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Neurotransmitters and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328536/neurotransmission-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway...
March 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323244/itraq-based-differential-proteomic-analysis-in-mongolian-gerbil-brains-chronically-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Lin Lv, Yapei Wang, Weili Feng, Jorge A Hernandez, Wanyi Huang, Yuxiang Zheng, Xue Zhou, Shumei Lv, Yajun Chen, Zi-Guo Yuan
The aim of our study was to detect differentially regulated proteins and specific signaling pathways in Mongolian gerbil brains during chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) PRU strain infection. We use a iTRAQ-based strategy to detecte 4935 proteins, out of which 110 proteins were differentially expressed (>/=2.0-fold, p value <0.05) when the brain of gerbils infected with T.gondii was compared to control brain tissues. We confirmed the authenticity and the accuracy of iTRAQ results through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB), which was consistent with mass spectrometry analysis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#3
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314816/characterization-of-a-human-point-mutation-of-vglut3-p-a211v-in-the-rodent-brain-suggests-a-non-uniform-distribution-of-the-transporter-in-synaptic-vesicles
#4
Lauriane Ramet, Johannes Zimmermann, Tiphaine Bersot, Odile Poirel, Stéphanie De Gois, Katlin Silm, Diana Yae Sakae, Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Marie-Josée Bourque, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Stéphanie Daumas, Véronique Bernard, Christian Rosenmund, Salah El Mestikawy
The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by sub-populations of neurons using acetylcholine, GABA or serotonin as neurotransmitters. In addition, VGLUT3 is expressed in the inner hair cells of the auditory system. A mutation (p.A211V) in the gene that encodes VGLUT3 is responsible for progressive deafness in two unrelated families. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the p.A211V mutation in cell cultures and in the central nervous system (CNS) of a mutant mouse...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314750/octopamine-and-tyramine-modulate-the-thermoregulatory-fanning-response-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#5
Chelsea N Cook, Colin S Brent, Michael D Breed
Biogenic amines regulate the proximate mechanisms underlying most behavior, including those that contribute to the overall success of complex societies. For honey bees, one critical set of behaviors contributing to the welfare of a colony is involved with nest thermoregulation. Worker honeybees cool the colony by performing a fanning behavior, the expression of which is largely influenced by response thresholds modulated by the social environment. Here, we examined how changes in biogenic amines affect this group-performed thermoregulatory fanning behavior in honeybees...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302436/pharmacological-characterization-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-rice-striped-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis
#6
Gang Xu, Shun-Fan Wu, Gui-Xiang Gu, Zi-Wen Teng, Gong-Yin Ye, Jia Huang
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. A complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP levels. In the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3, from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. All three receptors show considerable sequence identity with orthologous dopamine receptors...
March 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301776/neurotransmitter-switching-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#7
Nicholas C Spitzer
Neurotransmitter switching is the gain of one neurotransmitter and the loss of another in the same neuron in response to chronic stimulation. Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter switching often appears to change the sign of the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or from inhibitory to excitatory. In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300619/brain-neurotransmitters-in-an-animal-model-with-postpartum-depressive-like-behavior
#8
Y Avraham, Y Hants, L Vorobeiv, M Premishlano, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, D Mankuta, E Galun, S Arbel-Alon
Post-Partum Depression (PPD) occurs in 15% of pregnancies and its patho-physiology is not known. We studied female BALB/c ("depressive") and C57BL/6 (control) mice as a model for PPD and assessed their behavior and correlates with brain neurotransmitters (NTs) - norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and intermediates, during the pre-pregnancy (PREP), pregnancy (PREG) and post-Partum (PP) periods. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated by the Open Field (OFT), Tail Suspension (TST) and Forced Swim (FST) tests...
March 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295557/parachlorophenylalanine-induced-5-ht-depletion-alters-behavioural-and-brain-neurotransmitters-levels-in-6-hertz-psychomotor-seizure-model-in-mice
#9
Kausar Jahan, Krishna K Pillai, Divya Vohora
The present study was designed to investigate the role of serotonin and other neurotransmitters namely dopamine (DA), histamine, noradrenaline (NA), glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the 6-hertz (6 Hz) induced psychomotor seizures in Swiss albino mice. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, i.p for 3 days) treated mice were given 6 Hz stimulation. Sodium valproate (SVP) [200 mg/kg/day, p.o for 3 days] was used as a reference anti-epileptic drug. The behavioral changes induced by 6Hz including increased rearing and grooming, Straub's tail, behavioral arrest, stun position etc were amplified by PCPA...
March 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294240/pegylation-corannulene-enhances-response-of-stress-through-promoting-neurogenesis
#10
Xinyu Li, Dandan Sun, Xu Li, Dashuai Zhu, Zhenzhen Jia, Jiajia Jiao, Kai Wang, Deling Kong, Xin Zhao, Lin Xu, Qiang Zhao, Dongyan Chen, Xizeng Feng
Carbon nanomaterials have been used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neural disorders due to their diverse molecular structures. Corannulene is a three-dimensional π-bowl carbon nanomaterial that is different from planar PAHs, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, but little is known about its biological functions. Herein, corannulene was functionalized with mPEG-DESP to prepare PEGylation corannulene nanoparticles (PEGylation CoNps). The synthesized PEGylation CoNps shows enhanced solubility and reduced aggregation when compared corannulene...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293733/type-a-monoamine-oxidase-and-serotonin-are-coordinately-involved-in-depressive-disorders-from-neurotransmitter-imbalance-to-impaired-neurogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Wakako Maruyama, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai
Type A monoamine oxidase (MAOA) catabolizes monoamine transmitters, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, and plays a major role in the onset, progression and therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders. In depressive disorders, increase in MAOA expression and decrease in brain levels of serotonin and norepinephrine are proposed as the major pathogenic factors. The functional polymorphism of MAOA gene and genes in serotonin signal pathway are associated with depression. This review presents recent advance in studies on the role of MAOA in major depressive disorder and related emotional disorders...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#12
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291298/-neurobiology-of-alcohol-dependence-and-implications-on-treatment
#13
Ertuğrul Eşel, Köksal Dinç
The process of alcohol dependence has been conceptualized as a progress from controlled alcohol intake to compulsive alcohol consumption or a shift from alcohol intake for pleasure to compulsory alcohol seeking behavior. Hereditary and physical factors and the interaction of individuals with their environment, as well as permanent changes in the neurotransmitter and neurohormonal systems in the brain due to alcohol use, play the most important role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. The effects of ethanol on the neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems not only account for its acute physiological and euphoric/reinforcing effects but also seem to be responsible for the development of dependence...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274152/restraint-stress-differentially-regulates-inflammation-and-glutamate-receptor-gene-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-c57bl-6-and-balb-c-mice
#14
Monica Sathyanesan, Jacob M Haiar, Michael J Watt, Samuel S Newton
The inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c have been used widely in preclinical psychiatric research. The differences in stress susceptibility of available strains has provided a useful platform to test pharmacological agents and behavioral responses. Previous brain gene profiling efforts have indicated that the inflammation and immune response gene pathway is the predominant gene network in the differential stress response of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The implication is that a composite stress paradigm that includes a sequence of extended, varied and unpredictable stressors induces inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264974/emerging-role-of-dopamine-in-neovascularization-of-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#15
REVIEW
Thamara E Osinga, Thera P Links, Robin P F Dullaart, Karel Pacak, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Michiel N Kerstens, Ido P Kema
Dopamine is a catecholamine that acts both as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone, exerting its functions via dopamine (DA) receptors that are present in a broad variety of organs and cells throughout the body. In the circulation, DA is primarily stored in and transported by blood platelets. Recently, the important contribution of DA in the regulation of angiogenesis has been recognized. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that DA inhibits angiogenesis through activation of the DA receptor type 2. Overproduction of catecholamines is the biochemical hallmark of pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL)...
March 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255313/effect-of-concomitant-administration-of-three-different-antidepressants-with-vitamin-b6-on-depression-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-mice-models
#16
Azadeh Mesripour, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Athar Kuchak
Vitamin B6 is a cofactor of various enzymes influencing numerous neurotransmitters in the brain such as norepinephrin, and serotonin. Since these neurotransmitters influence mood, the aim the present work to evaluate the effect of vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive behavior when coadministred with clomipramine, fluoxetine, or venlafaxine. Male mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The immobility time and latency to immobility was measured in the forced swimming test as a model of despair and the number of marbles buried (MB) in an open field was used as the model of obsessive compulsive behavior in mice...
February 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244981/the-link-between-inflammation-bugs-the-intestine-and-the-brain-in-alcohol-dependence
#17
REVIEW
S Leclercq, P de Timary, N M Delzenne, P Stärkel
In recent years, some new processes have been proposed to explain how alcohol may influence behavior, psychological symptoms and alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition to its important effect on brain and neurotransmitters equilibrium, alcohol abuse also affects peripheral organs including the gut. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse increases intestinal permeability and alters the composition of the gut microbiota, allowing bacterial components from the gut lumen to reach the systemic circulation...
February 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242339/metabotropic-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-potential-targets-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Sunil Goodwani, Hannah Saternos, Fawaz Alasmari, Youssef Sari
Emerging evidence indicates that dysfunctional glutamate neurotransmission is critical in the initiation and development of alcohol and drug dependence. Alcohol consumption induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) as reported in previous studies from our laboratory. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, which acts via interactions with several glutamate receptors. Alcohol consumption interferes with the glutamatergic signal transmission by altering the functions of these receptors...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238857/asiaticoside-attenuation-of-rotenone-induced-oxidative-burden-in-a-rat-model-of-hemiparkinsonism-by-maintaining-the-phosphoinositide-mediated-synaptic-integrity
#19
Margabandhu Gopi, Vanisree Arambakkam Janardhanam
Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Indian medicinal herb Centella asiatica is known to exert a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and pathological changes in animal models. However, its potential neuroprotection in rotenone-induced hemiparkinsonism which implicates phospholipid-mediated neurotransmission remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of AS in rat model of ROT-infused hemiparkinsonism with respect to phosphoinositides-assisted cytodynamics and synaptic function...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238767/evaluation-of-the-cart-peptide-expression-in-morphine-sensitization-in-male-rats
#20
Atefeh Bakhtazad, Nasim Vousooghi, Behzad Garmabi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
The importance of Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in reinforcing effects of addictive drugs specially alcohol and psychostimulants has been stablished. Involvement of CART peptide in rewarding effects of opioids in brain has recently been reported. Here we have studied the expression of CART mRNA and peptide in the reward pathway in morphine-induced sensitization phenomenon and also evaluated the peptide level fluctuations in CSF and plasma. Male Wistar rats received 7-day morphine injection (20mg/kg) and then after a 7-day washout period, a challenge dose of 10mg/kg morphine was administered and locomotor activity and oral stereotypical behaviors were recorded...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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