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Neurotransmitters and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227297/neuropsychiatric-effects-of-epilepsy-in-developmental-disorders
#1
Jay Salpekar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The overlap of neuropsychiatric illness and developmental disability continues to be prominently recognized in clinical practice and in the academic literature. Theoretical and practical considerations may represent a frontier for understanding brain and behavior relationships. The purpose of this review is to explore this common relationship and report on recent literature that helps advance the larger fields of psychiatry and neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: Overlap between developmental disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness may be more common than originally thought...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#2
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224666/central-and-peripheral-roles-of-vasopressin-in-the-circadian-defense-of-body-hydration
#3
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Eric Trudel, Charles W Bourque
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide synthesized by specific subsets of neurons within the eye and brain. Studies in rats and mice have shown that vasopressin produced by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) that project to the neurohypophysis is released into the blood circulation where it serves as an antidiuretic hormone to promote water reabsorption from the kidney. Moreover vasopressin is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that contributes to time-keeping within the master circadian clock (i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and is also used as an output signal by SCN neurons to direct centrally mediated circadian rhythms...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223637/the-role-of-striatal-g%C3%AE-q-11-protein-in-methamphetamine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-mice
#4
Kwang-Wook Lee, Kyungin Kim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Gαq/11 protein transduces signals from neurotransmitter receptors and has been implicated in several functions of the central nervous system. In this study, the role of Gαq/11 protein in methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization was investigated using neurochemical and behavioral approaches. Repeated treatment with METH (2mg/kg, intraperitoneally) significantly increased behavioral sensitization as well as Gαq/11 protein expression and Gα protein activity in the striata of mice, while a single treatment of METH at the same dose did not affect these parameters...
December 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221855/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-darpp-32-phosphorylation
#5
T Femenia, Y Qian, T Arentsen, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in early innate immune responses to inflammatory agents and pathogens. In the brain, some members of the TLR family are expressed in glial cells and neurons. In particular, TLR4 has been involved in learning and memory processes, stress-induced adaptations, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of TLR4 in emotional behaviors and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in emotional and social behavior by using different behavioral approaches, and assessed potential molecular alterations in important brain areas involved in emotional responses...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220802/conducting-polymer-based-electrochemical-biosensors-for-neurotransmitters-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Jong-Min Moon, Neeta Thapliyal, Khalil Khadim Hussain, Rajendra N Goyal, Yoon-Bo Shim
Neurotransmitters are important biochemical molecules that control behavioral and physiological functions in central and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, the analysis of neurotransmitters in biological samples has a great clinical and pharmaceutical importance. To date, various methods have been developed for their assay. Of the various methods, the electrochemical sensors demonstrated the potential of being robust, selective, sensitive, and real time measurements. Recently, conducting polymers (CPs) and their composites have been widely employed in the fabrication of various electrochemical sensors for the determination of neurotransmitters...
December 5, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217410/munc18-1-haploinsufficiency-impairs-learning-and-memory-by-reduced-synaptic-vesicular-release-in-a-model-of-ohtahara-syndrome
#7
Albert Orock, Sreemathi Logan, Ferenc Deak
Ohtahara syndrome, also known as type 4 of Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy with suppression bursts (EIEE-4) is currently an untreatable disorder that presents with seizures and impaired cognition. EIEE-4 patients have mutations most frequently in the STXBP1 gene encoding a Sec protein, munc18-1. The exact molecular mechanism of how these munc18-1 mutations cause impaired cognition, remains elusive. The leading haploinsufficiency hypothesis posits that mutations in munc18-1 render the protein unstable leading to its degradation...
December 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209170/noradrenaline-modulates-the-membrane-potential-and-holding-current-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-and-hcn-channels
#8
Katarzyna Grzelka, Przemysław Kurowski, Maciej Gawlak, Paweł Szulczyk
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receives dense noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus. Adrenergic innervation of mPFC pyramidal neurons plays an essential role in both physiology (control of memory formation, attention, working memory, and cognitive behavior) and pathophysiology (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, cognitive deterioration after traumatic brain injury, behavioral changes related to addiction, Alzheimer's disease and depression). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for adrenergic receptor-mediated control of the resting membrane potential in layer V mPFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207107/modular-organization-of-a-hypocretin-gene-minimal-promoter
#9
Adriana Sánchez-García, Griselda A Cabral-Pacheco, Viviana C Zomosa-Signoret, Rocío Ortiz-López, Alberto Camacho, Paulo M Tabera-Tarello, José A Garnica-López, Román Vidaltamayo
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204713/gabaa-receptor-subtype-mechanisms-and-the-abuse-related-effects-of-ethanol-genetic-and-pharmacological-evidence
#10
Cassie M Chandler, John S Overton, Daniela Rüedi-Bettschen, Donna M Platt
Ethanol's reinforcing and subjective effects, as well as its ability to induce relapse, are powerful factors contributing to its widespread use and abuse. A significant mediator of these behavioral effects is the GABAA receptor system. GABAA receptors are the target for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Structurally, they are pentameric, transmembrane chloride ion channels comprised of subunits from at least eight different families of distinct proteins. The contribution of different GABAA subunits to ethanol's diverse abuse-related effects is not clear and remains an area of research focus...
December 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204712/presynaptic-ethanol-actions-potential-roles-in-ethanol-seeking
#11
David M Lovinger
Ethanol produces intoxication through actions on numerous molecular and cellular targets. Adaptations involving these and other targets contribute to chronic drug actions that underlie continued and problematic drinking. Among the mechanisms involved in these ethanol actions are alterations in presynaptic mechanisms of synaptic transmission, including presynaptic protein function and excitation-secretion coupling. At synapses in the central nervous system (CNS), excitation-secretion coupling involves ion channel activation followed by vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release...
December 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200551/efficacy-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-the-treatment-resistant-patients-who-suffer-from-severe-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Kiomars Najafi, Youssef Fakour, Homa Zarrabi, Abtin Heidarzadeh, Mohammadrasoul Khalkhali, Taiebeh Yeganeh, Hasan Farahi, Marziyeh Rostamkhani, Tahereh Najafi, Soheil Shabafroz, Mahdiyeh Pakdaman
Background: During the past years, significant efforts have been made to explain the biological backgrounds of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cortical-subcortical and neurotransmitter models are used for explaining the symptoms of OCD, so our hypothesis is that brain's transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) can regulate the brain activities of the OCD patients. Thus, based on the mentioned issues, this research seeks to investigate the efficacy of TDCS in treatment-resistant patients who suffer from severe OCD...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199560/lion-s-mane-medicinal-mushroom-hericium-erinaceus-agaricomycetes-modulates-purinoceptor-coupled-calcium-signaling-and-murine-nociceptive-behavior
#13
Pei-Shan Liu, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Chin-Chu Chen, Li-Ya Lee, Li-Yen Shiu
Hericium erinaceus is well known for the neurotrophic effect it confers by promoting nerve growth factor biosynthesis. We discovered a novel bioactivity of H. erinaceus in its ability to suppress adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced calcium signaling in neuronal PC12 cells. ATP, known primarily as a neurotransmitter, also acts on purinoceptors (P2 purinergic receptor [P2R]) to generate the cellular calcium signaling and secretion that mediate P2R physiological manifestations, including pain. Chronic pain reduces quality of life...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196316/restoring-serotonergic-homeostasis-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-rescues-sleep-disturbances-induced-by-early-life-obesity
#14
M Gazea, A V Patchev, E Anderzhanova, E Leidmaa, A Pissioti, C Flachskamm, O F X Almeida, M Kimura
Early life obesity predisposes to obesity in adulthood, a condition with broad medical implications including sleep disorders; the latter can exacerbate metabolic disturbances and disrupt cognitive and affective behaviors. In this study, we examined the long-term impact of transient peripubertal diet-induced obesity (ppDIO, induced between 4 and 10 weeks of age) on sleep-wake behavior in male mice. Electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings revealed that ppDIO increases sleep during the active phase but reduces resting-phase sleep quality...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194932/paper-based-polymer-electrodes-for-bioanalysis-and-electrochemistry-of-neurotransmitters
#15
Raphaël Trouillon, Martin Gijs
This article describes the preparation and characterization of PEDOT-coated paper electrodes. Their specific behavior was investigated, especially the impact of electrode shape on the electrochemical properties. It was found that different electrode geometries promote different results, largely because of a potential drop in the bulk of the electrode material. More importantly, the suitability of these substrates for bio- and neurochemical analyses was investigated. The paper electrodes were found to offer better resistance to both protein and neurotransmitter foulings, in comparison to a planar electrode...
November 30, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175154/immature-status-epilepticus-in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-cholinergic-control-and-hfo-properties-of-adult-ca3-interictal-discharges-in-temporal-vs-septal-hippocampus
#16
Apostolos Mikroulis, Christos Panagiotis Lisgaras, Caterina Psarropoulou
We have earlier demonstrated that a Status Epilepticus (SE) during CNS development has long lasting effects on cholinergic neurotransmission, detectable in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we aimed to localize changes in temporal (T) vs septal (S) hippocampus and to correlate adult CA3 interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) frequency changes to those of Ripples (R) and Fast Ripples (FR) of the High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs). Spontaneous IEDs were induced by bathing slices in Mg2+-free ACSF or in 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 50µM) and data were analyzed separately for each model...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174921/embryonic-development-of-gabaergic-terminals-in-the-mouse-hypothalamic-nuclei-involved-in-feeding-behavior
#17
Masato Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Chitoshi Takayama
The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important roles in energy balance and feeding behavior in the hypothalamus. To reveal the time course of GABAergic network formation, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a GABAergic neuron marker, vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of inhibitory terminals, and K+-Cl--cotransporter2 (KCC2), which shifts GABA action from excitation to inhibition, in the developing mouse hypothalamus...
November 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173175/imaging-the-role-of-inflammation-in-mood-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#18
Jennifer C Felger
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have reported evidence that inflammation and release of inflammatory cytokines affect circuitry relevant to both reward and threat sensitivity to contribute to behavioral change. Of relevance to mood and anxiety-related disorders, biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170094/the-choline-acetyltransferase-chat-gene-is-associated-with-parahippocampal-and-hippocampal-structure-and-short-term-memory-span
#19
Bi Zhu, Chuansheng Chen, Robert K Moyzis, Qi Dong, Chongde Lin
The CHAT gene encodes choline acetyltransferase, which is an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. This study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data from 324 healthy Chinese adults, and examined the associations between CHAT genetic variants, parahippocampal and hippocampal structure, and short-term memory span. After controlling for intracranial volume, sex, and age, CHAT SNP rs12246528 had the strongest association with parahippocampal structure, with the A allele being linked to smaller volume, surface area, and thickness...
November 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168271/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-co-agonist-availability-affects-behavioral-and-neurochemical-responses-to-cocaine-insights-into-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse
#20
Matthew D Puhl, Rajeev I Desai, Shunsuke Takagi, Kendall T Presti, Michelle R Doyle, Rachel J Donahue, Samantha M Landino, Jack Bergman, William A Carlezon, Joseph T Coyle
Both schizophrenia (SZ) and substance abuse (SA) exhibit significant heritability. Moreover, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both SZ and SA. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of comorbid SA in SZ is due to dysfunction of NMDARs caused by shared risk genes. We used transgenic mice with a null mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine and an established risk gene for SZ, to recreate the pathology of SZ...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
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