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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457601/influences-of-combined-traffic-noise-on-the-ability-of-learning-and-memory-in-mice
#1
Guo-Qing Di, Zhao-Qi Qin
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of combined traffic noise (CTN) on the ability of learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed to CTN from highways and high-speed railways for 42 days, whose day-night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn ) was 70 dB(A). On the basis of behavioral reactions in Morris water maze (MWM) and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, the impacts of CTN on learning and memory in mice were examined...
January 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456827/impairment-of-social-behaviors-in-arhgef10-knockout-mice
#2
Dai-Hua Lu, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Huang-Ju Tu, Houng-Chi Liou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Wen-Mei Fu
Background: Impaired social interaction is one of the essential features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our previous copy number variation (CNV) study discovered a novel deleted region associated with ASD. One of the genes included in the deleted region is ARHGEF10 . A missense mutation of ARHGEF10 has been reported to be one of the contributing factors in several diseases of the central nervous system. However, the relationship between the loss of ARHGEF10 and the clinical symptoms of ASD is unclear...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455417/effect-of-yulangsan-polysaccharide-on-the-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Chunxia Chen, Zhihuan Nong, Xingmei Liang, Mingyu Meng, Feifei Xuan, Qiuqiao Xie, Junhui He, Renbin Huang
We previously reported that Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP), which was isolated from the root of Millettia pulchra Kurz, attenuates withdrawal symptoms of morphine dependence by regulating the nitric oxide pathway and modulating monoaminergic neurotransmitters. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of YLSP on the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. A CPP procedure was employed to assess the behavior of rats, and indicators of serum and four brain regions (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) were determined to explore its underlying mechanism...
February 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453804/probiotics-affect-one-carbon-metabolites-and-catecholamines-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#4
Sandra Tillmann, Hussain M Awwad, Amanda R Eskelund, Giulia Treccani, Juergen Geisel, Gregers Wegener, Rima Obeid
SCOPE: Probiotics may influence one-carbon (C1) metabolism, neurotransmitters, liver function markers, or behavior. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male adult Flinders Sensitive Line rats (model of depression, FSL; n = 22) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (10 9 or 10 10 colony-forming units/d) or vehicle for 10 weeks. The controls, Flinders Resistant Line rats (FRL, n = 8), only received vehicle. C1-related metabolites were measured in plasma, urine, and different tissues...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453447/embryonic-stem-cell-transplants-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-a-rodent-model-of-autism
#5
Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, Daniel J Lodge
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disruptions in three core behavioral domains: deficits in social interaction, impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior or thought. There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD and drugs that target comorbid symptoms often have serious adverse side effects, suggesting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The neurobiology of autism is complex, but converging evidence suggests that ASD involves disruptions in the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453444/positive-regulation-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-by-serotonin-2b-receptors
#6
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444592/antidepressant-like-effects-of-vaccinium-bracteatum-in-chronic-restraint-stress-mice-functional-actions-and-mechanism-explorations
#7
Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Myung-A Jung, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Ji-Ae Hong, Donghyuck Bae, Kwangsu Kim, Huwon Kang, Jaeyong Kim, Young Ran Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Chul-Young Choi
The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442271/exploring-variability-in-basal-ganglia-connectivity-with-functional-mri-in-healthy-aging
#8
Ludovica Griffanti, Philipp Stratmann, Michal Rolinski, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Giovanna Zamboni, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Johannes C Klein, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Michele T Hu, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay
Changes in functional connectivity (FC) measured using resting state fMRI within the basal ganglia network (BGN) have been observed in pathologies with altered neurotransmitter systems and conditions involving motor control and dopaminergic processes. However, less is known about non-disease factors affecting FC in the BGN. The aim of this study was to examine associations of FC within the BGN with dopaminergic processes in healthy older adults. We explored the relationship between FC in the BGN and variables related to demographics, impulsive behavior, self-paced tasks, mood, and motor correlates in 486 participants in the Whitehall-II imaging sub-study using both region-of-interest- and voxel-based approaches...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438673/distribution-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-rock-cavy-kerodon-rupestris-brain-i-the-diencephalon
#9
Maria Emanuela Martins Dos Reis, Lucimário Thiago Félix de Araújo, Wylqui Mikael Gomes de Andrade, Nayra da Silva Resende, Ruthnaldo Rodrigues Melo de Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Judney Cley Cavalcante
Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly soluble and membrane-permeable neurotransmitter, so it does not need to be packed in vesicles or have a membrane receptor. In the nervous system, NO is synthesized by the neuronal form of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme and has been considered as a local neurotransmitter. NOS distribution is widespread in the nervous system of various vertebrate species, which may explain its participation in many functions such as memory, blood pressure regulation and sexual behavior. Here we used immunohistochemistry against NOS and NADPH diaphorase histochemistry to map the distribution of NO in the diencephalon of the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), a rodent endemic to the Brazilian Northeast...
February 10, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436999/pharmacoinformatics-and-molecular-docking-studies-reveal-potential-novel-compounds-against-schizophrenia-by-target-syn-ii
#10
Rana Adnan Tahir, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal
BACKGROUND: Synapsin II regulates neurotransmitter release from mature nerve terminals and plays important role in the formation of new nerve terminals. The associations of SYN II are identified in various studies that are linked to the onset of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal behavior like obsession, dampening of emotions and auditory hallucination. METHODS: The bioinformatics approaches were utilized for structural modeling and docking analyses of SYN II followed by pharmacophore generation to identify potent inhibitors...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432853/neurobehavioral-effects-of-1-2-propanediol-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Andrey Massarsky, Ayham Abdel, Lilah Glazer, Edward D Levin, Richard T Di Giulio
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing despite insufficient information concerning their long-term effects, including the effects of maternal e-cigarette use on pre- and postnatal development. Our previous study demonstrated that developmental exposure to 1,2-propanediol (a principal component of e-cigarette liquid) affected early development of zebrafish, causing reduced growth, deformities, and hyperactive swimming behavior in larvae. The current study extends assessment of the developmental toxicity of 1,2-propanediol by examining additional long-term behavioral effects...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432412/hub-connectivity-neuronal-diversity-and-gene-expression-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#12
Aurina Arnatkevic Iūtė, Ben D Fulcher, Roger Pocock, Alex Fornito
Studies of nervous system connectivity, in a wide variety of species and at different scales of resolution, have identified several highly conserved motifs of network organization. One such motif is a heterogeneous distribution of connectivity across neural elements, such that some elements act as highly connected and functionally important network hubs. These brain network hubs are also densely interconnected, forming a so-called rich club. Recent work in mouse has identified a distinctive transcriptional signature of neural hubs, characterized by tightly coupled expression of oxidative metabolism genes, with similar genes characterizing macroscale inter-modular hub regions of the human cortex...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430734/gaba-and-serotonin-expressing-neurons-take-part-in-inhibitory-as-well-as-excitatory-input-pathways-to-the-circadian-clock-of-the-madeira-cockroach-rhyparobia-maderae
#13
Maria Giese, Julia Gestrich, Azar Massah, Jonas Peterle, HongYing Wei, Monika Stengl
In the Madeira cockroach pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive (PDF-ir) neurons innervating the circadian clock, the accessory medulla (AME) in the brain's optic lobes, control circadian behavior. Circadian activity rhythms are entrained to daily light-dark cycles only by compound eye photoreceptors terminating in the lamina and medulla. Still, it is unknown which neurons connect the photoreceptors to the clock to allow for light-entrainment. Here, we characterized by multiple-label immunocytochemistry the serotonin (5-HT)-ir anterior fiber fan and GABA-ir pathways connecting the AME- and optic lobe neuropils...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429049/implication-of-genes-for-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-in-substance-addictions
#14
REVIEW
Jiali Chen, Yunlong Ma, Rongli Fan, Zhongli Yang, Ming D Li
Drug dependence is a chronic brain disease with harmful consequences for both individual users and society. Glutamate is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and both in vivo and in vitro experiments have implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, as an element in various types of addiction. Recent findings from genetics-based approaches such as genome-wide linkage, candidate gene association, genome-wide association (GWA), and next-generation sequencing have demonstrated the significant association of NMDA receptor subunit genes such as GluN3A, GluN2B, and GluN2A with various addiction-related phenotypes...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428908/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-the-tyramine-br-receptor-genes-in-apis-cerana-cerana
#15
Li-Zhen Zhang, Yong Zhang, Jing-Hua Hu, Zi-Long Wang, Zhi-Jiang Zeng
Tyramine is a biological polyamine, which serves important functions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormone of the central nervous system. It participates in the regulation of various behavior and physiological processes in insects. For example, tyramine and its receptor genes are involved in the regulation of learning and memory in the animals. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of the tyramine receptor genes (Actyr1 and Actyr2) of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, were cloned and sequenced for the first time...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427844/seasonality-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-monoamine-metabolite-concentrations-and-their-associations-with-meteorological-variables-in-humans
#16
Timothy D Brewerton, Karen T Putnam, Richard R J Lewine, S Craig Risch
Seasonal variations in neurotransmitter parameters have been previously reported in humans. However, these studies have involved small sample sizes and have not examined possible relationships with meteorological variables. We compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA, and MHPG) in 188 healthy controls (80 men, 108 women) in relationship to age, sex, BMI, and available meteorological variables. All subjects had a lumbar puncture (LP) performed at 9 a...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424431/inhibitory-and-modulatory-inputs-to-the-vocal-central-pattern-generator-of-a-teleost-fish
#17
Elisabeth Rosner, Kevin N Rohmann, Andrew H Bass, Boris P Chagnaud
Vocalization is a behavioral feature that is shared among multiple vertebrate lineages, including fish. The temporal patterning of vocal communication signals is set, in part, by central pattern generators (CPGs). Toadfishes are well-established models for CPG coding of vocalization at the hindbrain level. The vocal CPG comprises three topographically separate nuclei: pre-pacemaker, pacemaker, motor. While the connectivity between these nuclei is well understood, their neurochemical profile remains largely unexplored...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423971/two-de-novo-novel-mutations-in-one-shank3-allele-in-a-patient-with-autism-and-moderate-intellectual-disability
#18
Wenmiao Zhu, Jianli Li, Stella Chen, Jinglan Zhang, Francesco Vetrini, Alicia Braxton, Christine M Eng, Yaping Yang, Fan Xia, Kory L Keller, Leila Okinaka-Hu, Chung Lee, J Lloyd Holder, Weimin Bi
SHANK3 encodes for a scaffolding protein that links neurotransmitter receptors to the cytoskeleton and is enriched in postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses. Deletions or mutations in one copy of the SHANK3 gene cause Phelan-McDermid syndrome, also called 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with common features including global developmental delay, absent to severely impaired language, autistic behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. By whole exome sequencing, we identified two de novo novel variants including one frameshift pathogenic variant and one missense variant of unknown significance in a 14-year-old boy with delayed motor milestones, delayed language acquisition, autism, intellectual disability, ataxia, progressively worsening spasticity of the lower extremities, dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, failure to thrive, chronic constipation, intrauterine growth restriction, and bilateral inguinal hernias...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423839/molecular-neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-interactions
#19
Paul M Klenowski, Andrew R Tapper
Ethanol and nicotine can modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems and signalling pathways. Interactions between ethanol and nicotine can also occur via common molecular targets including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These effects can induce molecular and synaptic adaptations that over time, are consolidated in brain circuits that reinforce drug-seeking behavior, contribute to the development of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and increase the susceptibility to relapse. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic effects of ethanol and nicotine within the mesolimbic reward pathway and brain circuits involved in learning, memory, and withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421436/dopamine-noradrenaline-and-serotonin-receptor-densities-in-the-striatum-of-hemiparkinsonian-rats-following-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-injection
#20
T Mann, K Zilles, H Dikow, A Hellfritsch, M Cremer, M Piel, F Rösch, A Hawlitschka, O Schmitt, A Wree
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that causes a dopamine (DA) deficit in the caudate-putamen (CPu) accompanied by compensatory changes in other neurotransmitter systems. These changes result in severe motor and non-motor symptoms. To disclose the role of various receptor binding sites for DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat model induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection, the densities of D1, D2/D3, α 1, α 2, and 5HT2A receptors were longitudinally visualized and measured in the CPu of hemi-PD rats by quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience
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