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Neurotransmitters and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514831/hypericum-perforatum-extract-attenuates-behavioral-biochemical-and-neurochemical-abnormalities-in-aluminum-chloride-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-rats
#1
Zheng Cao, Fan Wang, Chunyu Xiu, Jian Zhang, Yanfei Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Aluminum, a neurotoxic metal, is considered as the pathological hallmark and contributing factor of AD. Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) is a neuroprotective agent that can prevent neurodegenerative pathologies through antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and regulating neurotransmitter release in animal model of neuropathy. The present study aimed to identify the potential neuroprotective of HPE on AlCl3-induced AD rats...
May 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514694/the-association-of-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-externalizing-behavior-and-adolescent-substance-use
#2
Sonia Minnes, Meeyoung O Min, June-Yung Kim, Meredith W Francis, Adelaide Lang, Miaoping Wu, Lynn T Singer
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may increase adolescent substance use through alterations of neurotransmitter systems affecting fetal brain development. The relationship between PCE and substance use at 15 and 17 years was examined. Subjects (365: 186 PCE; 179 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)) supplied biologic and self-report data using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC 4) at ages 15 and 17. The relationship between PCE and substance use was assessed using General Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses controlling for confounding factors including violence exposure and preschool lead level...
March 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#3
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511977/role-of-acetylcholine-and-serotonin-in-novelty-processing-using-an-oddball-paradigm
#4
S Caldenhove, L G J M Borghans, A Blokland, A Sambeth
The processing of novel stimuli is known to take place in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and is influenced by the cholinergic system. This ability is crucial to help detect changes in the environment and adapt behavior accordingly. Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) can interact with serotonin (5-HT) at the hippocampal level, which may have consequences for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about the exact nature of this ACh and 5-HT interaction as well their possible interactive effects on novelty processing...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508690/gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-temperament
#5
Xiaoyan Qiu, Graeme B Martin, Dominique Blache
When individuals are exposed to stressful environmental challenges, the response varies widely in one or more of three components: psychology, behavior and physiology. This variability among individuals can be defined as temperament. In recent years, an increasing large body of evidence suggests that the dimensions of temperament, as well as personality, psychological disorders and behavioral traits, are influenced by genetic factors, and much of the variation appears to involve variation in genes or gene polymorphisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the behavior-controlling neurotransmitter networks...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507036/medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-the-trial-unique-delayed-nonmatching-to-location-tunl-task-in-rats-role-of-nmda-receptors
#6
Don A Davies, Jessica L Hurtubise, Quentin Greba, John G Howland
The trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task is a recently developed behavioral task that measures spatial working memory and a form of pattern separation in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers. Limited information exists regarding the neurotransmitters and neural substrates involved in the task. The present experiments tested the effects of systemic and intracranial injections of NMDA receptor antagonists on the TUNL task. After training, male Long Evans rats systemically injected with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (10 mg/kg) had impaired accuracy regardless of the degree of stimuli separation or length of delay between the sample and test phases...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502806/treadmill-exercise-delays-the-onset-of-non-motor-behaviors-and-striatal-pathology-in-the-cag140-knock-in-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#7
D P Stefanko, V D Shah, W K Yamasaki, G M Petzinger, M W Jakowec
Depression, cognitive impairments, and other neuropsychiatric disturbances are common during the prodromal phase of Huntington's disease (HD) well before the onset of classical motor symptoms of this degenerative disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of physical activity in the form of exercise on a motorized treadmill on non-motor behavioral features including depression-like behavior and cognition in the CAG140 knock-in (KI) mouse model of HD. The CAG140 KI mouse model has a long lifespan compared to other HD rodent models with HD motor deficits emerging after 12months of age and thus provides the opportunity to investigate early life interventions such as exercise on disease progression...
May 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500056/a-pathway-centered-analysis-of-pig-domestication-and-breeding-in-eurasia
#8
Jordi Leno-Colorado, Nick Hudson, Antonio Reverter, Miguel Pérez-Enciso
Ascertaining the molecular and physiological basis of domestication and breeding is an active area of research. Due to the current wide distribution of its wild ancestor, the wild boar, the pig (Sus scrofa) is an excellent model to study these processes, which occurred independently in East Asia and Europe ca. 9,000 years ago. Analyzing genome variability patterns in terms of metabolic pathways is attractive since it considers the impact of interrelated functions of genes, in contrast to genome-wide scans that treat genes or genome-windows in isolation...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495959/potential-nematode-alarm-pheromone-induces-acute-avoidance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Ying Zhou, Mario Loeza-Cabrera, Zheng Liu, Boanerges Aleman-Meza, Julie K Nguyen, Sang-Kyu Jung, Yuna Choi, Qingyao Shou, Rebecca A Butcher, Weiwei Zhong
It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflict physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK...
May 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495313/posterior-hypothalamus-glutamate-infusion-decreases-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-of-male-rats-through-hippocampal-histamine-increase
#10
A Arzhang, M Elahdadi Salmani, T Lashkarbolouki, I Goudarzi
OBJECTIVES: Seizures are epileptic manifestations that are intrinsically modulated through different neurotransmitters and receptor systems. Although glutamate increases excitation and hence seizures, it activates other systems which could potentially terminate seizures. Histamine originates from neurons of the posterior hypothalamus (PH) and can mediate anticonvulsant properties, but the effect of local PH glutamate on hippocampal histamine content is unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PH glutamate and the involvement of hippocampal histamine in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizure activity was studied...
May 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491049/sleep-disturbances-in-phenylketonuria-an-explorative-study-in-men-and-mice
#11
Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Marijke C M Gordijn, Anita MacDonald, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A Van der Zee
Sleep problems have not been directly reported in phenylketonuria (PKU). In PKU, the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine is disrupted, which, among others, causes deficits in the neurotransmitters and sleep modulators dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Understanding sleep problems in PKU patients may help explain the pathophysiology of brain dysfunction in PKU patients. In this explorative study, we investigated possible sleep problems in adult treated PKU patients and untreated PKU mice. In the PKU patients, sleep characteristics were compared to healthy first degree relatives by assessment of sleep disturbances, sleep-wake patterns, and sleepiness with the help of four questionnaires: Holland sleep disorder questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Epworth sleepiness scale, and Munich Chronotype Questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490503/entropic-forces-drive-self-organization-and-membrane-fusion-by-snare-proteins
#12
Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Sathish Thiyagarajan, Benjamin S Stratton, Erdem Karatekin, Jason M Warner, James E Rothman, Ben O'Shaughnessy
SNARE proteins are the core of the cell's fusion machinery and mediate virtually all known intracellular membrane fusion reactions on which exocytosis and trafficking depend. Fusion is catalyzed when vesicle-associated v-SNAREs form trans-SNARE complexes ("SNAREpins") with target membrane-associated t-SNAREs, a zippering-like process releasing ∼65 kT per SNAREpin. Fusion requires several SNAREpins, but how they cooperate is unknown and reports of the number required vary widely. To capture the collective behavior on the long timescales of fusion, we developed a highly coarse-grained model that retains key biophysical SNARE properties such as the zippering energy landscape and the surface charge distribution...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487514/girk2-splice-variants-and-neuronal-g-protein-gated-k-channels-implications-for-channel-function-and-behavior
#13
Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Lei Zhang, Baovi N Vo, Megan Tipps, Shannon Farris, Zhilian Xia, Allison Anderson, Nicholas Carlblom, C David Weaver, Serena M Dudek, Kevin Wickman
Many neurotransmitters directly inhibit neurons by activating G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels, thereby moderating the influence of excitatory input on neuronal excitability. While most neuronal GIRK channels are formed by GIRK1 and GIRK2 subunits, distinct GIRK2 isoforms generated by alternative splicing have been identified. Here, we compared the trafficking and function of two isoforms (GIRK2a and GIRK2c) expressed individually in hippocampal pyramidal neurons lacking GIRK2. GIRK2a and GIRK2c supported comparable somato-dendritic GIRK currents in Girk2 (-/-) pyramidal neurons, although GIRK2c achieved a more uniform subcellular distribution in pyramidal neurons and supported inhibitory postsynaptic currents in distal dendrites better than GIRK2a...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487497/the-involvement-of-darpp-32-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Mohd Farhan, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia based on neurochemical evidences of elevated brain striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release in response to stress. Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of relative molecular mass 32,000 (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in the medium spiny neurons of the neostriatum, considered as the most important integrator between the cortical input and the basal ganglia, and associated with motor control...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486926/5-ht3-receptors-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#15
Hongyan Zhao, Pu Wang, Shurui Chen, Xin Li, Hongliang Huo
Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction caused by spontaneous, abnormal discharge. Many anti-epileptic drugs have developed in past decades. 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of the human body which is involved in a number of physiological activities, such as sensation, movement, and behavior. 5-HT subtype have been divided into seven sub-groups from 5-HT1 to 5HT7. An increasing number of studies have shown that the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor can inhibit epileptic seizures, while inhibition of the 5HT3 receptor can promote spike waves...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485849/biology-of-neuropeptides-orexinergic-involvement-in-primary-headache-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Philip R Holland
Migraine is a very common, severe disabling condition that can last for days and strike multiple times per month. Attacks, often characterized by severe unilateral throbbing pain that is exacerbated by activity, are commonly preceded by several diverse symptoms including fatigue, irritability, and yawning. This premonitory (prodromal) phase represents the earliest identifiable feature of an attack that is a reliable predictor of ensuing headache. The diversity of these symptoms underlines the complex nature of migraine and focuses considerable attention on the hypothalamus due to its prominent role in homeostatic regulation allowing state dependent behavioral modifications...
May 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#17
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483475/dual-action-of-neuro-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-male-sexual-behavior
#18
Charlotte Anne Cornil, Catherine de Bournonville
Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term changes in circulating levels of testosterone and the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors. According to this view, neuro-estrogens would prime the neural circuits controlling the long-term expression of behavior, which would then be acutely regulated by neurotransmitter systems conveying information from the social environment...
May 5, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483462/the-impact-of-cocaine-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-potential-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-contributions-to-maladaptive-cognition-in-cocaine-addiction-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Estela Castilla-Ortega, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Antonia Serrano, Francisco J Pavón, Juan Suárez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis J Santín
After discovering that addictive drugs alter adult neurogenesis, the potential role of adult-born hippocampal neurons in drug addiction has become a promising research field, in which cocaine is the most frequently investigated drug. Although a substantial amount of pre-clinical evidence has accumulated, additional studies are required to reveal the mechanisms by which cocaine modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and determine whether these adult-born neurons have a role in cocaine-related behaviors, such as cocaine-mediated cognitive symptoms...
May 5, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479505/effects-of-monocrotophos-pesticide-on-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-neurotransmitter-systems-during-early-development-in-the-sea-urchin-hemicentrotus-pulcherrimus
#20
Xiaona Zhang, Shuman Li, Cuicui Wang, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
During early development in sea urchins, classical neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), play important roles in the regulation of morphogenesis and swimming behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of how organophosphate pesticides cause developmental neurotoxicity by interfering with different neurotransmitter systems are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00mg/L monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide on the activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase, the concentration of DA, dopamine transporter, and the transcription activity of DA receptor D1 and tyrosine hydroxylase, during critical periods in cholinergic and dopaminergic nervous system development in sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) embryos and larvae...
May 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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