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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941089/improving-outcomes-of-first-episode-psychosis-an-overview
#1
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Patrick D McGorry, John M Kane
Outcomes of psychotic disorders are associated with high personal, familiar, societal and clinical burden. There is thus an urgent clinical and societal need for improving those outcomes. Recent advances in research knowledge have opened new opportunities for ameliorating outcomes of psychosis during its early clinical stages. This paper critically reviews these opportunities, summarizing the state-of-the-art knowledge and focusing on recent discoveries and future avenues for first episode research and clinical interventions...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940386/customizable-de-novo-design-strategies-for-dock-application-to-hivgp41-and-other-therapeutic-targets
#2
William J Allen, Brian C Fochtman, Trent E Balius, Robert C Rizzo
De novo design can be used to explore vast areas of chemical space in computational lead discovery. As a complement to virtual screening, from-scratch construction of molecules is not limited to compounds in pre-existing vendor catalogs. Here, we present an iterative fragment growth method, integrated into the program DOCK, in which new molecules are built using rules for allowable connections based on known molecules. The method leverages DOCK's advanced scoring and pruning approaches and users can define very specific criteria in terms of properties or features to customize growth toward a particular region of chemical space...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939231/counter-current-chromatography-with-off-line-detection-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-in-the-study-of-the-phenolic-profile-of-lippia-origanoides
#3
Suzana Guimaraes Leitão, Gilda Guimarães Leitão, Douglas K T Vicco, João Paulo Barreto Pereira, Gustavo de Morais Simão, Danilo R Oliveira, Rita Celano, Luca Campone, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Luca Rastrelli
Lippia origanoides (Verbenaceae) is an important Brazilian medicinal plant, also used for culinary purposes. Most chemical studies with this plant have been focused on its volatile composition. In this work, we combined High-Speed Counter-current Chromatography (HSCCC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Ultra Violet detection and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-UV-HRMS(n)) methodologies to access the non-volatile chemical composition of L. origanoides. The crude ethanol extract of L...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938736/deep-sequencing-shows-that-oocytes-are-not-prone-to-accumulate-mtdna-heteroplasmic-mutations-during-ovarian-ageing
#4
L Boucret, C Bris, V Seegers, D Goudenège, V Desquiret-Dumas, M Domin-Bernhard, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, P E Bouet, P Descamps, P Reynier, V Procaccio, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ageing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936475/surgical-data-science-the-new-knowledge-domain
#5
S Swaroop Vedula, Gregory D Hager
Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care...
April 2017: Innov Surg Sci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935721/the-spliceosomal-proteins-ppih-and-prpf4-exhibit-bipartite-binding
#6
Caroline Rajiv, S RaElle Jackson, Simon Cocklin, Elan Z Eisenmesser, Tara Davis
Pre-mRNA splicing is a dynamic, multi-step process that is catalyzed by the RNA: protein complex called the spliceosome. The spliceosome contains a core set of RNAs and proteins that are conserved in all organisms that perform splicing. In higher organisms, PPIH directly interacts with the core protein PRPF4 and both integrate into the pre-catalytic spliceosome as part of the tri-snRNP sub-complex. As a first step to understand the protein interactions that dictate PPIH and PRPF4 function, we expressed and purified soluble forms of each protein and formed a complex between them...
September 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931088/an-integrated-nutrition-and-health-program-package-on-iycn-improves-breastfeeding-but-not-complementary-feeding-and-nutritional-status-in-rural-northern-india-a-quasi-experimental-randomized-longitudinal-study
#7
Veena Singh, Saifuddin Ahmed, Michele L Dreyfuss, Usha Kiran, Deepika N Chaudhery, Vinod K Srivastava, Ramesh C Ahuja, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Mathuram Santosham, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition below two years of age remains a major public health problem in India. We conducted an evaluation of an integrated nutrition and health program that aimed to improve nutritional status of young children by improving breast and complementary feeding practices over that offered by the Government of India's standard nutrition and health care program. METHODS: In Uttar Pradesh state, through multi-stage cluster random sampling, 81 villages in an intervention district and 84 villages in a comparison district were selected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929238/nuclease-integrated-kinase-super-assemblies-niks-and-their-role-in-rna-processing
#8
REVIEW
Monica C Pillon, Robin E Stanley
Here we highlight the Grc3/Las1 complex, an essential RNA processing machine that is well conserved across eukaryotes and required for processing the pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA). Las1 is an endoribonuclease that cleaves the pre-rRNA while Grc3 is a polynucleotide kinase that phosphorylates the Las1-cleaved RNA product. Recently we showed that Grc3 and Las1 assemble into a higher-order complex composed of a dimer of Grc3/Las1 heterodimers that is required for nuclease and kinase activity. Unexpectedly, we found that the Grc3/Las1 complex draws numerous parallels with two other eukaryotic nucleases, Ire1 and RNase L...
September 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928963/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-roles-of-whole-genome-duplications-in-evolution
#9
REVIEW
Carol MacKintosh, David E K Ferrier
Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs)- paleopolyploidy events-are key to solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery' of how flowering plants evolved and radiated into a rich variety of species. The vertebrates also emerged from their invertebrate ancestors via two WGDs, and genomes of diverse gymnosperm trees, unicellular eukaryotes, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and even a rodent carry evidence of lineage-specific WGDs. Modern polyploidy is common in eukaryotes, and it can be induced, enabling mechanisms and short-term cost-benefit assessments of polyploidy to be studied experimentally...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920137/analysing-the-impact-of-a-case-management-model-on-the-specialised-palliative-care-multi-professional-team
#10
Julia Strupp, Christina Dose, Ulrike Kuhn, Maren Galushko, Anne Duesterdiek, Nicole Ernstmann, Holger Pfaff, Christoph Ostgathe, Raymond Voltz, Heidrun Golla
PURPOSE: Palliative care (PC) involves many health care providers leading to a high complexity of structures that requires efficient coordination as provided by case management (CM). Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of CM newly implemented in a specialised palliative care unit by evaluating team members' tasks and time resources before (T0) and after implementation (T1). It was hypothesised that team members would be able to spend less time on organisational and administrative tasks and more time on patient care...
September 17, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904893/surgical-patient-selection-and-counseling
#11
REVIEW
Matt Ziegelmann, Tobias S Köhler, George C Bailey, Tanner Miest, Manaf Alom, Landon Trost
The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures...
August 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893178/evaluation-design-of-urban-health-centres-europe-uhce-preventive-integrated-health-and-social-care-for-community-dwelling-older-persons-in-five-european-cities
#12
Carmen B Franse, Antonius J J Voorham, Rob van Staveren, Elin Koppelaar, Rens Martijn, Elisa Valía-Cotanda, Tamara Alhambra-Borrás, Tasos Rentoumis, Lovorka Bilajac, Vanja Vasiljev Marchesi, Tomislav Rukavina, Arpana Verma, Greg Williams, Gary Clough, Jorge Garcés-Ferrer, Francesco Mattace Raso, Hein Raat
BACKGROUND: Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In the Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE) project, five European cities (Greater Manchester, United Kingdom; Pallini (in Greater Athens Area), Greece; Rijeka, Croatia; Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and Valencia, Spain) develop and implement a care template that integrates health and social care and includes a preventive approach...
September 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#13
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891109/strengthening-community-mental-health-competence-a-realist-informed-case-study-from-dehradun-north-india
#14
Kaaren Mathias, Jeph Mathias, Isabel Goicolea, Michelle Kermode
Few accounts exist of programmes in low- and middle-income countries seeking to strengthen community knowledge and skills in mental health. This case study uses a realist lens to explore how a mental health project in a context with few mental health services, strengthened community mental health competence by increasing community knowledge, creating safer social spaces and engaging partnerships for action. We used predominantly qualitative methods to explore relationships between context, interventions, mechanisms and outcomes in the "natural setting" of a community-based mental health project in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, North India...
September 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883166/standards-based-procedural-phenotyping-the-arden-syntax-on-i2b2
#15
Sebastian Mate, Ixchel Castellanos, Thomas Ganslandt, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Stefan Kraus
Phenotyping, or the identification of patient cohorts, is a recurring challenge in medical informatics. While there are open source tools such as i2b2 that address this problem by providing user-friendly querying interfaces, these platforms lack semantic expressiveness to model complex phenotyping algorithms. The Arden Syntax provides procedural programming language construct, designed specifically for medical decision support and knowledge transfer. In this work, we investigate how language constructs of the Arden Syntax can be used for generic phenotyping...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878014/identification-of-a-35s-u4-u6-u5-tri-snrnp-complex-intermediate-in-spliceosome-assembly
#16
Zhe Chen, Bin Gui, Yu Zhang, Guojia Xie, Wanjin Li, Shumeng Liu, Bosen Xu, Chongyang Wu, Lin He, Jianguo Yang, Xia Yi, Xiaohan Yang, Luyang Sun, Jing Liang, Yongfeng Shang
The de novo assembly and post-splicing reassembly of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP remain to be investigated. We report here that ZIP, a protein containing a CCCH type of zinc finger and a G-patch domain as we characterized previously, regulates pre-mRNA splicing in a RNA binding-independent manner. We found that ZIP is physically associated with the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP. Remarkably, ZIP-containing tri-snRNP has a sedimentation coefficient ~35S, a tri-snRNP that has not been described before. We showed that the 35S tri-snRNP contains hPrp24, indicative of a state when the U4/U6 di-snRNP is just integrating with the U5 snRNP...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874140/the-impact-of-frailty-on-healthcare-utilisation-in-ireland-evidence-from-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing
#17
Lorna Roe, Charles Normand, Maev-Ann Wren, John Browne, Aisling M O'Halloran
INTRODUCTION: To examine the impact of frailty on medical and social care utilisation among the Irish community-dwelling older population to inform strategies of integrated care for older people with complex needs. METHODS: Participants aged ≥65 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) representative of the Irish community-dwelling older population were analysed (n = 3507). The frailty index was used to examine patterns of utilisation across medical and social care services...
September 5, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868521/an-out-of-core-gpu-based-dimensionality-reduction-algorithm-for-big-mass-spectrometry-data-and-its-application-in-bottom-up-proteomics
#18
Muaaz Gul Awan, Fahad Saeed
Modern high resolution Mass Spectrometry instruments can generate millions of spectra in a single systems biology experiment. Each spectrum consists of thousands of peaks but only a small number of peaks actively contribute to deduction of peptides. Therefore, pre-processing of MS data to detect noisy and non-useful peaks are an active area of research. Most of the sequential noise reducing algorithms are impractical to use as a pre-processing step due to high time-complexity. In this paper, we present a GPU based dimensionality-reduction algorithm, called G-MSR, for MS2 spectra...
August 2017: ACM-BCB: ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866503/the-topology-toolkit
#19
Julien Tierny, Guillaume Favelier, Joshua A Levine, Charles Gueunet, Michael Michaux
This system paper presents the Topology ToolKit (TTK), a software platform designed for the topological analysis of scalar data in scientific visualization. While topological data analysis has gained in popularity over the last two decades, it has not yet been widely adopted as a standard data analysis tool for end users or developers. TTK aims at addressing this problem by providing a unified, generic, efficient, and robust implementation of key algorithms for the topological analysis of scalar data, including: critical points, integral lines, persistence diagrams, persistence curves, merge trees, contour trees, Morse-Smale complexes, fiber surfaces, continuous scatterplots, Jacobi sets, Reeb spaces, and more...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852351/rapid-prototyping-3d-model-in-treatment-of-pediatric-hip-dysplasia-a-case-report
#20
Andrew M Holt, Zbigniew Starosolski, J Herman Kan, Scott B Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Rapid prototyping is an emerging technology that integrates common medical imaging with specialized production mechanisms to create detailed anatomic replicas. 3D-printed models of musculoskeletal anatomy have already proven useful in orthopedics and their applications continue to expand. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a 10 year-old female with Down syndrome and left acetabular dysplasia and chronic hip instability who underwent periacetabular osteotomy...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
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