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Laura Longoni, Livio Provenzi, Anna Cavallini, Daniela Sacchi, Giunia Scotto di Minico, Renato Borgatti
The NOMAS is by far the most used tool to screen early oral-motor skills in newborns. Here we provide an updated review of scientific literature on the use of the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) to screen early oral-motor skills in newborns. An integrative review has been carried out consistent with PRISMA guidelines and standardized qualitative appraisal. Data abstracting and synthesis were executed by two independent co-authors who solved disagreement in conference. Twenty records have been included and reviewed...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Lora J Wu, Philippa H Gander, Margo van den Berg, T Leigh Signal
BACKGROUND: Many civilian aviation regulators favor evidence-based strategies that go beyond hours-of-service approaches for managing fatigue risk. Several countries now allow operations to be flown outside of flight and duty hour limitations, provided airlines demonstrate an alternative method of compliance that yields safety levels "at least equivalent to" the prescriptive regulations. Here we discuss equivalence testing in occupational fatigue risk management. We present suggested ratios/margins of practical equivalence when comparing operations inside and outside of prescriptive regulations for two common aviation safety performance indicators: total in-flight sleep duration and psychomotor vigilance task reaction speed...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Na He, Bing-Mei Li, Zhao-Xia Li, Jie Wang, Xiao-Rong Liu, Heng Meng, Bin Tang, Wen-Jun Bian, Yi-Wu Shi, Wei-Ping Liao
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in epilepsy has been a topic of increasing interest, which in general occurs in 15-35% of the patients with epilepsy, more frequently in those with intellectual disability (ID). Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome (DS) are two typical forms of intractable epileptic encephalopathy associated with ID. We previously reported that ASD was diagnosed in 24.3% of patients with DS, higher in those with profound ID. Given the severe epilepsy and high frequency of ID in LGS, it is necessary to know whether ASD is a common psychomotor co-morbidity of LGS...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Horacio Lejarraga, Diana M Kelmansky, Alicia Masautis, Fernando Nunes
OBJECTIVE: To obtain a psychomotor development index (PDI) for each Argentine province. POPULATION AND METHODS: Using a national, probabilistic, and stratified sample of 13 323 male and female children younger than 6 years selected for the National Survey on Nutrition and Health (Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud, ENNyS 2004), we estimated the PDI per province based on compliance with 10 developmental milestones. The median age at attainment (median age) of each milestone was estimated adjusting a logistic regression...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Horacio Lejarraga, Diana M Kelmansky, Fernando Nunes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the dynamics of development along the early years of life among children living under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. POPULATION AND METHODS: In 5401 children younger than 6 years old living in Florencio Varela and in the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (Matanza, Villa 21-24, Wilde, Villa Inflamable and Acuba), areas with a high proportion of families with unmet basic needs, a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the median age at attainment of 13 psychomotor developmental milestones; differences between these ages and median age at attainment of milestones as per the national reference were plotted on the y-axis, while the median age as per the national reference was plotted on the x-axis...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Aris Yfantis, George Intas, Maria Tolia, Michail Nikolaou, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Maria Lymperi, George Kyrgias, George Zografos, Michalis Kontos
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present article was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) of young women with breast cancer. METHODS: For the purposes of this article, we reviewed the literature via the electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. Key words used were breast cancer, young women, health related quality of life, and quality of life. RESULTS: Young women reported fatigue, pain in the breast and hand problems with lymphedema as the most frequent physical effects of treatment...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
J Michely, L J Volz, F Hoffstaedter, M Tittgemeyer, S B Eickhoff, G R Fink, C Grefkes
Older individuals typically display stronger regional brain activity than younger subjects during motor performance. However, knowledge regarding age-related changes of motor network interactions between brain regions remains scarce. We here investigated the impact of ageing on the interaction of cortical areas during movement selection and initiation using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). We found that age-related psychomotor slowing was accompanied by increases in both regional activity and effective connectivity, especially for 'core' motor coupling targeting primary motor cortex (M1)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Il Hwan Byun, Jong Won Hong, Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, Yong Oock Kim
PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a congenital condition resulting premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. CRS is classified according to the involved sutures into sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, unilambdoid, bicoronal, and multiple-suture CRS, with sagittal suture fusion known to be the most common type. Although multiple studies have presented demographic characteristics of CRS patients, to date, there is no study representing an Asian population. We sought to compare the demographic characteristics of Asian patients to those of Western patients, considering previous reports...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Masha Shulkin, Laura Pimpin, David Bellinger, Sarah Kranz, Wafaie Fawzi, Christopher Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. Objective: We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. Methods: We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kotaro Yuge, Kazuhiro Iwama, Chihiro Yonee, Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Tomoko Saikusa, Yukako Yae, Yushiro Yamashita, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Naomichi Matsumoto, Toyojiro Matsuishi
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2); however, mutations in various other genes may lead to RTT-like phenotypes. Here, we report the first case of a Japanese girl with RTT caused by a novel syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) frameshift mutation (c.60delG, p.Lys21Argfs*16). She showed epilepsy at one year of age, regression of acquired psychomotor abilities thereafter, and exhibited stereotypic hand and limb movements at 3 years of age...
March 12, 2018: Brain & Development
Dorota Nieoczym, Katarzyna Socała, Piotr Wlaź
Ursolic acid (UA) is a plant derived compound which is also a component of the standard human diet. It possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Moreover, influence of UA on central nervous system-related processes, i.e., pain, anxiety and depression, was proved in experimental studies. UA also revealed anticonvulsant properties in animal models of epilepsy and seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of UA on seizure thresholds in three acute seizure models in mice, i...
March 14, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Andrea Moglia, Luca Morelli, Vincenzo Ferrari, Mauro Ferrari, Franco Mosca, Alfred Cuschieri
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for a test assessing objectively the innate aptitude for surgery as a craft specialty to complement the current selection process of surgical residents. The aim of this study was to quantify the size of individuals with high, average, and low level of innate psychomotor skills among medical students. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 155 medical students, without prior experience with surgical simulator, executed five tasks at a virtual simulator for robot-assisted surgery...
March 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Qinghai Peng, Shi Zeng, Qichang Zhou, Wen Deng, Tao Wang, Ya Tan, Yushan Liu
To observe Doppler changes in the three main cerebral arteries in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs). The pulsatility index (PI) values of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were prospectively compared in 78 CHD fetuses and 78 normal control fetuses. Correlations between the cerebral artery PIs and the neurodevelopment scores (psychomotor development index [PDI] and mental development index [MDI]) were assessed. The MCA-PI was decreased significantly in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lydia K Caldwell, William H DuPont, Matthew K Beeler, Emily M Post, Emily C Barnhart, Vincent H Hardesty, John P Anders, Emily C Borden, Jeff S Volek, William J Kraemer
The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
David S Sharlin, Lily Ng, François Verrey, Theo J Visser, Ye Liu, Rafal T Olszewski, Michael Hoa, Heike Heuer, Douglas Forrest
Transmembrane proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of thyroid hormone potentially provide a key level of control over neurodevelopment. In humans, defects in one such protein, solute carrier SLC16A2 (MCT8) are associated with psychomotor retardation. Other proteins that transport the active form of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) or its precursor thyroxine (T4) have been identified in vitro but the wider significance of such transporters in vivo is unclear. The development of the auditory system requires thyroid hormone and the cochlea is a primary target tissue...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saki Hirofuji, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Hiroshi Sato, Fumiko Takayama, Michiko Torio, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder associated with psychomotor impairments, autonomic dysfunctions and autism. Patients with Rett syndrome have loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Abnormal biogenic amine signaling and mitochondrial function have been found in patients with Rett syndrome; however, few studies have analyzed the association between these factors. This study investigated the functional relationships between mitochondria and the neuronal differentiation of the MeCP2-deficient stem cells from the exfoliated deciduous teeth of a child with Rett syndrome...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Tomohiro Sakaguchi, Tamara Žigman, Danijela Petković Ramadža, Lana Omerza, Silvija Pušeljić, Zrinka Ereš Hrvaćanin, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Ivo Barić
Biallelic mutations in the post-GPI attachment to proteins 3 ( PGAP3 ) gene cause hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome 4 (HPMRS4), which is characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, severe psychomotor developmental delay, seizures, and facial dysmorphism. To date, 15 PGAP3 mutations have been reported in humans. Here we report a novel homozygous PGAP3 mutation (c.314C>A, p.Pro105Gln) in a Croatian patient and fully describe the clinical features.
2018: Human Genome Variation
Yu-Lin Wu, Chun-Jen Huang, Su-Chen Fang, Ling-Hsin Ko, Pei-Shan Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, findings regarding cognitive function examined using neuropsychological tests have been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis that systematically searched six databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) for articles published before September 2017...
March 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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