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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471501/contemporary-ecological-interactions-improve-models-of-past-trait-evolution
#1
Matthew C Hutchinson, Marília P Gaiarsa, Daniel B Stouffer
Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant interactions on the evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length...
February 20, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471438/development-of-a-health-assessment-instrument-for-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-delphi-study
#2
Esther J Bakker-van Gijssel, Peter L B J Lucassen, Tim C Olde Hartman, Willem J J Assendelft, Henny M J van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk
Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) experience health inequalities. Applying health assessments is one way of diminishing these inequalities. A health assessment instrument can support general practitioners (GPs) in providing better medical care to people with ID. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine which items should be part of a health assessment instrument for people with ID to be used in primary care. Methods: This Delphi consensus study was conducted among 24 GP experts and 21 ID physicians...
February 17, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471403/influence-of-distiller-s-dried-grains-with-solubles-on-ram-lamb-growth-and-reproductive-traits
#3
A R Crane, R R Redden, M S Crouse, J D Kirsch, P P Borowicz, J E Held, K C Swanson, C S Schauer
The hypothesis of this experiment was that increasing the inclusion level of distiller's dried grains (DDGS) in the diets would decrease semen quality but have no negative effects on growth performance. Following the removal of DDGS from the diet, it was hypothesized that the ram lambs would recover and become reproductively sound, independent of treatment. To test this hypothesis, Suffolk and Hampshire ram lambs (n = 112) were allocated to four treatments (n = 4 pens/treatment; 7 rams/pen) in a completely randomized design...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471397/a-conceptual-framework-the-musical-self-as-a-unique-pathway-to-outcomes-in-the-acute-pediatric-health-setting
#4
Helen Shoemark, Jo Rimmer, Janeen Bower, Belinda Tucquet, Lauren Miller, Michelle Fisher, Nicholas Ogburn, Beth Dun
This article reports on a project at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne in which the music therapy team synthesized their practice and related theories to propose a new conceptual framework for music therapy in their acute pediatric setting. The impetus for the project was the realization that in the process of producing key statements about the non-musical benefits of music therapy, the cost was often the suppression of information about the patient's unique musical potential as the major (mediating) pathway from referral reason, to music therapy, and to effective outcomes...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471389/the-effect-of-paternal-factors-on-perinatal-and-paediatric-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471369/genome-wide-association-study-of-stayability-and-heifer-pregnancy-in-red-angus-cattle
#6
S E Speidel, B A Buckley, R J Boldt, R M Enns, J Lee, M L Spangler, M G Thomas
Reproductive performance is the most important component of cattle production from the standpoint of economic sustainability of commercial beef enterprises. Heifer Pregnancy (HPG) and Stayability (STAY) genetic predictions are two selection tools published by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) to assist with improvements in reproductive performance. Given the importance of HPG and STAY to the profitability of commercial beef enterprises, the objective of this study was to identify QTL associated with both HPG and STAY in Red Angus cattle...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471363/proteome-analysis-of-an-m-avium-mutant-exposes-a-novel-role-of-the-bifunctional-protein-lysx-in-regulation-of-metabolic-activity
#7
Greana Kirubakar, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Christoph Schaudinn, Flavia Dematheis, Gudrun Holland, Murat Eravci, Christoph Weise, Uwe Roesler, Astrid Lewin
Lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (L-PG) is one of the components of the mycobacterial membrane which contributes to the resistance towards cationic antimicrobial peptides, a host-induced frontline defense against invading pathogens. Its production is catalyzed by LysX, a bifunctional protein with lysyl transferase and lysyl-tRNA synthetase activity. Comparative proteome analysis of a lysX mutant of M. avium strain104 and the wild type indicated that the lysX mutant strain undergoes a transition in phenotype by switching the carbon metabolism to β-oxidation of fatty acids along with accumulation of lipid inclusions...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471330/converging-and-diverging-needs-between-patients-and-providers-who-are-collecting-and-using-patient-generated-health-data-an-integrative-review
#8
Meghan J Reading, Jacqueline A Merrill
Objective: This integrative review identifies convergent and divergent areas of need for collecting and using patient-generated health data (PGHD) identified by patients and providers (i.e., physicians, nurses, advanced practice nurses, physician assistants, and dietitians). Methods: A systematic search of 9 scholarly databases targeted peer-reviewed studies published after 2010 that reported patients' and/or providers' needs for incorporating PGHD in clinical care...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471324/effectiveness-of-practices-to-support-appropriate-laboratory-test-utilization-a-laboratory-medicine-best-practices-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Matthew Rubinstein, Robert Hirsch, Kakali Bandyopadhyay, Bereneice Madison, Thomas Taylor, Anne Ranne, Millie Linville, Keri Donaldson, Felicitas Lacbawan, Nancy Cornish
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of practices used to support appropriate clinical laboratory test utilization. Methods: This review followed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Laboratory Medicine Best Practices A6 cycle method. Eligible studies assessed one of the following practices for effect on outcomes relating to over- or underutilization: computerized provider order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support systems/tools (CDSS/CDST), education, feedback, test review, reflex testing, laboratory test utilization (LTU) teams, and any combination of these practices...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471267/the-effectiveness-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-based-lifestyle-interventions-on-biomedical-psychosocial-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Xingfeng Yu, Janita P C Chau, Lanting Huo
BACKGROUND: Integrative diabetes care, which combines conventional diabetes therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based interventions, has gained popularity worldwide. Numerous TCM-based lifestyle modification approaches have been proposed for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: To synthesize and present the best available evidence on the effectiveness of TCM-based lifestyle interventions in individuals with T2DM. DESIGN: We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471203/significance-of-an-in-situ-generated-boundary-film-on-tribocorrosion-behavior-of-polymer-metal-sliding-pair
#11
Yongkun Xu, Huimin Qi, Guitao Li, Xueping Guo, Yong Wan, Ga Zhang
Polymer composites have a high potential for applications as tribo-materials exposed to sea water owing to their self-lubrication characteristic and high chemical stability. In the present work, tribological behaviors of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites rubbing with stainless steel in sea water were explored using a pin-on-disc tribometer integrated with a potentiostat for electrochemical control. It was demonstrated that further adding 5 vol% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles into PEEK reinforced with short carbon fibers (SCF) significantly enhanced the wear resistance...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471156/sliding-hip-screw-versus-cannulated-cancellous-screws-for-fixation-of-femoral-neck-fracture-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Jian-Xiong Ma, Ming-Jie Kuang, Fei Xing, Yun-Long Zhao, Heng-Ting Chen, Lu-Kai Zhang, Zheng-Rui Fan, Chao Han, Xin-Long Ma
OBJECTIVE: Femoral neck fracture is considered a difficult fracture to treat and often gives rise to unsatisfactory treatment results. Cannulated cancellous screws (CCS) or a sliding hip screw (SHS) are the mainstream internal fixations used for osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures. There is a need to integrate existing data through a meta-analysis to investigate the safety and effectiveness of CCS and SHS in the treatment of femoral neck fractures. METHOD: According to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, we screened for the relevant studies by searching Google Scholar, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and PubMed...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471155/early-results-of-magnetic-sphincter-augmentation-versus-fundoplication-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Alberto Aiolfi, Emanuele Asti, Daniele Bernardi, Gianluca Bonitta, Emanuele Rausa, Stefano Siboni, Luigi Bonavina
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen and Toupet fundoplication (LF) are currently considered gold-standard surgical treatment for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation (MSA) is an innovative surgical procedure that has been showed to be effective to control GERD symptoms and to reduce esophageal acid exposure. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare early outcomes of LF and MSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were consulted matching the terms "Gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn", "LINX or magnetic sphincter augmentation" and "fundoplication"...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471101/on-object-selectivity-and-the-anatomy-of-the-human-fusiform-gyrus
#14
Kevin S Weiner, Vaidehi S Natu, Kalanit Grill-Spector
pFs is a functionally-defined region in the human brain that is involved in recognizing objects. A recent trend refers to pFs as the posterior fusiform sulcus, which is a neuroanatomical structure that does not exist. Here, we correct this mistake. To achieve this goal, we first recount the original definitions of pFs and then review the identification of sulci within and surrounding the fusiform gyrus (FG) including the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS), which is a tertiary sulcus within the FG. We highlight that tertiary sulci, such as the MFS, are often absent from brain atlases, which complicates the accurate localization of functional regions, as well as the understanding of structural-functional relationships in ventral temporal cortex (VTC)...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470861/mini-cog-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-within-a-primary-care-setting
#15
REVIEW
Dallas P Seitz, Calvin Ch Chan, Hailey T Newton, Sudeep S Gill, Nathan Herrmann, Nadja Smailagic, Vasilis Nikolaou, Bruce A Fage
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are becoming increasingly common with the aging of most populations. The majority of individuals with dementia will first present for care and assessment in primary care settings. There is a need for brief dementia screening instruments that can accurately diagnose dementia in primary care settings. The Mini-Cog is a brief, cognitive screening test that is frequently used to evaluate cognition in older adults in various settings...
February 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470825/effect-of-resistance-training-frequency-on-gains-in-muscular-strength-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Jozo Grgic, Brad J Schoenfeld, Timothy B Davies, Bruno Lazinica, James W Krieger, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: Current recommendations on resistance training (RT) frequency for gains in muscular strength are based on extrapolations from limited evidence on the topic, and thus their practical applicability remains questionable. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that compared muscular strength outcomes with different RT frequencies. METHODS: To carry out this review, English-language literature searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases were conducted...
February 22, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470823/methodological-characteristics-and-future-directions-for-plyometric-jump-training-research-a-scoping-review
#17
REVIEW
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cristian Álvarez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Paulo Gentil, Abbas Asadi, Helmi Chaabene, Jason Moran, Cesar Meylan, Antonio García-de-Alcaraz, Javier Sanchez-Sanchez, Fabio Y Nakamura, Urs Granacher, William Kraemer, Mikel Izquierdo
Recently, there has been a proliferation of published articles on the effect of plyometric jump training, including several review articles and meta-analyses. However, these types of research articles are generally of narrow scope. Furthermore, methodological limitations among studies (e.g., a lack of active/passive control groups) prevent the generalization of results, and these factors need to be addressed by researchers. On that basis, the aims of this scoping review were to (1) characterize the main elements of plyometric jump training studies (e...
February 22, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470807/longitudinal-effects-of-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-on-the-quality-of-life-of-post-menopausal-women-with-non-metastatic-er-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Hong Xiao, Xinyi Jiang, Cheng Chen, Alberto J Montero, Vakaramoko Diaby
BACKGROUND: Anti-estrogen (ER) endocrine therapy is an effective treatment strategy in reducing breast cancer mortality. This therapy has a better therapeutic index than chemotherapy but can still affect patients' quality of life (QOL) over time. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) describe QOL instruments used in ER-positive (ER+) non-metastatic breast cancer trials and (2) document the longitudinal effects of adjuvant endocrine therapy on the QOL of post-menopausal women with ER+ non-metastatic breast cancer...
February 22, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470759/problem-gambling-and-delinquent-behaviours-among-adolescents-a-scoping-review
#19
David T Kryszajtys, Tara E Hahmann, Andrée Schuler, Sarah Hamilton-Wright, Carolyn P Ziegler, Flora I Matheson
Despite many studies indicating an association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents, there has been no effort to systematically analyze the state of the literature on this relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted a scoping review of the literature published between 2000 and 2016 on problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents. We searched twelve databases and reviewed reference lists to identify eligible studies. Search terms included a combination of medical subject headings and keywords for gambling, youth, and delinquency, which were combined with the Boolean operator "AND"...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470707/modeling-simulation-and-employing-dilution-dialysis-microfluidic-chip-ddmc-for-heightening-proteins-refolding-efficiency
#20
F Kashanian, M M Masoudi, A Shamloo, M Habibi-Rezaei, A A Moosavi-Movahedi
Miniaturized systems based on the principles of microfluidics are widely used in various fields, such as biochemical and biomedical applications. Systematic design processes are demanded the proper use of these microfluidic devices based on mathematical simulations. Aggregated proteins (e.g., inclusion bodies) in solution with chaotropic agents (such as urea) at high concentration in combination with reducing agents are denatured. Refolding methods to achieve the native proteins from inclusion bodies of recombinant protein relying on denaturant dilution or dialysis approaches for suppressing protein aggregation is very important in the industrial field...
February 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
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