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Systemic arterial hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029203/prognostic-significance-of-computed-tomography-criteria-for-pulmonary-veno-occlusive-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#1
Michelle J Connolly, Sharif Abdullah, Deborah A Ridout, Benjamin E Schreiber, Jamanda A Haddock, J Gerry Coghlan
Objectives: SSc-pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is associated with worse response to therapy and survival when compared with idiopathic PAH. It is suggested that the vasculopathy in SSc may involve postcapillary pulmonary venules resulting in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). This may underlie the lower gas transfer and worse outcome on therapy. We sought to test whether CT signs of PVOD (CTS-PVOD) were frequent in SSc-PAH and whether they were associated with pulmonary oedema on therapy and worse survival...
September 26, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025749/late-onset-postcapillary-pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-and-mustard-or-senning-baffles
#2
Marie-A Chaix, Annie Dore, Lise-Andrée Mercier, François-Pierre Mongeon, François Marcotte, Réda Ibrahim, Anita W Asgar, Azadeh Shohoudi, Fabien Labombarda, Blandine Mondésert, Nancy Poirier, Paul Khairy
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding late-onset pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with transposition of the great arteries and atrial switch surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 140 adults with transposition of the great arteries and atrial switch surgery, age 37.3±7.8, 37.1% female, in order to assess the prevalence and characteristics of late-onset PH and explore associated factors. Patients were followed for a median of 32...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025323/cardiovascular-autonomic-responses-in-the-vcd-rat-model-of-menopause-effects-of-short-and-long-term-ovarian-failure
#3
Domitila A Huber, Darlan Bazilio, Flaviano Lorenzon, Sibele Sehnem, Lucas Pacheco, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernanda B Lima
After menopause, hypertension elevates the risk of cardiac diseases, one of the major causes of women's morbidity. The gradual depletion of ovarian follicles in rats, induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), is a model for studying the physiology of menopause. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide treatment leads to early ovarian failure (OF) and a hormonal profile comparable to menopause in humans. We have hypothesized that OF can compromise the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tones of the cardiovascular system, shifting toward dominance of the former...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023250/biomechanical-determinants-of-right-ventricular-failure-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
Francesco Scardulla, Diego Bellavia, Patrizio Vitulo, Giuseppe Romano, Chiara Mina, Giovanni Gentile, Francesco Clemenza, Salvatore Pasta
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease characterized by progressive adverse remodeling of the distal pulmonary arteries, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and load pressure on the right ventricle (RV), ultimately leading to RV failure. Invasive hemodynamic testing is the gold standard for diagnosing PH, and guiding patient therapy. We hypothesized that lumped-parameter and biventricular finite-element (FE) modeling may lead to noninvasive predictions of both PH-related hemodynamic and biomechanical parameters that induce PH...
October 11, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022570/arterial-stiffness-as-a-risk-factor-for-clinical-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Michel E Safar
In patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension, cardiac output remains within normal ranges and intravascular volume is normal or low, assuming the presence of a sufficient Windkessel effect and usual resistance and compliance calculations. However, mean circulatory pressure is elevated in these patients. In addition, vascular resistance is augmented, and most importantly, the viscoelasticity of the cardiovascular system is substantially impaired. Such considerations are essential to understanding the mechanisms behind carotid-femoral arterial stiffness, a major risk factor in individuals with hypertension...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019745/imaging-of-nonmalignant-adrenal-lesions-in-children
#6
Kiran M Sargar, Geetika Khanna, Rebecca Hulett Bowling
The adrenal glands in children can be affected by a variety of benign lesions. The diagnosis of adrenal lesions can be challenging, but assessment of morphologic changes in correlation with the clinical presentation can lead to an accurate diagnosis. These lesions can be classified by their cause: congenital (eg, discoid adrenal gland, horseshoe adrenal gland, and epithelial cysts), vascular and/or traumatic (eg, adrenal hemorrhage), infectious (eg, granulomatous diseases), enzyme deficiency disorders (eg, congenital adrenal hyperplasia [CAH] and Wolman disease), benign neoplasms (eg, pheochromocytomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal adenomas, and myelolipomas), and adrenal mass mimics (eg, extralobar sequestration and extramedullary hematopoiesis)...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994364/comparison-of-the-therapeutic-effects-and-side-effects-of-tadalafil-and-sildenafil-after-surgery-in-young-infants-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-due-to-systemic-to-pulmonary-shunts
#7
Mohammad Reza Sabri, Hamid Bigdelian, Mohsen Hosseinzadeh, Alireza Ahmadi, Mehdi Ghaderian, Mohammad Shoja
Young children with CHD and large systemic-to-pulmonary shunts eventually develop pulmonary hypertension. At present, phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil have been used to control pulmonary pressure before and after cardiac surgery. Recently, tadalafil has been utilised in older children with similar efficacy, but it has been used to a lesser extent in young infants. From April, 2015 to June, 2016, 42 patients aged 3-24 months with a large septal defect and pulmonary arterial hypertension were randomly divided into two equal groups: one group received oral sildenafil (1-3 mg/kg/day every 8 hours), whereas the other group received oral tadalafil (1 mg/kg once a day) from 7-10 days before surgery to 3-4 weeks after surgery...
November 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993547/development-of-novel-therapies-for-cardiovascular-diseases-by-clinical-application-of-basic-research
#8
Kimio Satoh
Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, activated platelets, and cardiac fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress. Excessive and continuous activation of the RhoA/Rho-kinase system promotes the secretion of CyPA, resulting in the development of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Basigin (Bsg), a transmembrane glycoprotein that activates matrix metalloproteinases, is an extracellular receptor for CyPA that promotes cell proliferation and inflammation. Thus, the CyPA/Bsg system is potentially a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases...
October 6, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992382/arterial-inflammation-detected-with-18-f-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Laura Geraldino-Pardilla, Afshin Zartoshti, Ayse Bag Ozbek, Jon T Giles, Richard Weinberg, Mona Kinkhabwala, Sabahat Bokhari, Joan M Bathon
OBJECTIVES: In addition to traditional risk factors, excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is attributed to enhanced vascular and/or systemic inflammation. In several small studies using (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to directly assess vascular inflammation, FDG uptake was higher in RA patients than controls. Using a substantially larger RA sample, we sought to identify RA-disease characteristics independently associated with vascular FDG uptake...
October 9, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992168/pulmonary-hypertension-related-to-systemic-sclerosis-points-to-consider-for-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Marc Humbert, Manjit Singh, Daniel E Furst, Dinesh Khanna, James R Seibold
There are proven successful approaches to clinical trial design in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which in turn have led to the licensing of a number of effective therapies. SSc has been included in trials of World Health Organization Group 1 PAH but has been under-represented. Responses in outcomes as diverse as exercise capacity, quality of life, durability of drug effect and survival have been reduced in comparison with those seen in idiopathic PAH. The PAH community has achieved international and interdisciplinary consensus guidelines for future studies...
September 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990827/ural-eye-and-medical-study-description-of-study-design-and-methodology
#11
Mukharram Bikbov, Rinat R Fayzrakhmanov, Gyulli Kazakbaeva, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: Since there is a scarcity on population-based health information available for Russia, we conducted this project to assess the prevalence of major ocular and systemic disorders and their associated risk factors. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study (Ural Eye and Medical Study (UEMS)) was performed in Bashkortostan 1300 km east of Moscow. The sampling frame consisted of all inhabitants aged over 40 years and living in an urban study area in the capital city Ufa and a rural region at 65 km outside of Ufa...
October 9, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990524/statins-and-inflammation-in-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Gerasimos Siasos, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Alexandros Briasoulis, Emmanuel Androulakis, George Latsios, Spyridon Papaioannou, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and immune system activation underlie a variety of seemingly unrelated cardiac conditions including not only atherosclerosis and the subsequent coronary artery disease but also peripheral artery disease, hypertension with target organ damage and heart failure. The beneficial effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins are mainly attributed to their ability to inhibit hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. Beyond their lipid lowering activity, ample evidence exists in support of their potent anti-inflammatory properties which initiate from the inhibition of GTPase isoprenylation, activating a cataract of secondary pathways and extend to the inhibition and blocking of immune cell activation and interaction...
October 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990006/distal-pancreatectomy-for-pancreatic-arteriovenous-malformation-report-of-a-case
#13
Young Il Choi
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is an uncommon disease, which can cause an abdominal pain. This disease is characterized by a tangled vascular network, including the whole or part of the pancreas, resulting in portal hypertension by forming a shunt of the pancreas arteries to drain directly into the portal venous system. This study presents a case that was suspected as AVM of the pancreas by preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (CT). A 49-year-old male patient had several episodes of abdominal discomfort associated with dyspepsia for 4 days...
August 2017: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989072/pentoxifylline-treatment-enhances-antihypertensive-activity-of-captopril-through-hemorheological-improvement-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-during-development-of-arterial-hypertension
#14
Mark B Plotnikov, Alexander Y Shamanaev, Oleg I Aliev, Anastasia V Sidekhmenova, Anna M Anishchenko, Alexander M Arkhipov
The rheological properties of blood play a significant role in the onset and progression of arterial hypertension. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (20 mg/kg/d), pentoxifylline (PTX; 100 mg/kg/d), and the combination of captopril + PTX (20 + 100 mg/kg/d) on the hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) during the development of arterial hypertension. In the group of animals that received captopril, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly lower by 30% due to a decrease in cardiac output of 23% and in total peripheral resistance (TPR) of 26% compared with the control group, whereas blood viscosity did not change significantly...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989071/air-pollution-and-arterial-hypertension-a-new-risk-factor-is-in-the-air
#15
REVIEW
Elias Sanidas, Dimitris P Papadopoulos, Harris Grassos, Maria Velliou, Kostas Tsioufis, John Barbetseas, Vasilios Papademetriou
Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental threats and has been implicated for several adverse cardiovascular effects including arterial hypertension (HTN). However, the exact relationship between air pollution exposure and HTN is still unclear. Air contamination provokes oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and autonomic nervous system imbalance that subsequently induce endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction leading to increased blood pressure. The aim of this review was to describe the potential mechanisms by which air pollution contributes to HTN and to summarize the consequences of short- and long-term exposure...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988687/orantinib-versus-placebo-combined-with-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolisation-in-patients-with-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-oriental-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicentre-phase-3-study
#16
Masatoshi Kudo, Ann-Lii Cheng, Joong-Won Park, Jae Hyung Park, Po-Chin Liang, Hisashi Hidaka, Namiki Izumi, Jeong Heo, Youn Jae Lee, I-Shyan Sheen, Chang-Fang Chiu, Hitoshi Arioka, Satoshi Morita, Yasuaki Arai
BACKGROUND: Orantinib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of orantinib combined with conventional transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (cTACE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study was done at 75 sites in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, no extra-hepatic tumour spread, and Child-Pugh score of 6 or less were randomly assigned (1:1) by interactive web response system using a computer-generated sequence to receive orantinib or placebo, within 28 days of cTACE...
October 4, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988575/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#17
Mariann R Piano
Alcohol use has complex effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Low-to-moderate alcohol use may mitigate certain mechanisms such as risk and hemostatic factors affecting atherosclerosis and inflammation, pathophysiologic processes integral to most CV disease...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985244/menthol-induced-cutaneous-vasodilation-is-preserved-in-essential-hypertensive-men-and-women
#18
Daniel H Craighead, Lacy M Alexander
BACKGROUND: Menthol is a selective transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel agonist that induces cutaneous vasodilation in young, normotensive men and women through nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-, and sensory nerve-mediated mechanisms. Microvascular dysfunction is present in essential hypertension and whether menthol induces vasodilation is men and women with essential hypertension is equivocal. METHODS: Four intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm of 9 essential hypertensive and 10 age-matched normotensive control subjects...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980052/right-ventricular-tissue-doppler-myocardial-performance-index-in-children-with-pulmonary-hypertension-relation-to-invasive-hemodynamics
#19
Richard M Friesen, Michal Schäfer, Dale A Burkett, Courtney J Cassidy, D Dunbar Ivy, Pei-Ni Jone
Right ventricular (RV) failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Myocardial performance index measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI-MPI) has been useful in assessing RV dysfunction in adults with PH. However, TDI-MPI as a marker for RV dysfunction or disease severity has not been evaluated in pediatric PH. The aim of this study was to investigate TDI-MPI and correlate with invasive hemodynamics in pediatric PH patients. Eighty pediatric PH patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed...
October 4, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979751/correlation-of-echocardiographic-findings-of-pulmonary-hypertension-with-six-minute-walk-test-and-plasma-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-level-in-systemic-lupus-erythematous
#20
Leila Ghofraniha, Zahra Mirfeizi, Fatemeh Seyyedi Khabbaz, Farveh Vakilian, Saeed Eslami
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an increasingly recognized complication of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), which may remain undiagnosed if asymptomatic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the correlation between echocardiographic findings of PAH and six-minute walk test (6WMT) and serum pro b-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) level in patients with SLE. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 50 SLE patients selected from patients referring to the outpatient's department of the Rheumatology Clinic at Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, from July 2013 through September 2014, using resting transthoracic echocardiography to estimate systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP)...
August 2017: Electronic Physician
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