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Kyle J Emich
Three studies find evidence that positive affect reduces comparative overconfidence (overplacement). This occurs because positive affect attenuates focalism via decreasing people's tendency to overweight information regarding themselves in the light of information concerning others. Specifically, Study 1 provides evidence that positive affect leads to more realistic estimates of comparative ability and that other-focus partially mediates this effect. Then, Study 2 provides causal evidence that positive affect independently influences other-focus and that other-focus, in turn, influences overplacement...
2014: Cognition & Emotion
Don A Moore, Paul J Healy
The authors present a reconciliation of 3 distinct ways in which the research literature has defined overconfidence: (a) overestimation of one's actual performance, (b) overplacement of one's performance relative to others, and (c) excessive precision in one's beliefs. Experimental evidence shows that reversals of the first 2 (apparent underconfidence), when they occur, tend to be on different types of tasks. On difficult tasks, people overestimate their actual performances but also mistakenly believe that they are worse than others; on easy tasks, people underestimate their actual performances but mistakenly believe they are better than others...
April 2008: Psychological Review
T R Willemain, M E Farber
The theory of certification-of-need is based in large part on the Roemer-Feldstein hypothesis, which holds that demand for services is proportional to bed supply. Athough developed solely from hospital data, this hypothesis is commonly assumed to hold for nursing homes as well. In fact, a high correlation between nursing home bed supply and bed utilization does exist. However, the rate of utilization should not be judged without reference to the appropriateness of use. Analysis of nursing home placement data revealed that overplacement of patients in skilled nursing facilities decreased as bed supply increased...
October 1976: Medical Care
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