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Noninvasive brain stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331054/artist-a-fully-automated-artifact-rejection-algorithm-for-single-pulse-tms-eeg-data
#1
Wei Wu, Corey J Keller, Nigel C Rogasch, Parker Longwell, Emmanuel Shpigel, Camarin E Rolle, Amit Etkin
Concurrent single-pulse TMS-EEG (spTMS-EEG) is an emerging noninvasive tool for probing causal brain dynamics in humans. However, in addition to the common artifacts in standard EEG data, spTMS-EEG data suffer from enormous stimulation-induced artifacts, posing significant challenges to the extraction of neural information. Typically, neural signals are analyzed after a manual time-intensive and often subjective process of artifact rejection. Here we describe a fully automated algorithm for spTMS-EEG artifact rejection...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318972/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reverses-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-dysfunction-in-gamma-oscillation-during-working-memory
#2
Wenwen Bai, Tiaotiao Liu, Mengmeng Dou, Mi Xia, Jun Lu, Xin Tian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that gradually induces cognitive deficits in the elderly and working memory impairment is typically observed in AD. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative factor for the cognitive impairments in AD. Gamma oscillations have been recognized to play important roles in various cognitive functions including working memory. Previous study reported that Aβ induces gamma oscillation dysfunction in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a technique for noninvasive stimulation to induce cortical activity and excitability changes and has been accepted for increasing brain excitability and regulating cognitive behavior...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315817/dynamic-measurement-of-oxygen-extraction-fraction-using-a-multiecho-asymmetric-spin-echo-mase-pulse-sequence
#3
Yayan Yin, Yaoyu Zhang, Jia-Hong Gao
PURPOSE: The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), an important parameter for assessing brain oxygen metabolism, is a key marker of brain health. Dynamic measurement of the OEF is currently limited by the long acquisition time. In this study, a noninvasive method for rapidly and effectively assessing dynamic changes in the OEF during brain stimulation is proposed. METHODS: A novel pulse sequence using the multi-echo asymmetric spin echo with an echo-planar imaging acquisition scheme was developed to improve the temporal resolution of functional OEF measurements...
January 8, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297265/short-term-effects-of-binaural-beats-on-eeg-power-functional-connectivity-cognition-gait-and-anxiety-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Gerardo Gálvez, Manuel Recuero, Leonides Canuet, Francisco Del-Pozo
We applied rhythmic binaural sound to Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients to investigate its influence on several symptoms of this disease and on Electrophysiology (Electrocardiography and Electroencephalography (EEG)). We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled study in which rhythmic binaural beats and control were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). Patients ([Formula: see text], age [Formula: see text], stage I-III Hoehn & Yahr scale) participated in two sessions of sound stimulation for 10[Formula: see text]min separated by a minimum of 7 days...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286434/mri-guided-focused-ultrasound-thalamotomy-for-patients-with-medically-refractory-essential-tremor
#5
Ying Meng, Yuexi Huang, Benjamin Solomon, Kullervo Hynynen, Nadia Scantlebury, Michael L Schwartz, Nir Lipsman
Essential tremor (ET) is the most common type of tremor in adults. While ET does not result in decreased life expectancy, the disabilities associated with ET can have a significant impact on quality of life, mood, functional activities, and socialization. Patients suffering from ET not sufficiently treated with first line medications may be eligible for alternative strategies such as deep brain stimulation, radiofrequency ablation, and MRI guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). High-intensity MRgFUS is an emerging modality to treat ET, its attraction for patients being that it is noninvasive and associated with short recovery time, as patients are home the day after treatment...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284598/noninvasive-assessment-of-intracranial-pressure-status-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-using-displacement-encoding-with-stimulated-echoes-dense-mri-a-prospective-patient-study-with-contemporaneous-csf-pressure-correlation
#6
A M Saindane, D Qiu, J N Oshinski, N J Newman, V Biousse, B B Bruce, J F Holbrook, B M Dale, X Zhong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial pressure is estimated invasively by using lumbar puncture with CSF opening pressure measurement. This study evaluated displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), an MR imaging technique highly sensitive to brain motion, as a noninvasive means of assessing intracranial pressure status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with suspected elevated intracranial pressure and 9 healthy control subjects were included in this prospective study...
December 28, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283026/restoring-motor-functions-after-stroke-multiple-approaches-and-opportunities
#7
Estelle Raffin, Friedhelm C Hummel
More than 1.5 million people suffer a stroke in Europe per year and more than 70% of stroke survivors experience limited functional recovery of their upper limb, resulting in diminished quality of life. Therefore, interventions to address upper-limb impairment are a priority for stroke survivors and clinicians. While a significant body of evidence supports the use of conventional treatments, such as intensive motor training or constraint-induced movement therapy, the limited and heterogeneous improvements they allow are, for most patients, usually not sufficient to return to full autonomy...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276137/ketamine-inhibits-ultrasound-stimulation-induced-neuromodulation-by-blocking-cortical-neuron-activity
#8
Sungmin Han, Minkyung Kim, Hyungmin Kim, Hyunjoon Shin, Inchan Youn
Ultrasound (US) can be used to noninvasively stimulate brain activity. However, reproducible motor responses evoked by US are only elicited when the animal is in a light state of anesthesia. The present study investigated the effects of ketamine on US-induced motor responses and cortical neuronal activity. US was applied to the motor cortex of mice, and motor responses were evaluated based on robustness scores. Cortical neuronal activity was observed by fluorescence calcium imaging. US-induced motor responses were inhibited more than 20 min after ketamine injection, and US-triggered Ca2+ transients in cortical neurons were effectively blocked by ketamine...
December 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238390/modulatory-effect-of-association-of-brain-stimulation-by-light-and-binaural-beats-in-specific-brain-waves
#9
Mauricio Rocha Calomeni, Vernon Furtado da Silva, Bruna Brandão Velasques, Olavo Guimarães Feijó, Juliana Marques Bittencourt, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E Silva
Introduction: One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. Subjects: The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226175/longitudinal-transcranial-measurement-of-functional-activation-in-the-rat-brain-by-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#11
Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Tanja Dragojević, Clara Castellvi, Turgut Durduran, Carles Justicia
Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208533/assessing-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-cbi-via-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Lara Fernandez, Brendan P Major, Wei-Peng Teo, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
The inhibitory tone that the cerebellum exerts on the primary motor cortex (M1) is known as cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI). Studies show CBI to be relevant to several motor functions, including adaptive motor learning and muscle control. CBI can be assessed noninvasively via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using a double-coil protocol. Variability in parameter choice and controversy surrounding the protocol's ability to isolate the cerebellothalamocortical pathway casts doubt over its validity in neuroscience research...
December 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181526/cortical-structures-associated-with-human-blood-pressure-control
#13
Nuria Lacuey, Johnson P Hampson, Wanchat Theeranaew, Bilal Zonjy, Ajay Vithala, Norma J Hupp, Kenneth A Loparo, Jonathan P Miller, Samden D Lhatoo
Importance: A better understanding of the role of cortical structures in blood pressure control may help us understand cardiovascular collapse that may lead to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Objective: To identify cortical control sites for human blood pressure regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode implantation as a prelude to epilepsy surgery in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center were potential candidates for this study...
November 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155756/transcranial-electrical-brain-stimulation-in-alert-rodents
#14
Brita Fritsch, Anne-Kathrin Gellner, Janine Reis
Transcranial electrical brain stimulation can modulate cortical excitability and plasticity in humans and rodents. The most common form of stimulation in humans is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Less frequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) or transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a specific form of tACS using an electrical current applied randomly within a pre-defined frequency range, is used. The increase of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation research in humans, both for experimental and clinical purposes, has yielded an increased need for basic, mechanistic, safety studies in animals...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147586/corticospinal-plasticity-in-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-to-the-dominant-hemisphere-does-not-differ-between-young-and-older-adults
#15
Daina S E Dickins, Marc R Kamke, Martin V Sale
Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145166/revisiting-interhemispheric-imbalance-in-chronic-stroke-a-tdcs-study
#16
Alana B McCambridge, James W Stinear, Winston D Byblow
OBJECTIVE: Chronic stroke patients with moderate-severe motor impairment may have an increased reliance on contralesional vs ipsilesional motor areas to control the paretic arm. We hypothesised that increasing contralesional excitability with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would benefit motor performance in patients with moderate-severe impairment. METHODS: Ten patients with motor impairment at the chronic stage after stroke received a-tDCS, cathodal (c-tDCS) and sham with the target electrode over contralesional motor cortex (M1)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128578/electrical-brain-stimulation-tes-improves-learning-more-than-performance-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Bianca A Simonsmeier, Roland H Grabner, Julia Hein, Ugne Krenz, Michael Schneider
Researchers have recently started evaluating whether stimulating the brain noninvasively with a weak and painless electrical current (transcranial Electrical Stimulation, tES) enhances physiological and cognitive processes. Some studies found that tES has weak but positive effects on brain physiology, cognition, or assessment performance, which have attracted massive public interest. We present the first meta-analytic test of the hypothesis that tES in a learning phase is more effective than tES in an assessment phase...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#18
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124106/gamma-rhythm-low-field-magnetic-stimulation-alleviates-neuropathologic-changes-and-rescues-memory-and-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Xiechuan Weng, Wenting Su, Jianliang Zhang, Lihui Cai, Lin Dong, Haiting An, Ruijun Su, Jiang Wang, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Introduction: The abnormal amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and Aβ-related neural network dysfunction are considered central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the early stage. Deep-brain reachable low field magnetic stimulation (DMS), a novel noninvasive approach that was designed to intervene the network activity in brains, has been found to alleviate stress-related cognitive impairments. Methods: Amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice (5XFAD) were treated with DMS, and cognitive behavior and AD-like pathologic changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological properties in 5XFAD mice were assessed...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079397/on-the-blindness-of-blindsight-what-is-the-evidence-for-phenomenal-awareness-in-the-absence-of-primary-visual-cortex-v1
#20
Chiara Mazzi, Silvia Savazzi, Juha Silvanto
Blindsight has been central to theories of phenomenal awareness; that a lesion to primary visual cortex (V1) abolishes all phenomenal awareness while unconscious visual functions can remain has led to the view that this region plays a crucial role in generating visual consciousness. However, since the early 20th century, there have been reports, many of which controversial, of phenomenal awareness in patients with V1 lesions. These reports include selective sparing of motion awareness, hemianopic completion and visual aftereffects...
October 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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