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Noninvasive brain stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647001/gastric-bypass-surgery-stimulates-the-dormant-gut-brain-axis-in-obesity
#1
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Paul J Kenny
To truly reduce the rates of chronic kidney disease, a root cause of kidney damage, obesity, must be targeted. Weight loss is often unsustainable because imbalances in satiety regulators are frequently not addressed to ensure maintenance of weight loss. In a recent study, gastric bypass surgery rebalanced satiety signals through resensitization of the gut-brain axis in obesity. This research may lead to noninvasive strategies to reduce obesity and obesity-related kidney disease.
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638327/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-and-personal-identity-ethical-considerations
#2
Jonathan Iwry, David B Yaden, Andrew B Newberg
As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive "enhancement...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637840/promoting-sleep-oscillations-and-their-functional-coupling-by-transcranial-stimulation-enhances-memory-consolidation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Julia Ladenbauer, Josef Ladenbauer, Nadine Külzow, Rebecca de Boor, Elena Avramova, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) not only involves loss of memory functions but also prominent deterioration of sleep physiology, already evident in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1 Hz) and thalamo-cortical spindle activity (12-15 Hz) during sleep, and their temporal coordination, are considered critical for memory formation. We investigated the potential of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS), applied during a daytime nap in a sleep state-dependent manner, to modulate these activity patterns and sleep-related memory consolidation in 9 male and 7 female human patients with MCI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632508/combined-dextroamphetamine-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-poststroke-aphasia
#4
Zafer Keser, Michelle Weber Dehgan, Shaparak Shadravan, Nuray Yozbatiran, Lynn M Maher, Gerard E Francisco
There is a growing need for various effective adjunctive treatment options for speech recovery after stroke. A pharmacological agent combined with noninvasive brain stimulation has not been previously reported for poststroke aphasia recovery. In this "proof of concept" study, we aimed to test the safety of a combined intervention consisting of dextroamphetamine, transcranial direct current stimulation, and speech and language therapy in subjects with nonfluent aphasia. Ten subjects with chronic nonfluent aphasia underwent two experiments where they received dextroamphetamine or placebo along with transcranial direct current stimulation and speech and language therapy on two separate days...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#5
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628538/memory-rehabilitation-strategies-in-nonsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review
#6
Alessandra Del Felice, Marzia Alderighi, Matteo Martinato, Davide Grisafi, Anna Bosco, Pamela J Thompson, Josemir W Sander, Stefano Masiero
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#7
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615985/treatment-of-movement-disorders-with-focused-ultrasound
#8
REVIEW
Paul S Fishman, Victor Frenkel
Although the use of ultrasound as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists or neurologists are familiar with this technology. Stereotactic brain lesioning had been widely used as a treatment for medically refractory patients with essential tremor (ET), Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia but has been largely replaced by deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, with advantages both in safety and efficacy. However, DBS is associated with complications including intracerebral hemorrhage, infection, and hardware malfunction...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607750/noninvasive-tongue-stimulation-combined-with-intensive-cognitive-and-physical-rehabilitation-induces-neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#9
Gabriel Leonard, Yves Lapierre, Jen-Kai Chen, Rima Wardini, Joelle Crane, Alain Ptito
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have central nervous system (CNS) lesions that may impede cognitive and sensorimotor function. Few rehabilitative therapies are available. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to study effects of noninvasive tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS™) combined with intensive cognitive and physical rehabilitation on working memory, gait, balance and concomitant changes in the brain...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605386/simultaneous-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Kathleen A Williams, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christiane Anne Weinrich, Peter Dechent, Melanie Wilke
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a promising tool for noninvasive investigation of brain oscillations. TACS employs frequency-specific stimulation of the human brain through current applied to the scalp with surface electrodes. Most current knowledge of the technique is based on behavioral studies; thus, combining the method with brain imaging holds potential to better understand the mechanisms of tACS. Because of electrical and susceptibility artifacts, combining tACS with brain imaging can be challenging, however, one brain imaging technique that is well suited to be applied simultaneously with tACS is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597028/-aphasia-a%C3%A2-neuronal-network-disorder
#11
REVIEW
A Stockert, D Saur
Language processing requires the coordinated interaction of local and distant neural populations within distributed networks of the temporal, frontal and parietal brain regions. Poststroke aphasia is the consequence of both local as well as remote dysfunction within language-specific and domain-general networks. Language recovery, in turn, rests on reorganization processes within these networks. These comprise the resolution of an acute network failure (i. e. diaschisis), the subacute activation of right hemisphere homologous regions and the gradual reintegration of left hemisphere remote and perilesional areas...
June 8, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583011/cognitive-training-and-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
Blake J Lawrence, Natalie Gasson, Romola S Bucks, Lakkhina Troeung, Andrea M Loftus
BACKGROUND: Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience cognitive decline. It is not known whether cognitive training or noninvasive brain stimulation are effective at alleviating cognitive deficits in PD. OBJECTIVE: To examine cognitive training and non-invasive brain stimulation interventions for cognition in PD. METHODS: An extensive search was conducted of published and unpublished studies in online databases. Studies were selected if they were controlled trials examining standard (not individualized) or tailored (individualized) cognitive training, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in PD, with outcomes measured by standardized neuropsychological tests...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575675/noninvasive-neuromodulation-goes-deep
#13
Jacek Dmochowski, Marom Bikson
Modulating deep regions of the brain with noninvasive technology has challenged researchers for decades. In a new study, Grossman et al. leverage the emergence of a slowly oscillating "beat" from intersecting high-frequency electric fields to stimulate deep brain regions, opening a frontier in the biophysics and technology of brain stimulation.
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575667/noninvasive-deep-brain-stimulation-via-temporally-interfering-electric-fields
#14
Nir Grossman, David Bono, Nina Dedic, Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Andrii Rudenko, Ho-Jun Suk, Antonino M Cassara, Esra Neufeld, Niels Kuster, Li-Huei Tsai, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Edward S Boyden
We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope...
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571401/a-novel-signal-acquisition-platform-of-human-cardiovascular-information-with-noninvasive-method
#15
Longcong Chen, Shaoxi Cai, Bo Li, Qifeng Jiang, Ming Ke, Yi Zhao, Sijia Chen, Misha Zou
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered the major cause of death worldwide, so more researchers pay more and more attention to the development of a non-invasive method to obtain as much cardiovascular information (CVI) as possible for early screening and diagnosing. It is known that considerable brain information could be probed by a variety of stimuli (such as video, light, and sound). Therefore, it is quite possible that much more CVI could be extracted via giving the human body some special interrelated stimulus...
May 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570549/non-invasive-assessment-of-changes-in-corticomotoneuronal-transmission-in-humans
#16
Wolfgang Taube, Christian Leukel, Jens Bo Nielsen, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
The corticospinal pathway is the major pathway connecting the brain with the muscles and is therefore highly relevant for movement control and motor learning. There exists a number of noninvasive electrophysiological methods investigating the excitability and plasticity of this pathway. However, most methods are based on quantification of compound potentials and neglect that the corticospinal pathway consists of many different connections that are more or less direct. Here, we present a method that allows testing excitability of different fractions of the corticospinal transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565833/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treating-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-a-pilot-study
#17
Xia Lu, Xinjie Bao, Jiantao Li, Guanghao Zhang, Jian Guan, Yunzhou Gao, Peilin Wu, Zhaohui Zhu, Xiaolin Huo, Renzhi Wang
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method of noninvasive brain stimulation that causes neuromodulation by activating neurons or changing excitability in a certain brain area. Considering the known effects of TMS and the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), TMS was proposed to have potential for treating this condition. Moderate TBI was induced in adult male Sprague Dawley rats using Feeney's weight-dropping method. Injured rats were divided into a TMS group and a control group. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) was administered to rats in the TMS group from post-TBI day 2...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550499/systematic-review-of-fmri-compatible-devices-design-and-testing-criteria
#18
REVIEW
V Hartwig, N Carbonaro, A Tognetti, N Vanello
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is at present one of the most used methodologies for functional brain exploration, both in clinical and research settings. fMRI can noninvasively measure neural activity by using specific experimental paradigms. Often, these paradigms require the stimulation of the subject to perform sensorimotor tasks: in the past, the stimuli have been administered manually for investigating fundamental aspects of tactile perception and somatosensory processing. Nowadays, the use of mechatronic devices to stimulate the subject during fMRI studies is growing, also to assure reproducibility, control, and monitoring of task performances...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#19
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539894/modulation-of-brain-activity-with-noninvasive-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-clinical-applications-and-safety-concerns
#20
REVIEW
Haichao Zhao, Lei Qiao, Dongqiong Fan, Shuyue Zhang, Ofir Turel, Yonghui Li, Jun Li, Gui Xue, Antao Chen, Qinghua He
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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