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Neurotransmitters and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821923/ankg-hemizygous-mice-present-cognitive-impairment-and-elevated-anxiety-depressive-like-traits-associated-with-decreased-expression-of-gaba-receptors-and-postsynaptic-density-protein
#1
Cui Liu, Ling Zhang, Jie Wu, Xiaolong Sui, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yunlin Han, Hua Zhu, Yanhong Li, Xiuping Sun, Chuan Qin
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of patient populations and genetic linkage assessments have demonstrated that the ankyrin-G (AnkG) gene is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease, but it remains unclear how the genetic variants of AnkG contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we generated AnkG hemizygous mice using the gene trapping approach. Homozygous AnkG was embryonically lethal. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assessments of wild type (WT) and AnkG (+/-) mutant mice demonstrated a 50% reduction of ANKG levels, at the gene and protein levels, in AnkG hemizygous mice...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821673/unc-18-and-tomosyn-antagonistically-control-synaptic-vesicle-priming-downstream-of-unc-13-in-c-elegans
#2
Seungmee Park, Na-Ryum Bin, Bin Yu, Raymond Wong, Ewa Sitarska, Kyoko Sugita, Ke Ma, Junjie Xu, Chi-Wei Tien, Arash Algouneh, Ekaterina Turlova, Siyan Wang, Pranay Siriya, Waleed Shahid, Lorraine Kalia, Zhong-Ping Feng, Philippe P Monnier, Hong-Shuo Sun, Mei Zhen, Shangbang Gao, Josep Rizo, Shuzo Sugita
Munc18-1/UNC-18 is believed to prime SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, yet the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here, we examined how potential gain-of-function mutations of Munc18-1/UNC-18 affect locomotory behavior and synaptic transmission, and how Munc18-1-mediated priming is related to Munc13-1/UNC-13 and Tomosyn/TOM-1, positive and negative SNARE regulators, respectively. We show that a Munc18-1(P335A)/UNC-18(P334A) mutation leads to significantly increased locomotory activity and acetylcholine release in C...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821666/gabaergic-interneuron-differentiation-in-the-basal-forebrain-is-mediated-through-direct-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-isoforms-by-dlx-homeobox-transcription-factors
#3
Trung N Le, Qing-Ping Zhou, Inma Cobos, Shunzhen Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Sara Japoni, Jerry Vriend, Tracie Parkinson, Guoyan Du, John L Rubenstein, David D Eisenstat
γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820054/qsar-modeling-of-histamine-h3r-antagonists-inverse-agonists-as-future-drugs-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
Michelle Fidelis Corrêa, João Paulo Dos Santos Fernandes
Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is associated with several neuropsychological diseases. It is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system as presynaptic receptor, especially in regions associated with cognition and behavior, and is responsible for modulate the synthesis and release of histamine and other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, H3R is an important target involved in several CNS disorders, such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813755/genetics-of-alcoholism
#5
Ena C Zhu, Timothy J Soundy, Yueshan Hu
Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806173/the-%C3%AE-alanine-transporter-balat-is-required-for-visual-neurotransmission-in-drosophila
#6
Yongchao Han, Liangyao Xiong, Ying Xu, Tian Tian, Tao Wang
The recycling of neurotransmitters is essential for sustained synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, histamine recycling is required for visual synaptic transmission. Synaptic histamine is rapidly taken up by laminar glia, and is converted to carcinine. After delivered back to photoreceptors, carcinine is hydrolyzed to release histamine and β-alanine. This histamine is repackaged into synaptic vesicles, but it is unclear how the β-alanine is returned to the laminar glial cells. Here, we identified a new β-alanine transporter, which we named BalaT (Beta-alanine Transporter)...
August 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804782/dopaminergic-medication-increases-reliance-on-current-information-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Iris Vilares, Konrad P Kording
The neurotransmitter dopamine is crucial for decision-making under uncertainty but its computational role is still a subject of intense debate. To test potential roles, we had patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have less internally-generated dopamine, participate in a visual decision-making task in which uncertainty in both prior and current sensory information was varied and where behavior is often predicted by Bayesian statistics. We found that many aspects of uncertainty processing were conserved in PD: they could learn the prior uncertainty and utilize both priors and current sensory information...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#8
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windish, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794655/p2y12-and-p2y13-receptors-involved-in-adp%C3%AE-s-induced-the-release-of-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-from-cultured-dorsal-horn-microglia
#9
Pei-Wen Liu, Ming-Xia Yue, Rui Zhou, Juan Niu, Du-Juan Huang, Tao Xu, Pei Luo, Xiao-Hong Liu, Jun-Wei Zeng
OBJECTIVE: P2 receptors have been implicated in the release of neurotransmitter and pro-inflammatory cytokines due to their response to neuroexcitatory substances in the microglia. Dorsal horn P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors are involved in the development of pain behavior induced by peripheral nerve injury. However, it is not known whether P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors activation is associated with the expression and the release of interleukin-1B (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cultured dorsal spinal cord microglia...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790975/rodent-models-of-non-classical-progesterone-action-regulating-ovulation
#10
REVIEW
Melinda A Mittelman-Smith, Lauren M Rudolph, Margaret A Mohr, Paul E Micevych
It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777170/brain-circuitry-controlling-sleep-and-wakefulness
#11
Richard L Horner, John H Peever
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article outlines the fundamental brain mechanisms that control sleep-wake patterns and reviews how pathologic changes in these control mechanisms contribute to common sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Discrete but interconnected clusters of cells located within the brainstem and hypothalamus comprise the circuits that generate wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. These clusters of cells use specific neurotransmitters, or collections of neurotransmitters, to inhibit or excite their respective sleep- and wake-promoting target sites...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771182/new-targets-for-schizophrenia-treatment-beyond-the-dopamine-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai
Schizophrenia has been primarily associated with dopamine dysfunction, and treatments have been developed that target the dopamine pathway in the central nervous system. However, accumulating evidence has shown that the core pathophysiology of schizophrenia might involve dysfunction in dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling, which may lead to aberrant functioning of interneurons that manifest as cognitive, behavioral, and social dysfunction through altered functioning of a broad range of macro- and microcircuits...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769770/regulatory-mechanisms-controlling-maturation-of-serotonin-neuron-identity-and-function
#13
William C Spencer, Evan S Deneris
The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768196/a-cooperative-mechanism-involving-ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-and-retrograde-activation-of-gabab-receptors-in-interpeduncular-nucleus-plasticity
#14
Peter Koppensteiner, Riccardo Melani, Ipe Ninan
The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway, which connects the limbic forebrain to the midbrain, has recently been implicated in aversive behaviors. The MHb-IPN circuit is characterized by a unique topographical organization, an excitatory role of GABA, and a prominent co-release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. However, little is known about synaptic plasticity in this pathway. An application of a high-frequency stimulation resulted in a long-lasting potentiation of glutamate release in IPN neurons...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762870/increased-sleep-need-and-reduction-of-tuberomammillary-histamine-neurons-after-rodent-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Daniela Noain, Fabian Büchele, Sebastian R Schreglmann, Philipp O Valko, Yuri Gavrilov, Marta M Morawska, Lukas L Imbach, Christian R Baumann
Although sleep-wake disturbances are prevalent and well-described after traumatic brain injury, their pathophysiology remains unclear, most likely because human traumatic brain injury is a highly heterogeneous entity which makes the systematic study of sleep-wake disturbances in relation to trauma-induced histological changes a challenging task. Despite increasing interest, specific and effective treatment strategies for posttraumatic sleep-wake disturbances are still missing. With the present work, therefore, we aimed at studying acute and chronic sleep-wake disturbances by electrophysiological means, and at assessing their histological correlates after closed diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats with the ultimate goal of generating a model of posttraumatic sleep-wake disturbances and associated histopathological findings that accurately represents the human condition...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760699/modulation-of-the-storage-of-social-recognition-memory-by-neurotransmitter-systems-in-the-insular-cortex
#16
Lorena E S Cavalcante, Carolina G Zinn, Scheila D Schmidt, Bruna F Saenger, Flávia F Ferreira, Cristiane R G Furini, Jociane C Myskiw, Ivan Izquierdo
The insular cortex (IC) receives projections from prefrontal, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, olfactory bulb and basal nuclei and has reciprocal connections with the amygdala and entorhinal cortex. These connections suggest a possible involvement in memory processes; this has been borne out by data on several behaviors. Social recognition memory (SRM) is essential to form social groups and to establish hierarchies and social and affective ties. Despite its importance, knowledge about the brain structures and the neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in its processing is still scarce...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757050/electroencephalographic-cognitive-and-neurochemical-effects-of-ly3130481-cerc-611-a-selective-antagonist-of-tarp-%C3%AE-8-associated-ampa-receptors
#17
Jeffrey M Witkin, Jennifer Li, Gary Gilmour, Stephen N Mitchell, Guy Carter, Scott D Gleason, Wesley F Seidel, Brian J Eastwood, Andrew McCarthy, Warren J Porter, Jon Reel, Kevin M Gardinier, Akihiko S Kato, Keith A Wafford
6-[(1S)-1-[1-[5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-pyridyl]pyrazol-3-yl]ethyl]-3H-1,3-benzothiazol-2-one (LY3130481 or CERC-611) is a selective antagonist of AMPA receptors containing transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) γ-8. This molecule has been characterized as a potent and efficacious anticonvulsant in an array of acute and chronic epilepsy models in rodents. The present set of experiments was designed to assess the effects of LY3130481 on the electroencephelogram (EEG), cognitive function, and neurochemical outflow...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750497/news-and-views-on-in-vivo-imaging-of-neurotransmission-using-pet-and-mri
#18
Christin Y Sander, Swen Hesse
Molecular neuroimaging with PET is an integrated tool in psychiatry research and drug-development for as long as this modality has been available, in particular for studying neurotransmission and endogenous neurotransmitter release. Pharmacologic probes but also behavioral challenges are currently applied to induce changes in neurochemical levels that can be inferred through their effects on changes in receptor binding and related outcome measures. Based on the availability of tracers that are sensitive for measuring neurotransmitter release these experiments have focused on the brain's dopamine system, while recent developments have extended those studies to other targets such as the serotonin or choline system...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744205/comprehensive-behavioral-analysis-of-activating-transcription-factor-5-deficient-mice
#19
Mariko Umemura, Tae Ogura, Ayako Matsuzaki, Haruo Nakano, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Yuji Takahashi
Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5(-/-)) mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5(-/-) mice were less aggressive than ATF5(+/+) mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#20
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
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