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Neurotransmitters and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735060/individual-roles-of-brain-and-serum-alcohol-dehydrogenase-isoforms-in-regulation-of-alcohol-consumption-in-spf-wistar-rats
#1
Vsevolod V Pavshintsev, Nikita A Mitkin, Olga Y Frolova, Ekaterina A Kushnir, Olga A Averina, Maxim L Lovat
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are key enzymes of ethanol metabolism that mediate its oxidation to acetaldehyde. ADHs are also able to oxidize some types of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Increased level of ADHs activity, induced by chronic alcohol consumption, is presumably associated with disturbed neurotransmitters metabolism that leads to stable alcohol craving. As earlier reported, intraperitoneal administration of 4-methilpirasole (non-specific inhibitor of ADHs) has shown to provide a short-term anti-alcoholic effect, but individual roles of ADH isoforms in this process were still unclear...
July 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730152/zebrafish-get-connected-investigating-neurotransmission-targets-and-alterations-in-chemical-toxicity
#2
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain development, behavior, learning, and memory. Exposure to drugs and chemicals can alter neurotransmission, often through unknown pathways and mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system is increasingly being used to study the brain and chemical neurotoxicity. In this review, the major neurotransmitter systems, including glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and glutamate are surveyed and pathways of synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action are examined...
September 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#3
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regards to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition processes (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#4
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720101/drug-candidates-in-clinical-trials-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Shih-Ya Hung, Wen-Mei Fu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major form of senile dementia, characterized by progressive memory and neuronal loss combined with cognitive impairment. AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting one-fifth of those aged over 85 years. Recent therapeutic approaches have been strongly influenced by five neuropathological hallmarks of AD: acetylcholine deficiency, glutamate excitotoxicity, extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ plague), formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NTFs), and neuroinflammation...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716951/a-calcium-diacylglycerol-stimulated-protein-kinase-c-c-elegans-pkc-2-links-thermal-signals-to-learned-behavior-by-acting-in-a-sensory-neuron-and-intestinal-cells
#6
Marianne Land, Charles S Rubin
Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol (DAG) activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a C. elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc) and migrates along Tc within a 17-25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714867/enhanced-astrocytic-d-serine-underlies-synaptic-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Enmanuel J Perez, Stephen A Tapanes, Zachary B Loris, Darrick T Balu, Thomas J Sick, Joseph T Coyle, Daniel J Liebl
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), glial cells have both beneficial and deleterious roles in injury progression and recovery. However, few studies have examined the influence of reactive astrocytes in the tripartite synapse following TBI. Here, we have demonstrated that hippocampal synaptic damage caused by controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in mice results in a switch from neuronal to astrocytic d-serine release. Under nonpathological conditions, d-serine functions as a neurotransmitter and coagonist for NMDA receptors and is involved in mediating synaptic plasticity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714693/stochastic-simulation-of-dopamine-neuromodulation-for-implementation-of-fluorescent-neurochemical-probes-in-the-striatal-extracellular-space
#8
Abraham Beyene, Ian McFarlane, Rebecca Pinals, Markita P Landry
Imaging the dynamic behavior of neuromodulatory neurotransmitters in the extracelluar space arising from individual quantal releases would constitute a major advance in neurochemical imaging. Spatial and temporal resolution of these highly stochastic neuromodulatory events requires concurrent advances in the chemical development of optical nanosensors selective for neuromodulators in concert with advances in imaging methodologies to capture millisecond neurotransmitter release. Herein, we develop and implement a stochastic model to describe dopamine dynamics in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain dorsal striatum to guide the design and implementation of fluorescent neurochemical probes that record neurotransmitter dynamics in the ECS...
July 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711395/silymarin-ameliorates-experimentally-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-involvement-of-hippocampal-bdnf-signaling-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-response
#9
Vishnu N Thakare, Manoj K Aswar, Yogesh P Kulkarni, Rajesh R Patil, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, exhibited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in acute restraint stressed mice. The main objective of the present study is to investigate possible antidepressant like activity of silymarin in experimentally induced depressive behavior in rats. The depressive behaviors were induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) technique. Wistar rats were administered with silymarin at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709783/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-memory-through-online-processing-of-information
#10
REVIEW
Victor Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
Our memory abilities, whether they involve short-term working memory or long-term episodic or procedural memories, are essential for our well-being, our capacity to adapt to constraints of our environment and survival. Therefore, several key brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are engaged in the processing of sensory information to either maintain such information in working memory so that it will quickly be used, and/or participate in the elaboration and storage of enduring traces useful for longer periods of time...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705227/sensorimotor-learning-neurocognitive-mechanisms-and-individual-differences
#11
REVIEW
R D Seidler, R G Carson
Here we provide an overview of findings and viewpoints on the mechanisms of sensorimotor learning presented at the 2016 Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement (BANCOM) conference in Deer Creek, OH. This field has shown substantial growth in the past couple of decades. For example it is now well accepted that neural systems outside of primary motor pathways play a role in learning. Frontoparietal and anterior cingulate networks contribute to sensorimotor adaptation, reflecting strategic aspects of exploration and learning...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698386/antagonistic-serotonergic-and-octopaminergic-neural-circuits-mediate-food-dependent-locomotory-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Matthew A Churgin, Richard J McCloskey, Emily Peters, Christopher Fang-Yen
Biogenic amines are conserved signaling molecules that link food cues to behavior and metabolism in a wide variety of organisms. In the nematode C. elegans, the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine regulate a number of food-related behaviors. Using a novel method for long-term quantitative behavioral imaging, we show that 5-HT and octopamine jointly influence locomotor activity and quiescence in feeding and fasting hermaphrodites, and we define the neural circuits through which this modulation occurs...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694433/antidepressant-effect-of-taurine-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#13
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#15
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690502/serotonin-5-httlpr-genotype-modulates-reactive-visual-scanning-of-social-and-non-social-affective-stimuli-in-young-children
#16
Antonios I Christou, Yvonne Wallis, Hayley Bair, Maurice Zeegers, Joseph P McCleery
Previous studies have documented the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms as genetic variants that are involved in serotonin availability and also associated with emotion regulation and facial emotion processing. In particular, neuroimaging and behavioral studies of healthy populations have produced evidence to suggest that carriers of the Short allele exhibit heightened neurophysiological and behavioral reactivity when processing aversive stimuli, particularly in brain regions involved in fear. However, an additional distinction has emerged in the field, which highlights particular types of fearful information, i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687505/xiaochaihutang-attenuates-depressive-anxiety-like-behaviors-of-social-isolation-reared-mice-by-regulating-monoaminergic-system-neurogenesis-and-bdnf-expression
#17
Jie Ma, Fang Wang, Jingyu Yang, Yingxu Dong, Guangyue Su, Kuo Zhang, Xing Pan, Ping Ma, Tingshuo Zhou, Chunfu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), as a classical herbal formula for the treatment of "Shaoyang syndrome" has been demonstrated to exert an antidepressant effect in multiple animal models of depression as shown in our previous studies. However, the effects of XCHT on social isolation (SI)-reared mice have not been investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice, and its implicated mechanisms, including alterations in the monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686562/-impulsivity-as-an-immediate-factor-between-addictive-disorders-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
H Lazaratou, A Palaiologou, D Anagnostopoulos
Impulsivity is a behavior in everyday life of mentally healthy individuals. But in some cases the degree of impulsivity begins to create negative effects on one's life and acquires pathological connotation. Two clinical entities in which can be observed a high degree of impulsivity is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Addictive disorders. In these disorders, both impulsive act and impulsive choice are observed. According to some researchers, genetic factors are involved in the control of impulsivity...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685161/behavioral-effects-of-a-chemorepellent-receptor-knockout-mutation-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#19
Dianxiong Zou, Todd M Hennessey
A conditioned supernatant from Tetrahymena thermophila contains a powerful chemorepellent for wild-type cells, and a gene called G37 is required for this response. This is the first genomic identification of a chemorepellent receptor in any eukaryotic unicellular organism. This conditioned supernatant factor (CSF) is small (<1 kDa), and its repellent effect is resistant to boiling, protease treatment, and nuclease digestion. External BAPTA eliminated the CSF response, suggesting that Ca(2+) entry is required for the classical avoiding reactions (AR) used for chemorepulsion...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681514/behavioral-and-stereological-characterization-of-hdc-ko-mice-relation-to-tourette-syndrome
#20
Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Karthik Chary, Mikko Kettunen, Alejandra Sierra, Pertti Panula
A premature termination codon in the human histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) gene has been identified in a family suffering from Guilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). In the current study we investigated if mice lacking the histamine producing enzyme HDC share the morphological and cytological phenotype with GTS patients by using magnetic resonance (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), unbiased stereology and immunohistochemistry. Behavior of Hdc knock-out (Hdc KO) mice was assessed in an open field test. The results of stereological, volumetric and DTI analysis measurements showed no significant differences between control and Hdc KO mice...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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