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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793179/nano-strategies-for-berberine-delivery-a-natural-alkaloid-of-berberis
#1
REVIEW
Elaheh Mirhadi, Mehdi Rezaee, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei
Berberine, as a phytochemical component of some medicinal Chinese herbs (most frequently Berberis vulgaris), is an isoquinoline alkaloid with many therapeutic effects including anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diarrhea, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Berberine has some significant effects on type 2 diabetes through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, glycolysis stimulation, and mitochondrial function inhibition which subsequently improves both lipid and glucose metabolism...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792979/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-toxicity-review-for-the-palliative-care-clinician
#2
Eric D Hansen, Xiao Wang, Amy A Case, Igor Puzanov, Tom Smith
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have opened an exciting chapter in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. For the palliative care clinician, however, ICI present several new challenges, including new ways to define treatment success, as well as treatment-related toxicities which differ in nature and timing from traditional chemotherapy. In this article, we review the mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors, as well as selected published data supporting the efficacy of ICI in patients with advanced cancer...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792672/biosynthesis-of-lincosamide-antibiotics-reactions-associated-with-degradation-and-detoxification-pathways-play-a-constructive-role
#3
Daozhong Zhang, Zhijun Tang, Wen Liu
Natural products typically are small molecules produced by living organisms. These products possess a wide variety of biological activities and thus have historically played a critical role in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology either as chemotherapeutic agents or as useful tools. Natural products are not synthesized for use by human beings; rather, living organisms produce them in response to various biochemical processes and environmental concerns, both internal and external. These processes/concerns are often dynamic and thus motivate the diversification, optimization, and selection of small molecules in line with changes in biological function...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792454/addressing-the-paradox-of-the-team-innovation-process-a-review-and-practical-considerations
#4
Amanda L Thayer, Alexandra Petruzzelli, Caitlin E McClurg
Facilitating team innovation is paramount to promoting progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math fields, as well as advancing national health, safety, prosperity, and welfare. However, innovation teams face a unique set of challenges due to the novelty and uncertainty that is core to the definition of innovation, as well as the paradoxical nature of idea generation and idea implementation processes. These and other challenges must be overcome for innovation teams to realize their full potential for producing change...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792339/pulmonary-hypertension-in-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Emma Pascall, Robert Mr Tulloh
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg. We focus on its relevance in congenital heart disease, reviewing pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common complication of congenital heart disease, with adult prevalence between 5 and 10%. A multifactorial cause is recognized, relating to the size and nature of cardiac defect as well as environmental and genetic factors. More complex disease is increasingly recognized rather than pure Eisenmenger complex...
May 24, 2018: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792244/affective-problems-and-decline-in-cognitive-state-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
A John, U Patel, J Rusted, M Richards, D Gaysina
Evidence suggests that affective problems, such as depression and anxiety, increase risk for late-life dementia. However, the extent to which affective problems influence cognitive decline, even many years prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia, is not clear. The present study systematically reviews and synthesises the evidence for the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state (i.e., decline in non-specific cognitive function) in older adults. An electronic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect was conducted to identify studies of the association between depression and anxiety separately and decline in cognitive state...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792138/therapeutic-potential-of-phytomedicines-and-novel-polymeric-strategies-for-significant-management-of-candidiasis
#7
Surbhi Rohilla, D C Bhatt, Aditi Gupta
BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections caused by genus Candida. The genus composed of around 200 species. The most virulent among all are, Candida albicans followed by various non-albicans species. Despite of various treatments available, the incidence of severe systemic fungal infections is increasing, and with it the related morbidity and mortality, in relation to the misuse of antimicrobials and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal species...
May 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792064/the-effect-and-importance-of-physical-activity-on-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-in-people-with-dementia-a-systematic-mixed-studies-review
#8
Tina Junge, Jonas Ahler, Hans K Knudsen, Hanne K Kristensen
Background People with dementia may benefit from the effect of physical activity on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Qualitative synthesis of the importance of physical activity might complement and help clarify quantitative findings on this topic. The purpose of this systematic mixed studies review was to evaluate findings from both quantitative and qualitative methods about the effect and importance of physical activity on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792024/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorder-physiology-plasticity-and-promising-pharmacotherapies
#9
Max E Joffe, Samuel W Centanni, Anel A Jaramillo, Danny G Winder, P Jeffrey Conn
Developing efficacious treatments for alcohol use disorder (AUD) has proven difficult. The insidious nature of the disease necessitates a deep understanding of its underlying biology as well as innovative approaches to ameliorate ethanol-related pathophysiology. Excessive ethanol-seeking and relapse are generated by long-term changes to membrane properties, synaptic physiology, and plasticity throughout the limbic system and associated brain structures. Each of these factors can be modulated by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, a diverse set of G protein-coupled receptors highly expressed throughout the central nervous system...
May 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791966/outcomes-of-bethesda-categories-iii-and-iv-thyroid-nodules-over-5-years-and-performance-of-the-afirma-gene-expression-classifier-a-single-institution-study
#10
Kelsi E Deaver, Bryan R Haugen, Nikita Pozdeyev, Carrie B Marshall
OBJECTIVE: The second edition Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology estimates 6-18% malignancy rate of category III (B3) and 10-40% for category IV (B4) nodules; however, reported malignancy rates have considerable variability among institutions. Use of molecular classifiers (including Afirma Gene Expression Classifier, GEC) can be utilized in management of thyroid nodules. Our objective was to analyze malignancy rates of B3 and B4 nodules and determine clinical outcomes of GEC Benign nodules...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791718/alopecia-areata-a-review-of-disease-pathogenesis
#11
REVIEW
F Rajabi, L A Drake, M M Senna, N Rezaei
Alopecia areata is a disorder that results in non-scarring hair loss. The psychological impact can be significant, leading to feelings of depression and social isolation. The disease remains incurable though it has been studied for years. Available treatment options at best, are beneficial for milder cases, and the rate of relapse is high. Understanding the exact mechanisms of hair loss in alopecia areata is therefore of utmost importance to help identify potential therapeutic targets. The main theory of alopecia areata pathogenesis is that it is an autoimmune phenomenon resulting from a disruption in hair follicle immune privilege...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791711/percutaneous-edge-to-edge-transcatheter-mitral-valve-repair-current-indications-and-future-perspectives
#12
Martino Pepe, Emanuela De Cillis, Tommaso Acquaviva, Annagrazia Cecere, Pasquale D'Alessandro, Arturo Giordano, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Alessandro Santo Bortone
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease (VHD) and represents an important cause of heart failure. Medical therapy has a limited role in improving symptoms and does not hinder the progression of valvular disease. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe symptomatic MR; valve repair is currently the preferred surgical approach because it reduces peri-operative mortality and ensures a good medium- to long-term survival outcome. Nevertheless, a non-negligible proportion of patients with indications for surgical correction are considered to be at prohibitive perioperative risk, mainly because of old age and multiple comorbidities...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791700/closing-the-gap-novel-abdominal-wound-closure-techniques
#13
James Dana Kondrup, Alaina M Qayyum
Traditionally, surgical procedures within the realm of both general and gynecological surgery employ the use of staples and interrupted sutures that run continuously with knot tying or subcuticular sutures to ensure closure of large wound incisions, subcuticular incisions, and fascial repair. However, these methods may not always be cosmetically favorable and, thus, result in an unpleasant outcome for the patient, adding to their surgery-related stress. It is, therefore, imperative that surgeons and gynecologists are aware of alternative methods of wound closure that are not only cosmetically favorable, but also ensure rapid wound recovery and infection control...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791151/recent-advances-and-progress-on-melanin-like-materials-and-their-biomedical-applications
#14
Long Huang, Meiying Liu, Hongye Huang, Yuanqing Wen, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Melanins are well-known biopolymers that are ubiquitous in nature, distributed widely in microorganisms, plants, and animals, and play significant physiological roles. They are mostly biopolymers formed from phenolic compounds by polymerization via quinones. Poly(dopamine) (PDA), a melanin-like material, is similar in structure and properties to eumelanin and has attracted considerable interest for various types of biological applications. This review outlines the recent advances in the structure and synthesis of PDA and discusses applications of PDA in many biological fields, such as biological imaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery systems...
May 23, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791030/antiepileptic-drugs-as-prophylaxis-for-postcraniotomy-seizures
#15
REVIEW
Janette Greenhalgh, Jennifer Weston, Yenal Dundar, Sarah J Nevitt, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in Issue 3, 2015.The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure appears to vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investigated in a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
May 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790578/mycorrhizal-fungi-affect-orchid-distribution-and-population-dynamics
#16
Melissa K McCormick, Dennis F Whigham, Armando Canchani-Viruet
Symbioses are ubiquitous in nature and influence individual plants and populations. Orchids have life history stages that depend fully or partially on fungi for carbon and other essential resources. As a result, orchid populations depend on the distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMFs). We focused on evidence that local-scale distribution and population dynamics of orchids can be limited by the patchy distribution and abundance of OMFs, after an update of an earlier review confirmed that orchids are rarely limited by OMF distribution at geographic scales...
May 23, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790396/biosensor-for-the-detection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-emerging-trends
#17
Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Rafiq Ahmad, Suresh Kumar Dubey
The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques...
May 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790227/experimental-realisation-of-elusive-multiple-bonded-aluminium-compounds-a-new-horizon-in-the-aluminium-chemistry
#18
Shigeyoshi Inoue, Prasenjit Bag, Catherine Weetman
Synthesis and isolation of stable main group compounds featuring multiple bonds has been of keen interest for the last several decades. Multiply bonded complexes were obtained using sterically demanding substituents that provide kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Many of these compounds have unusual structural and electronic properties that challenges the classical concept of covalent multiple bonding. In contrast, analogous aluminium compounds are scarce in spite of its high natural abundance. The parent dialumene (Al2H2) has been calculated to be extremely weak, thus making Al multiple bonds a challenging synthetic target...
May 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790213/integration-of-biomaterials-into-sensors-based-on-organic-thin-film-transistors
#19
REVIEW
Xiaohan Wu, Jiachen Zhou, Jia Huang
Sensors based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) present various advantages, including high sensitivity and mechanical flexibility, thus possessing potential applications such as wearable devices and biomedical electronics for health monitoring, etc. However, such applications are partially limited by the biocompatibility, biodegradability, and sensitivity to target analytes of OTFT-based sensors, which can be improved by the incorporation of diverse biomaterials. This article presents a brief review from the viewpoint of the type of the integrated biomaterials, including naturally occurring biomacromolecules such as proteins, enzymes, and deoxyribonucleic acid, as well as biocompatible polymers such as polylactide, poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(ethylene glycol), cellulose, polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, etc...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789862/activating-and-inhibitory-receptors-expressed-on-innate-lymphoid-cells
#20
REVIEW
Sophie Guia, Aurore Fenis, Eric Vivier, Emilie Narni-Mancinelli
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells located in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. They are particularly abundant at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are present in humans and mice: group 1 ILCs (comprising natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s), ILC2s, and ILC3s. ILCs are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of immunity. This review focuses on the extensive array of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by ILCs for communication with other cell types and their environment in health and disease...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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