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nature reviews

Mary E Lohman, Peter A Lio
The development of effective systemic treatments has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. The availability of safe new treatments and the understanding of psoriasis as a systemic disease with comorbidities and effects on quality of life have driven the current aggressive treatment paradigm of psoriasis. Historically the morbidity of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been dismissed, given the perception of AD as "just" a rash. Differences in the guidelines for psoriasis and AD management may suggest variations in the current conceptualization of disease severity and effects on quality of life...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Spencer Phillips Hey
The increasing importance of biomarkers-as drivers of research and drug development activity, surrogate outcomes in clinical trials, and the centerpiece of precision medicine-raises many new ethical challenges. In what follows, I briefly review some of the major ethical challenges and debates already identified in the literature, and then describe a new ethical challenge that arises from the abstract nature of biomarker hypotheses.
September 25, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hyun Koo, Raymond N Allan, Robert P Howlin, Paul Stoodley, Luanne Hall-Stoodley
Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor for a wide range of microorganisms that cause chronic infections. The multifactorial nature of biofilm development and drug tolerance imposes great challenges for the use of conventional antimicrobials and indicates the need for multi-targeted or combinatorial therapies. In this Review, we focus on current therapeutic strategies and those under development that target vital structural and functional traits of microbial biofilms and drug tolerance mechanisms, including the extracellular matrix and dormant cells...
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Richard Hatley, Simon Macdonald, Robert Slack, Joelle Le, Steve Ludbrook, Pauline Lukey
There is a requirement for efficacious and safe medicines to treat diseases with high unmet need. The resurgence in av RGD integrin inhibitor drug discovery is poised to contribute to this requirement. However, drug discovery in the av integrin space is notoriously difficult due to the receptors being structurally very similar as well as the polar zwitterionic nature of the pharmacophore. This review aims to guide drug discovery research in this field through an av inhibitor toolbox, consisting of small molecules and antibodies...
September 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Anwen Howells, Giulia Marelli, Nicholas R Lemoine, Yaohe Wang
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are an emerging treatment option for many cancer types and have recently been the focus of extensive research aiming to develop their therapeutic potential. The ultimate aim is to design a virus which can effectively replicate within the host, specifically target and lyse tumor cells and induce robust, long lasting tumor-specific immunity. There are a number of viruses which are either naturally tumor-selective or can be modified to specifically target and eliminate tumor cells. This means they are able to infect only tumor cells and healthy tissue remains unharmed...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam, Julian Wolfson, Nathan Mitchell, Timothy Barnes, Meghan JaKa, Simone French
BACKGROUND: In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. MAIN TEXT: We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
S Garson, E Delay, R Sinna, B Cornette de Saint Cyr, F Taha
OBJECTIVES: Over the past 30 years, surface imaging has made tremendous progress. Surgical management has also been subject of numerous technical and strategic developments. For a better understanding of the curative strategies of face aging, the authors have put into perspective the three-dimensional data acquired up to date. METHOD: A review of the literature focused on the three-dimensional study of facial aging was carried out. RESULTS: Thanks to the precision of new surface acquisition systems and larger patient cohorts, our understanding of surfaces and volumes is now much more accurate...
September 21, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Mark A Turner, Sabah Attar, Saskia N de Wildt, Gilles Vassal, Laura Mangiarini, Carlo Giaquinto
The evaluation of drugs that are used in children has been neglected historically but is now well established as an essential part of clinical drug development. The increase in pediatric activity among industry, and other sectors, has highlighted the importance of joint working. All participants in pediatric drug development need to be aware of the "big picture." An increasingly important part of this big picture in pediatrics, as in other populations, is the design and conduct of clinical trials in networks...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Farhan Raza, Catherine Dillane, Arslan Mirza, Yevgeniy Brailovsky, Sheila Weaver, Martin G Keane, Paul Forfia
BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to assess whether a specific morphology of the right ventricle (RV) by 2D echo predicts the hemodynamic nature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: We reviewed clinical, 2D echo, and hemodynamic data of 100 patients with PH: divided into three groups: PH from pulmonary vascular disease (PHPVD ; n = 34) with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) > 3 mm Hg/L/min (Wood unit [WU]) and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤ 15 mm Hg, pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH; n = 33) with PVR < 3 WU and PAWP > 15 mm Hg and PHMIXED (n = 33) with PVR > 3 WU and PAWP > 15 mm Hg...
September 24, 2017: Echocardiography
P P Nawroth, M Bendszus, M Pham, J Jende, S Heiland, S Ries, C Schumann, M Schmelz, S Schuh-Hofer, R D Treede, R Kuner, D Oikonomou, J B Groener, S Kopf
A 62-year-old diabetologist diagnosed himself to have diabetes type-2, with an HbA1c of 9.5. Five months after lifestyle intervention and a multi-drug approach, HbA1c was 6.3, systolic blood pressure was below 135 mmHg and BMI reduced to 27. But he suffered from severe painful diabetic neuropathy. Therefore he decided to visit his friend, a famous neuroscientist at an even more famous university. He asked him several plain questions: 1. What is the natural course of painful diabetic neuropathy? 2. Why do I have, despite almost normalizing HbA1c, more problems than before? 3...
September 20, 2017: Neuroscience
Jiao Chen, Shaoyu Lü, Zhe Zhang, Xuxia Zhao, Xinming Li, Piao Ning, Mingzhu Liu
Fertilizer plays an important role in maintaining soil fertility, increasing yields and improving harvest quality. However, a significant portion of fertilizers are lost, increasing agricultural cost, wasting energy and polluting the environment, which are challenges for the sustainability of modern agriculture. To meet the demands of improving yields without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly fertilizers (EFFs) have been developed. EFFs are fertilizers that can reduce environmental pollution from nutrient loss by retarding, or even controlling, the release of nutrients into soil...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mathilde Lepoitevin, Tianji Ma, Mikhael Bechelany, Jean-Marc Janot, Sebastien Balme
In nature, ion channels are highly selective pores and act as gate to ensure selective ion transport, allowing ions to cross the membrane. By mimicking them, single solid state nanopore devices emerge as a new, powerful class of molecule sensors that allow for the label-free detection of biomolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins), non-biological polymers, as well as small molecules. In this review, we exhaustively describe the fabrication and functionalization techniques to design highly robust and selective solid state nanopores...
September 14, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Soodabeh Hassanpour, Zahra Farajzadeh Vahid, Maryam Hejazi, Maryam Hashemi, Javad Ranjbari, Maryam Tabarzad, Saeed Noorolyai, Miguel de la Guardia
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the most important origins of cancer progression and metastasis. CSCs have unique self-renewal properties and diverse cell membrane receptors that induced the resistance to the conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, the therapeutic removal of CSCs could result in the cancer cure with lack of recurrence and metastasis. In this regard, targeting CSCs in accordance to their specific biomarkers is a talented attitude in cancer therapy. Various CSCs surface biomarkers have been described, which some of them exhibited similarities on different cancer cell types, while the others are cancer specific and have just been reported on one or a few types of cancers...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Natalia Joanna Woźniak, Adrien Sicard
Flowers represent a key innovation during plant evolution. Driven by reproductive optimization, evolution of flower morphology has been central in boosting species diversification. In most cases, this has happened through specialized interactions with animal pollinators and subsequent reduction of gene flow between specialized morphs. While radiation has led to an enormous variability in flower forms and sizes, recurrent evolutionary patterns can be observed. Here, we discuss the targets of selection involved in major trends of pollinator-driven flower evolution...
September 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Herbert Daniel Jiménez Zapata, Luis Mariano Rojas Medina, Rodrigo Carrasco Moro, Aurora Martínez Rodrigo, Mónica García-Cosio Piqueras
Neurolymphomatosis is a rare disorder characterised by infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes into the peripheral nervous system. A wide variety of symptoms can manifest depending on its nature and location, making its diagnosis a real challenge. Treatment is based on methotrexate, although various chemotherapy regimens are currently available for patients with systemic disease. We present the case of a male patient with neurolymphomatosis of the cauda equina, together with a review of all cases published to date...
September 20, 2017: Neurocirugía
Bianca Zingales
The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas disease, is widely recognized. At present, T. cruzi is partitioned into seven discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI-TcVI and Tcbat. This article reviews the present knowledge on the parasite population structure, the evolutionary relationships among DTUs and their distinct, but not exclusive ecological and epidemiological associations. Different models for the origin of hybrid DTUs are examined, which agree that genetic exchange among T. cruzi populations is frequent and has contributed to the present parasite population structure...
September 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
Shilva Shrestha, Xavier Fonoll, Samir Kumar Khanal, Lutgarde Raskin
Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource on earth. In lignocellulosic biomass, the cellulose and hemicellulose are bound with lignin and other molecules to form a complex structure not easily accessible to microbial degradation. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass with a focus on improving hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in AD of lignocellulosic feedstocks, has received considerable attention. This review highlights challenges with AD of lignocellulosic biomass, factors contributing to its recalcitrance, and natural microbial ecosystems, such as the gastrointestinal tracts of herbivorous animals, capable of performing hydrolysis efficiently...
August 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Promita Bhattacharjee, Banani Kundu, Deboki Naskar, Hae-Won Kim, Tapas K Maiti, Debasis Bhattacharya, Subhas C Kundu
Bone tissue plays multiple roles in our day-to-day functionality. The frequency of accidental bone damage and disorder is increasing worldwide. Moreover, as the world population continues to grow, the percentage of the elderly population continues to grow, which results in an increased number of bone degenerative diseases. This increased elderly population pushes the need for artificial bone implants that specifically employ biocompatible materials. A vast body of literature is available on the use of silk in bone tissue engineering...
September 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
V I Muronetz, A K Melnikova, Z N Seferbekova, K V Barinova, E V Schmalhausen
This review considers the interrelation between different types of protein glycation, glycolysis, and the development of amyloid neurodegenerative diseases. The primary focus is on the role of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in changing the concentration of carbonyl compounds - first and foremost, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and methylglyoxal. It has been suggested that various modifications of the enzyme - from the oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups of the active site to glycation with sugars - can lead to its inactivation, which causes a direct increase in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate concentration and an indirect increase in the content of other aldehydes...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Lizhong Liu, Yang Bai, Hai Zheng, Xiongfei Fu, Chenli Liu
Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary research field. By designing and constructing new or re-designing the existing natural systems, it confers them novel functions, which do not exist in nature. Owing to the predictability and controllability, synthetic biology attracts more and more interest from biologists, physicists, and engineers. Synthetic biology approaches not only can be widely used for biotechnological applications but also can be used to study complex biological systems to address fundamental questions...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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