viral load below 50 copies/mL...
February 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438439/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-brazil-data-from-the-birth-in-brazil-study-a-national-hospital-based-study
#7
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Valeria Saraceni, Maria do Carmo Leal
AIMS: to estimate the mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among infected pregnant women identified in the "Birth in Brazil" study and to evaluate care practices provided in order to identify missed opportunities at preventing the MTCT of HIV infection in the country. METHODS: Descriptive study using data obtained from the consultation of different databases: the "Birth in Brazil" study database and the Brazilian National Information Systems (NIS) databases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435471/hiv-1-drug-resistance-and-third-line-therapy-outcomes-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-zimbabwe
#8
Cleophas Chimbetete, David Katzenstein, Tinei Shamu, Adrian Spoerri, Janne Estill, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
Objectives: To analyze the patterns and risk factors of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing second-line treatment and to describe early treatment responses to recommended third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a national referral HIV clinic in Zimbabwe. Methods: Patients on boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimens for more than 6 months with treatment failure confirmed by 2 viral load (VL) tests >1000 copies/mL were genotyped, and susceptibility to available antiretroviral drugs was estimated by the Stanford HIVdb program...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434253/association-between-maternal-hiv-disclosure-and-risk-factors-for-perinatal-transmission
#9
Lynn M Yee, Donna V McGregor, Sarah H Sutton, Patricia M Garcia, Emily S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether maternal disclosure of HIV serostatus is associated with uptake of perinatal HIV transmission prevention interventions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of women living with HIV enrolled in a perinatal HIV clinic. Women who disclosed their HIV serostatus to sexual partner(s) prior to delivery were compared to non-disclosers. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: Of 209 women, 71.3% (N = 149) disclosed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433430/sesotho-trial-switch-either-near-suppression-or-thousand-switch-to-second-line-versus-who-guided-standard-of-care-for-unsuppressed-patients-on-first-line-art-with-viremia-below-1000%C3%A2-copies-ml-protocol-of-a-multicenter-parallel-group-open-label-randomized-clinical
#10
Alain Amstutz, Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala, Fiona Vanobberghen, Josephine Muhairwe, Tracy Renée Glass, Beatrice Achieng, Mamorena Sepeka, Katleho Tlali, Lebohang Sao, Kyaw Thin, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load (VL) measurement as the preferred monitoring strategy for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. The new WHO guidelines 2016 continue to define virologic failure as two consecutive VL ≥1000 copies/mL (at least 3 months apart) despite good adherence, triggering switch to second-line therapy. However, the threshold of 1000 copies/mL for defining virologic failure is based on low-quality evidence...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432472/use-of-viral-load-surveillance-data-to-assess-linkage-to-care-for-persons-with-hiv-released-from-corrections
#11
Brian T Montague, Betsey John, Cara Sammartino, Michael Costa, Dawn Fukuda, Liza Solomon, Josiah D Rich
Incarcerated people remain a priority group in efforts to control and reverse the HIV epidemic. Following release, social instability and reengagement in key transmission risk behaviors increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. Targeted programs have been developed to facilitate reengagement in care on reentry. Evaluation of the impact of these initiatives requires a systematic, confidential, framework for assessment of linkage to care for persons released from corrections. By linking HIV viral load surveillance data to corrections release data, the time to the first laboratory monitoring service in the community as well as the virologic status can be assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432227/the-global-epidemiology-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-time-for-more-granular-data-to-improve-adolescent-health-outcomes
#12
Amy L Slogrove, Annette H Sohn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to summarize recent evidence on the global epidemiology of adolescents (age 10-19 years) living with HIV (ALHIV), the burden of HIV on the health of adolescents and HIV-associated mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, there were an estimated 2.1 million (uncertainty bound 1.4-2.7 million) ALHIV; 770 000 younger (age 10-14 years) and 1.03 million older (age 15-19 years) ALHIV, 84% living in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of ALHIV is increasing, as more peri/postnatally infected ALHIV survive into older ages; an estimated 35% of older female ALHIV were peri/postnatally infected, compared with 57% of older male ALHIV...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430124/incidental-global-hypometabolism-in-the-brain-of-patient-with-aids-related-dementia-seen-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#13
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428881/childhood-adversity-increases-the-risk-of-onward-transmission-from-perinatal-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-youth-in-south-africa
#14
Rachel Kidman, Sharon Nachman, Janan Dietrich, Afaaf Liberty, Avy Violari
Repeated exposure to childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and other traumas experienced before age 18) can have lifelong impacts on health. For HIV-infected adolescents and youth, such impacts may include onward transmission of HIV. To evaluate this possibility, the current study measured the burden of childhood adversity and its influence on risky health behaviors among perinatally-infected adolescents and youth. We surveyed 250 perinatally-infected adolescents and youth (13-24 years) receiving care in Soweto, South Africa...
February 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428459/next-generation-sequencing-of-hiv-1-protease-in-the-pivot-trial-of-protease-inhibitor-monotherapy
#15
David T Dunn, Wolfgang Stöhr, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Anna Tostevin, Jean L Mbisa, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: The PIVOT trial examined whether patients with suppressed viral load on combination antiretroviral therapy could be safely switched long-term to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy. The main trial publication reported that only one of 296 patients allocated to PI monotherapy experienced a loss of drug options due to protease mutations (identified by local Sanger sequencing resistance tests) likely selected by study drug. OBJECTIVES: To assess if we had missed low frequency mutations, using a more sensitive methodology...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427230/comparison-of-self-report-to-biomarkers-of-recent-hiv-infection-findings-from-the-start-trial
#16
Katherine E Schlusser, Shweta Sharma, Pola de la Torre, Giuseppe Tambussi, Rika Draenert, Angie N Pinto, Julia A Metcalf, Danielle German, James D Neaton, Oliver Laeyendecker
Identifying individuals with recent HIV infection is critical to research related to viral reservoirs, outbreak investigations and intervention applications. A multi-assay algorithm (MAA) for recency of infection was used in conjunction with self-reported date of infection and documented date of diagnosis to estimate the number of participants recently infected in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial. We tested samples for three groups of participants from START using a MAA: (1) 167 individuals who reported being infected ≤ 6 months before randomization; (2) 771 individuals who did not know their date of infection but were diagnosed within 6 months before randomization; and (3) as controls for the MAA, 199 individuals diagnosed with HIV ≥ 2 years before randomization...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426734/inclusion-body-myositis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-a-new-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Priscille Couture, Edoardo Malfatti, Geneviève Morau, Alexis Mathian, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Hubert Nielly, Zahir Amoura, Patrick Cherin
Prevalence of muscle disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is less than 1% of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is observed in a few cases of patients infected by retroviruses such as HIV-1. A Caucasian man was diagnosed with HIV when he was 30 years old. The viral load was undetectable and CD4 cell count was 600/mm3 when the diagnosis of inclusion body myositis was confirmed. Histological findings were typical of IBM. The treatment consisted of immunoglobulin therapy for three years without effect...
January 10, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426719/safety-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-vorinostat-with%C3%A2-r-epoch-in-high-risk-hiv-associated-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-amc-075
#18
Juan C Ramos, Joseph A Sparano, Michelle A Rudek, Page C Moore, Ethel Cesarman, Erin G Reid, David Henry, Lee Ratner, David Aboulafia, Jeanette Y Lee, Richard F Ambinder, Ronald Mitsuyasu, Ariela Noy
INTRODUCTION: Vorinostat (VOR), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the anti-tumor effects of rituximab (R) and cytotoxic chemotherapy, induces viral lytic expression and cell killing in Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV+) or human herpesvirus-8-positive (HHV-8+) tumors, and reactivates latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for possible eradication by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a phase I trial of VOR given with R-based infusional EPOCH (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride) (n = 12) and cART in aggressive HIV-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in order to identify safe dosing and schedule...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425216/first-field-evaluation-of-the-optimized-ce-marked-abbott-protocol-for-hiv-rna-testing-on-dried-blood-spot-in-a-routine-clinical-setting-in-vietnam
#19
Fabien Taieb, Tram Tran Hong, Hien Thi Ho, Binh Nguyen Thanh, Tram Pham Phuong, Dung Viet Ta, Nhung Le Thi Hong, Hien Ba Pham, Lan Thi Huong Nguyen, Huong Thi Nguyen, Thu Trang Nguyen, Edouard Tuaillon, Eric Delaporte, Huong Le Thi, Hau Tran Thi Bich, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Yoann Madec
BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV-infected patients in decentralized areas is limited due to logistic constraints. Dried Blood Spots (DBS) offer the opportunity to collect samples in remote area which can be easily transferred and tested at a central laboratory. The MOVIDA (Monitoring Of Viral load In Decentralized Area) project evaluated the performance of VL measurements on DBS using the new CE marked optimized Abbott protocol. METHODS: HIV-1 infected adults from three outpatient clinics in Hanoi (Vietnam) were enrolled into the study between 1 March and 13 April 2017...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424783/repeat-testing-of-low-level-hiv-1-rna-assay-performance-and-implementation-in-clinical-trials
#20
Kirsten White, Will Garner, Lilian Wei, Joseph J Eron, Lijie Zhong, Michael D Miller, Hal Martin, Andrew Plummer, Cecilia Tran-Muchowski, Kim Lindstrom, James Porter, David Piontkowsky, Angela Light, Heinz Reiske, Erin Quirk
OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. METHODS: To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
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