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Noninvasive brain stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#1
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#2
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895475/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-the-qt-variability-index-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-in-healthy-subjects-older-than-60-years
#3
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Cristina Ottaviani, Claudia Fiorucci, Nicola Petrocchi, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Matteo Pascucci, Damiano Magrì
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive brain stimulation technique is an interesting tool to investigate the causal relation between cortical functioning and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporal cortex influences short-period temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion and cardiovascular ANS control in elderly subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 50 healthy subjects (29 subjects younger than 60 years and 21 subjects older than 60 years) matched for gender, short-period RR and systolic blood pressure spectral variability, QT variability index (QTVI), and noninvasive hemodynamic data were obtained during anodal tDCS or sham stimulation...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875942/a-combined-study-of-meg-and-pico-tesla-tms-on-children-with-autism-disorder
#4
Photios Anninos, Athanasios Chatzimichael, Adam Adamopoulos, Athanasia Kotini, Nicolaos Tsagas
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from the brain of 10 children with autism (6 boys and 4 girls, with ages range from 5-12 years, mean[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]SD: 8.3[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]2.1) were obtained using a whole-head 122-channel MEG system in a magnetically shielded room of low magnetic noise. A double-blind experimental design was used in order to look for possible effect of external pico-Tesla Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pT-TMS)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869996/efficacy-of-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-on-pain-control-in-migraine-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Lívia Shirahige, Lorena Melo, Fernanda Nogueira, Sérgio Rocha, Kátia Monte-Silva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) on pain control in migraine patients. BACKGROUND: Recent studies have used NIBS as an abortive and prophylactic treatment for migraine; however, its efficacy regarding meaningful clinical effects remains to be critically analyzed. DESIGN: Systematic review of controlled clinical trials. METHODS: Searches were conducted in six databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS (via BIREME), CINAHL (via EBSCO), Scopus (via EBSCO), Web of Science, and CENTRAL...
November 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865707/a-comprehensive-database-of-published-tdcs-clinical-trials-2005-2016
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders...
December 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857687/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-at-beta-frequency-lack-of-immediate-effects-on-excitation-and-interhemispheric-inhibition-of-the-human-motor-cortex
#7
Viola Rjosk, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Christopher Gundlach, Arno Villringer, Bernhard Sehm, Patrick Ragert
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation and is capable of influencing brain oscillations and cortical networks. In humans, the endogenous oscillation frequency in sensorimotor areas peaks at 20 Hz. This beta-band typically occurs during maintenance of tonic motor output and seems to play a role in interhemispheric coordination of movements. Previous studies showed that tACS applied in specific frequency bands over primary motor cortex (M1) or the visual cortex modulates cortical excitability within the stimulated hemisphere...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830094/adaptive-plasticity-in-the-healthy-language-network-implications-for-language-recovery-after-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Gesa Hartwigsen
Across the last three decades, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has substantially increased the current knowledge of the brain's potential to undergo rapid short-term reorganization on the systems level. A large number of studies applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the healthy brain to probe the functional relevance and interaction of specific areas for different cognitive processes. NIBS is also increasingly being used to induce adaptive plasticity in motor and cognitive networks and shape cognitive functions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804033/using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-to-understand-cognitive-processing
#9
REVIEW
Robert M G Reinhart, Josh D Cosman, Keisuke Fukuda, Geoffrey F Woodman
Noninvasive brain stimulation methods are becoming increasingly common tools in the kit of the cognitive scientist. In particular, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is showing great promise as a tool to causally manipulate the brain and understand how information is processed. The popularity of this method of brain stimulation is based on the fact that it is safe, inexpensive, its effects are long lasting, and you can increase the likelihood that neurons will fire near one electrode and decrease the likelihood that neurons will fire near another...
November 1, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786169/therapeutic-potential-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-for-rett-syndrome
#10
Shih-Jen Tsai
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder occurring almost exclusively in females and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in the majority of cases. MeCP2 is essential for the normal function of nerve cells, including neuronal development, maturation, and synaptic activity. RTT is characterized by normal early development followed by autistic-like features, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, breathing irregularities, and cognitive disabilities...
October 27, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780032/plasticity-dependent-full-detonation-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-ca3-pyramidal-neuron-synapses
#11
Nicholas P Vyleta, Carolina Borges-Merjane, Peter Jonas
Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices...
October 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765610/neural-signature-of-tdcs-tpcs-and-their-combination-comparing-the-effects-on-neural-plasticity
#12
Thibaut Aurore, Russo Cristina, Morales-Quezada Leon, Hurtado-Puerto Aura, Deitos Alícia, Steven Freedman, Carvalho Sandra, Fregni Felipe
Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations...
October 17, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754798/motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#13
Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Nelci Zanon, Manuela Galli, Felipe Fregni, Claudia Santos Oliveira
A review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions: Does motor cortex excitability correlate with motor function? Do motor cortex excitability and cortex activation change after a rehabilitation program that results in improvements in motor outcomes? Can the 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) system be used to locate the primary motor cortex when employing transcranial direct current stimulation? Is there a bihemispheric imbalance in individuals with cerebral palsy similar to what is observed in stroke survivors? the authors found there is an adaptation in the geometry of motor areas and the cortical representation of movement is variable following a brain lesion...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742234/brain-connectivity-and-auditory-hallucinations-in-search-of-novel-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-therapeutic-approaches-for-schizophrenia
#14
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
October 11, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736129/noninvasive-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-the-inhibition-of-motivated-responding
#15
Nicholas J Kelley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Self-control involves the inhibition of dominant response tendencies. Most research on self-control has examined the inhibition of appetitive tendencies, and recent evidence suggests that stimulation to increase right frontal cortical activity helps to inhibit approach-motivated responses. The current experiment paired an approach-avoidance joystick task with transcranial DC stimulation to test the effects of brain stimulation on the inhibition of both approach and avoidance response tendencies. Anodal stimulation over the right/cathodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (compared to the opposite pattern of stimulation or sham stimulation) caused participants to initiate motive-incongruent movements more quickly, thereby suggesting a shared neural mechanism for the self-control of both approach- and avoidance-motivated impulses...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734238/current-opinions-and-areas-of-consensus-on-the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-dystonia
#16
Vikram G Shakkottai, Amit Batla, Kailash Bhatia, William T Dauer, Christian Dresel, Martin Niethammer, David Eidelberg, Robert S Raike, Yoland Smith, H A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Sabine Meunier, Mark Hallett, Rachel Fremont, Kamran Khodakhah, Mark S LeDoux, Traian Popa, Cécile Gallea, Stéphane Lehericy, Andreea C Bostan, Peter L Strick
A role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed: The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia...
October 12, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716442/treatment-of-unilateral-spatial-neglect-after-stroke-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-eletron-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Gustavo José Luvizutto, Gabriela Rizzo Soares Rizzati, Marcelo Ortolani Fogaroli, Rodrigo Thomazi Rodrigues, Priscila Watson Ribeiro, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rafael Dalle Molle da Costa, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Adriana Bastos Conforto, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is characterized by the inability to report or respond to people or objects that are presented in the spatial hemisphere that is contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere of the brain. USN has been associated with poor functional outcomes and long stays in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Noninvasive brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has been used in people who have been affected by USN after stroke...
October 3, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707769/distinct-corticocortical-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#18
Paolo Federico, Monica A Perez
The corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip. The extent to which different sets of cortical interneuronal circuits during these distinct grasping behaviors remains unknown. To examine this question in humans we used noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand representation of the primary motor cortex to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in an intrinsic finger muscle during index finger abduction (control task), precision grip, and power grip...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697295/information-based-approaches-of-noninvasive-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#19
Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Juha Silvanto
Progress in cognitive neuroscience relies on methodological developments to increase the specificity of knowledge obtained regarding brain function. For example, in functional neuroimaging the current trend is to study the type of information carried by brain regions rather than simply compare activation levels induced by task manipulations. In this context noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) in the study of cognitive functions may appear coarse and old fashioned in its conventional uses. However, in their multitude of parameters, and by coupling them with behavioral manipulations, NTBS protocols can reach the specificity of imaging techniques...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697061/therapeutic-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Irene Gonsalvez, Roey Baror, Peter Fried, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming public health crisis that currently lacks an effective treatment. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NBS), particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), offers a promising alternative approach to pharmacological interventions for an increasing number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is summarize data from therapeutic trials of NBS in AD and other dementing illnesses. Despite the potential of NBS, there is limited theoretical framework and a lack of guidelines for its applications to AD...
September 30, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
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