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Mariana Avalos, Gilles P van Wezel, Jos M Raaijmakers, Paolina Garbeva
Microorganisms represent a large and still resourceful pool for the discovery of novel compounds to combat antibiotic resistance in human and animal pathogens. The ability of microorganisms to produce structurally diverse volatile compounds has been known for decades, yet their biological functions and antimicrobial activities have only recently attracted attention. Various studies revealed that microbial volatiles can act as infochemicals in long-distance cross-kingdom communication as well as antimicrobials in competition and predation...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
B M Kamath, A Baker, R Houwen, L Todorova, N Kerkar
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an inherited multisystem disorder typically manifesting as cholestasis, and potentially leading to end-stage liver disease and death. AIM: To perform the first systematic review of the epidemiology, natural history and burden of ALGS with a focus on the liver component. METHODS: Electronic databases and proceedings from key congresses were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 guidelines...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Francisco S Barreto, Adriano J M Chaves Filho, Márcia C C R de Araújo, Manoel O de Moraes, Maria E A de Moraes, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Both depression and cancer are related to a dysregulation of inflammatory and immune pathways. Indeed, depression is associated with increased expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In contrast, reductions of the activity of major histocompatibility complex protein molecules - class I and class II and natural killer cells are also observed. Similarly, cancers present elevated levels of TNF-α, reduced major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and natural killer cells...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Amy E Vinson, Gail Randel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peer support, a method of providing for the well being of healthcare providers following adverse or stressful events, is garnering increased attention in light of the increased prevalence and awareness of burnout, depression and suicidality in physicians. In this review, we will summarize the evolution of the 'second victim,' explore methods of support and examine how new regulatory requirements are changing the peer support landscape. RECENT FINDINGS: As peer support and the second victim are investigated more, themes are emerging regarding the natural history of recovery...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Firas Al Qarqaz, Ali Al-Yousef
BACKGROUND: Acne is very common skin condition. Most patients with acne will have a degree of scarring as a result of their acne. In patients with darker skin color the scarring can be further complicated by hyperpigmentation. Several treatment options can be used to improve acne scarring, however the problem of post acne hyperpigmentation is not often addressed. This study especially focus on the treatment of pigmented post acne scarring using skin microneedling. AIMS: The primary objective is to assess the improvement of pigmentation of acne scarring in patients with dark skin using microneedling...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
B E Malyugin, N S Anisimova
In certain cases intraoperative pupil dilation during cataract surgery may be necessary to improve the visualization of intraocular structures and assure the atraumatic nature of surgical manipulations. The article reviews a wide range of pupil expanders, their historical aspects and possibilities of their application in modern cataract surgery.
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Wei Wang
Nanomaterials exhibit structural and functional heterogeneity among individual nanoparticles, thus requiring a capability to study single nanoparticles. While electron microscopes often provide static images of their chemical composition, morphology and structure, imaging the chemical activity of single nanoparticles is highly desirable for exploring the structure-activity relationship via a bottom-up strategy, to understand their microscopic reaction mechanisms and kinetics, and to identify a minority subpopulation with extraordinary activity...
March 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Tian-Ru Jin
Numerous natural products available over the counter are commonly consumed by healthy, sub-healthy or ill people for the treatment and prevention of various chronic diseases. Among them, a few dietary polyphenols, including the curry compound curcumin, have been attracting the most attention from biomedical researchers and drug developers. Unlike many so-called "good drug candidates", curcumin and several other dietary polyphenols do not have a single known therapeutic target or defined receptor. In addition, the bioavailability of these polyphenols is usually very low due to their poor absorption in the gut...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Giuseppe Candilio, Emilia De Luca, Angelo Iannicelli, Guido Sciaudone, Gianluca Pellino, Rosario Sacco, Francesco Selvaggi, Giuseppe Sammarco, Gaetano Gallo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disabilitating growing condition and represent a challenge for every surgeon. It is associated with the activation of the inflammatory pathway and this may have a negative impact on the natural history of some rheumatic diseases. Bariatric surgery, reducing obesity, could bring to a minor activation of the well-known inflammatory pathway with improvement of these diseases. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of weight loss, achieved through bariatric surgery, in rheumatic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Galina Gheihman, Tomi Jun, Grace J Young, Daniel Liebman, Krishan Sharma, Eileen Brandes, Barbara Ogur, David A Hirsh
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal clinical experiences are a common component of undergraduate medical curricula, yet these programs have not been systematically characterized in US medical schools. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to identify and characterize longitudinal clinical programs (LCPs) in US medical schools and measure associations between programs' structures and goals. DESIGN: Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from publicly available websites...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Amanda Przespolewski, Andras Szeles, Eunice S Wang
Evasion of the host immune system is a key mechanism to promote malignant progression. Therapeutically targeting immune pathways has radically changed the treatment paradigm for solid and lymphoid tumors but has yet to be approved for myeloid malignancies. Here, we summarize the most recent advances in immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Topics reviewed here include adoptive cellular approaches (chimeric antigen receptor-T cells, natural killer and other immune cells), checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/PD-L1, anti-CTLA-4 and TIM-3) and vaccines (WT-1, HLA-A2 and hTERT)...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
Cmg van Driel, A S Stuursma, M J Schroevers, Mje Mourits, G H de Bock
BACKGROUND: During menopause women experience vasomotor and psychosexual symptoms that cannot entirely be alleviated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Besides, HRT is contraindicated after breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing symptoms associated with menopause in natural or treatment-induced menopausal women. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and AMED were searched until June 2017...
March 15, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Rhondene M Miller, Ronald S Kaiser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complicated nature of chronic pain involves an interplay between psychological and physical factors, often resulting in increased emotional distress and reduced quality of life. This review is designed to help the medical practitioner who is working with chronic pain patients to be aware of psychological assessment techniques that can add to comprehensive patient understanding and more effectively guide treatment. Enhanced ability to assess and understand the emotional life of the chronic pain patient provides a basis for intervening and treating more successfully...
March 14, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Paulino Alvarez, Alexandros Briasoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune system activation plays a central role in heart failure progression. Large-scale immune modulatory clinical trials targeting tumor necrosis factor-α and broad spectrum immune modulation have been negative. The objective of this review is to highlight past, present, and what is in the horizon for the immunomodulation in heart failure with a focus of biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies targeting interleukin-1 pathway are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and data from pilot studies are promising...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Monica R Drylewicz, Kathryn Robinson, Cary Lynn Siegel
Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist...
March 14, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ilaria Bo, Thomas Semple, Emma Cheasty, Michael B Rubens, Siew Yen Ho, Michael L Rigby, Edward D Nicol
BACKGROUND: Scimitar syndrome is a rare combination of cardiopulmonary abnormalities found in 1-3 per 1000 live births. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is only found in 1 in 250-400 congenital heart disease patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the incidence of left circumflex ALCAPA within our referral center's cohort of scimitar syndrome patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of medical records, cardiac imaging and operative notes from all patients diagnosed with scimitar syndrome at our center between 1992 and 2016 was undertaken and all imaging reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Aurora Bernal, Lorena Arranz
The neuroepithelial stem cell protein, or Nestin, is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament initially characterized in neural stem cells. However, current extensive evidence obtained in in vivo models and humans shows presence of Nestin+ cells with progenitor and/or regulatory functions in a number of additional tissues, remarkably bone marrow. This review presents the current knowledge on the role of Nestin in essential stem cell functions, including self-renewal/proliferation, differentiation and migration, in the context of the cytoskeleton...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Patrick B Murphy, Kelly N Vogt, Brandyn D Lau, Jonathan Aboagye, Neil G Parry, Michael B Streiff, Elliott R Haut
Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in US hospitals, and approximately 2.5% of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients will be diagnosed with a VTE event. Emergency general surgery patients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality because of the nature of acute surgical conditions and the challenges related to prophylaxis. Observations: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Collected Reviews were searched from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Anja B Riber, Teresa M Casey-Trott, Mette S Herskin
This article reviews current knowledge about welfare implications of keel bone damage in laying hens. As an initial part, we shortly describe the different conditions and present major risk factors as well as findings on the prevalence of the conditions. Keel bone damage is found in all types of commercial production, however with varying prevalence across systems, countries, and age of the hens. In general, the understanding of animal welfare is influenced by value-based ideas about what is important or desirable for animals to have a good life...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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