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Neurotransmitters and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098256/dopamine-promotes-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-retina-through-d1-receptor-mediated-csk-activation-src-inhibition-and-decrease-of-glun2b-phosphorylation
#1
Renato Socodato, Felipe N Santiago, Camila C Portugal, Ivan Domith, Thaísa G Encarnação, Erick C Loiola, Ana L M Ventura, Marcelo Cossenza, João B Relvas, Newton G Castro, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho
Dopamine and glutamate are critical neurotransmitters involved in light-induced synaptic activity in the retina. In brain neurons, dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) and the cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase Src can, independently, modulate the behavior of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Here we studied the interplay between D1Rs, Src and NMDARs in retinal neurons. We reveal that dopamine-mediated D1R stimulation provoked NMDAR hypofunction in retinal neurons by attenuating NMDA-gated currents, by preventing NMDA-elicited calcium mobilization and by decreasing the phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit GluN2B...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097916/exploring-the-first-rimonabant-analog-opioid-peptide-hybrid-compound-as-bivalent-ligand-for-cb1-and-opioid-receptors
#2
Adriano Mollica, Sveva Pelliccia, Valeria Famiglini, Azzurra Stefanucci, Giorgia Macedonio, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti, Claudio Ferrante, Stefano Pieretti, Ettore Novellino, Sandor Benyhe, Ferenc Zador, Anna Erdei, Edina Szucs, Reza Samavati, Szalbolch Dvrorasko, Csaba Tomboly, Rino Ragno, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Romano Silvestri
Cannabinoid (CB) and opioid systems are both involved in analgesia, food intake, mood and behavior. Due to the co-localization of µ-opioid (MOR) and CB1 receptors in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and their ability to form heterodimers, bivalent ligands targeting to both these systems may be good candidates to investigate the existence of possible cross-talking or synergistic effects, also at sub-effective doses. In this work, we selected from a small series of new Rimonabant analogs one CB1R reverse agonist to be conjugated to the opioid fragment Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH2...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088559/increased-expression-of-carbon-monoxide-producing-enzymes-in-the-mpoa-after-sexual-experience-in-male-rats
#3
Christopher L Robison, Jenna A McHenry, Elaine M Hull
The hypothalamus contains numerous nuclei involved in the regulation of reproductive, stress, circadian, and homeostatic behaviors, with many of these nuclei concentrated within the preoptic and anterior regions. The gaseous neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), has already been shown to have an important regulatory role within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the anterior hypothalamus, where it facilitates sexual behaviors. However, little is known about the role of other gaseous neurotransmitters in this area...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078250/effects-of-mimosa-pudica-l-leaves-extract-on-anxiety-depression-and-memory
#4
Ganesh Patro, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Bijay Kumar Mohanty
OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP) leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) and social interaction (SI) tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open field tests (OFT)...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#5
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075410/is-toxoplasma-gondii-a-trigger-of-bipolar-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Claudia Del Grande, Luca Galli, Elisa Schiavi, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabrizio Bruschi
Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous intracellular parasite, has a strong tropism for the brain tissue, where it forms intracellular cysts within the neurons and glial cells, establishing a chronic infection. Although latent toxoplasmosis is generally assumed to be asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, it is now clear that it can induce behavioral manipulations in mice and infected humans. Moreover, a strong relation has emerged in recent years between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders. The link between T...
January 10, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069897/impact-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-gene-and-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-on-female-sexuality
#7
Anastasia K Armeni, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Dimitra J Marioli, Vasiliki Koika, Eftychia Michailidou, Niki Mourtzi, Gregoris Iconomou, Neoklis A Georgopoulos
Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20-25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28-35 days), were recruited in the study...
January 9, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069454/c1473g-polymorphism-in-mouse-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-in-the-regulation-of-the-reaction-to-emotional-stress
#8
Ekaterina Y Bazhenova, Daria V Bazovkina, Elizabeth A Kulikova, Dariya V Fursenko, Nikita V Khotskin, Daria V Lichman, Alexander V Kulikov
Neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the regulation of stress response. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the key enzyme of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene is the main factor defining the enzyme activity in the brain of laboratory mice. The effect of interaction between C1473G polymorphism and 30min restriction stress on the behavior in the open field test, c-Fos gene expression and 5-HT metabolism in the brain in adult male of B6-1473C and B6-1473G congenic mouse lines with high and low TPH2 activity was investigated...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061971/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-anxiety
#9
S F Lisboa, F V Gomes, A L B Terzian, D C Aguiar, F A Moreira, L B M Resstel, F S Guimarães
The medical properties of Cannabis sativa is known for centuries. Since the discovery and characterization of the endogenous cannabinoid system, several studies have evaluated how cannabinoid compounds and, particularly, how the modulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system influences a wide range of functions, from metabolic to mental disorders. Cannabinoids and eCB system often exert opposite effects on several functions, such as anxiety. Although the mechanisms are not completely understood, evidence points to different factors influencing those effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061967/stress-anxiety-and-immunomodulation-a-pharmacological-analysis
#10
A Ray, K Gulati, N Rai
Stress and stressful events are common occurrences in our daily lives and such aversive situations bring about complex changes in the biological system. Such stress responses influence the brain and behavior, neuroendocrine and immune systems, and these responses orchestrate to increase or decrease the ability of the organism to cope with such stressors. The brain via expression of complex behavioral paradigms controls peripheral responses to stress and a bidirectional link exists in the modulation of stress effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059131/dioscin-relieves-endotoxemia-induced-acute-neuro-inflammation-and-protect-neurogenesis-via-improving-5-ht-metabolism
#11
Rui Yang, Wei Chen, Ye Lu, Yingke Li, Hongli Du, Songyan Gao, Xin Dong, Hongbin Yuan
Sepsis, in addition to causing fatality, is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment among sepsis survivors. The pathologic mechanism of endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation still has not been fully understood. For the first time, we found the disruption of neurotransmitters 5-HT, impaired neurogenesis and activation of astrocytes coupled with concomitant neuro-inflammation were the potential pathogenesis of endotoxemia induced acute neuro-inflammation in sepsis survivors. In addition, dioscin a natural steroidal saponin isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs, enhanced the serotonergic system and produced anti-depressant effect by enhancing 5-HT levels in hippocampus...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055824/excitation-and-inhibition-in-anterior-cingulate-predict-use-of-past-experiences
#12
Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Charlotte J Stagg, Catherine J Harmer, Matthew Fs Rushworth
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) mediates updating and maintenance of cognitive models of the world used to drive adaptive reward-guided behavior. We investigated the neurochemical underpinnings of this process. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in humans, to measure levels of glutamate and GABA in dACC. We examined their relationship to neural signals in dACC, measured with fMRI, and cognitive task performance. Both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in dACC were predictive of the strength of neural signals in dACC and behavioral adaptation...
January 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054433/insertion-of-neurotransmitters-into-lipid-bilayer-membrane-and-its-implication-on-membrane-stability-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#13
Chun Shen, Minmin Xue, Hu Qiu, Wanlin Guo
The signaling molecules in neuron called neurotransmitters play an essential role in transportation of neural signal, during which the neurotransmitters interact with not only specific receptors but also cytomembranes such as synaptic vesicle membranes and postsynaptic membranes. Here we investigate by extensive molecular dynamics simulations the atomic-scale insertion dynamics of typical neurotransmitters, including methionine enkephalin (ME), leucine enkephalin (LE), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and aspartic acid (ASP), into lipid bilayers...
January 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049045/in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-the-developmental-neurotoxicity-of-an-environmental-polycylic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-mixture-compared-to-benzo-a-pyrene-neuronotypic-pc12-cells-and-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#14
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Jennifer Card, Richard T Di Giulio, Frederic J Seidler
In addition to their carcinogenic activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be developmental neurotoxicants. We evaluated the effects of PAHs with two in vitro models that assess distinct "decision nodes" in neurodifferentiation: neuronotypic PC12 cells, which characterize the transition from cell replication to neurodifferentiation, neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter specification; and embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), which evaluate the origination of neurons and glia from precursors...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040487/a-waterborne-chemical-cue-from-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta-prompts-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-conspecifics
#15
Jeremy Fulton, Christophe M R LeMoine, Carol Bucking, Kevin V Brix, Patrick J Walsh, M Danielle McDonald
The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031243/caenorhabditis-elegans-male-copulation-circuitry-incorporates-sex-shared-defecation-components-to-promote-intromission-and-sperm-transfer
#16
Brigitte LeBoeuf, L Rene Garcia
Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors require further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are co-opted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation...
December 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025742/loss-of-function-of-ptpr-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-observed-in-sporadic-schizophrenia-causes-brain-region-specific-deregulation-of-monoamine-levels-and-altered-behavior-in-mice
#17
Arnaud Cressant, Veronique Dubreuil, Jing Kong, Thorsten Manfred Kranz, Francoise Lazarini, Jean-Marie Launay, Jacques Callebert, Jan Sap, Dolores Malaspina, Sylvie Granon, Sheila Harroch
RATIONALE: The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRG has been genetically associated with psychiatric disorders and is a ligand for members of the contactin family, which are themselves linked to autism spectrum disorders. OBJECTIVE: Based on our finding of a phosphatase-null de novo mutation in PTPRG associated with a case of sporadic schizophrenia, we used PTPRG knockout (KO) mice to model the effect of a loss-of-function mutation. We compared the results with loss-of-function in its close paralogue PTPRZ, previously associated with schizophrenia...
December 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018234/deciphering-the-function-of-octopaminergic-signaling-on-wing-polyphenism-of-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#18
Xing-Xing Wang, Yi Zhang, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Hong-Gang Tian, Tong-Xian Liu
Aphids exhibit wing polyphenism (winged or wingless) for adaption to predictable or temporally heterogeneous environmental changes; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This morphological change could be stimulated by high aphid density, which in turn could affect octopaminergic signaling in aphids. Octopamine is a neurotransmitter synthesized in insects that can modify their physiological metabolism, locomotion, and other behaviors. We designed experiments to determine whether octopamine functions in wing formation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018163/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rodents-as-a-promising-model-for-the-study-of-adhd-molecular-basis
#19
REVIEW
Argelia E Rojas-Mayorquín, Edgar Padilla-Velarde, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the "Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders" (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#20
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
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