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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342356/the-dark-side-of-total-synthesis-strategies-and-tactics-in-psychoactive-drug-production
#1
Schuyler A Chambers, Jenna M DeSousa, Eric D Huseman, Steven D Townsend
Humankind has used and abused psychoactive drugs for millennia. Formally, a psychoactive drug is any agent that alters cognition and mood. The term "psychotropic drug" is neutral and describes the entire class of substrates, licit and illicit, of interest to governmental drug policy. While these drugs are prescribed for issues ranging from pain management to anxiety, they are also used recreationally. In fact, the current opioid epidemic is the deadliest drug crisis in American history. While the topic is highly politicized with racial, gender, and socioeconomic elements, there's no denying the toll drug mis- and overuse is taking on this country...
January 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339995/physical-performance-and-anthropometric-characteristics-of-male-south-african-university-soccer-players
#2
Alliance Kubayi, Yvonne Paul, Prescott Mahlangu, Abel Toriola
Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide. Despite its global acclaim, scientific studies of soccer have tended to focus on tactics and techniques, thereby neglecting the physical and physiological profile of the players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine physical and anthropometric characteristics of male South African university soccer players. Twenty-seven male soccer players aged 19 to 24 (mean age: 22.1 years; s = 1.5 years) volunteered to participate in the study. The results showed that goalkeepers (77...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339991/multivariate-profiles-of-selected-versus-non-selected-elite-youth-brazilian-soccer-players
#3
Rodrigo Aquino, Isabella S Alves, Maickel B Padilha, Filipe Casanova, Enrico F Puggina, José Maia
This study determined whether a multivariate profile more effectively discriminated selected than non-selected elite youth Brazilian soccer players. This examination was carried out on 66 youth soccer players (selected, n = 28, mean age 16.3 ± 0.1; non-selected, n = 38, mean age 16.7 ± 0.4) using objective instruments. Multivariate profiles were assessed through anthropometric characteristics, biological maturation, tactical-technical skills, and motor performance. The Student's t-test identified that selected players exhibited significantly higher values for height (t = 2...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337834/manipulating-field-dimensions-during-small-sided-games-impacts-the-technical-and-physical-profiles-of-australian-footballers
#4
Fleay Brock, Joyce Christopher, Banyard Harry, Woods T Carl
This study investigated the effect of manipulating field dimensions on the technical and physical profiles of Australian football (AF) players during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of 40 male players (23.9 ± 3.5 y) participated in three, five-a-side SSGs; defined as 'small' (20m x 30m; 600m), 'medium' (30m x 40m; 1200m), and 'large' (40m x 50m; 2000m). Notational analyses enabled the quantification of technical skill indicators, while physical activity profiles were measured using microtechnology, resulting in 18 criterion variables...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337830/exploring-the-effects-of-playing-formations-on-tactical-behaviour-and-external-workload-during-football-small-sided-games
#5
Jorge Baptista, Bruno Travassos, Bruno Gonçalves, Paulo Mourão, João L Viana, Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to identify the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games. Twenty-three semi-professional footballers integrated three different playing formations in a 7-a-side small-sided game, according to their specific player positions: team 4:3:0 (4 defenders, 3 midfielders); team 4:1:2 (4 defenders, 1 midfielder, 2 forwards); and team 0:4:3 (4 midfielders, 3 forwards). Based on players' movement trajectories, the following individual and collective tactical variables were calculated: total distance covered and distance covered while walking, jogging, running and sprinting, distance from each player to both own and opponent's team centroid (Dist CG and Dist OPP CG, respectively), individual area, team length, team width and surface area...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337427/outcomes-from-the-first-helene-fuld-health-trust-national-institute-for-evidence-based-practice-in-nursing-and-healthcare-invitational-expert-forum
#6
Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk, Lynn Gallagher-Ford, Cindy Zellefrow, Sharon Tucker, Laurel Van Dromme, Bindu Koshy Thomas
BACKGROUND: Even though multiple positive outcomes are the result of evidence-based care, including improvements in healthcare quality, safety, and costs, it is not consistently delivered by clinicians in healthcare systems throughout the world. AIMS: In an attempt to accelerate the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) across the United States, an invitational Interprofessional National EBP Forum to determine major priorities for the advancement of EBP was held during the launch of the newly established Helene Fuld Health Trust National Institute for Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare at The Ohio State University College of Nursing...
January 16, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336213/heart-versus-head-differential-bodily-feedback-causally-alters-economic-decision-making
#7
Philip A Powell, Kaisa Puustinen-Hopper, Martin de Jode, Panagiotis Mavros, Jennifer Roberts
Metaphorically, altruistic acts, such as monetary donations, are said to be driven by the heart, whereas sound financial investments are guided by reason, embodied by the head. In a unique experiment, we tested the effects of these bodily metaphors using biofeedback and an incentivized economic decision-making paradigm. Participants played a repeated investment game with a simulated partner, alternating between tactical investor and altruistic investee. When making decisions, participants received counterbalanced visual feedback from their own or a simulated partner's heart or head, as well as no feedback...
October 1, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334946/surmounting-difficulties-to-provide-home-based-neonatal-care-reflections-of-community-health-workers
#8
Abhijit Shrinivas Prabhughate, Pearl Tiwari, Shubhangi Sohoni, Vallaree Anant Morgaonkar, Ajay Gajanan Phatak, Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar, Anagha Anand Mahajani
BACKGROUND: In India, community health workers' (CHW) effectiveness in providing home-based neonatal care (HBNC) has been well documented. The nature of challenges faced and strategies adopted while providing HBNC services need to be studied in-depth. METHODS: A qualitative study to understand the challenges faced and strategies used by Sakhis (women CHW) while providing services as part of a HBNC program implemented by a non-profit organization. Data consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (FGD) with Sakhis...
January 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334804/characterizing-on-road-driving-performance-in-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-who-pass-or-fail-an-on-road-driving-assessment
#9
Renerus J Stolwyk, Judith L Charlton, Pamela E Ross, Michel Bédard, Shawn Marshall, Sylvain Gagnon, James R Gooden, Jennie L Ponsford
OBJECTIVE: To characterise on-road driving performance in individuals with traumatic brain injury who fail on-road driving assessment, compared with both those who pass assessment and healthy controls, and the injury and cognitive factors associated with driving performance. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Forty eight participants with traumatic brain injury (Age M = 40.50 SD = 14.62, 77% male, post-traumatic amnesia days M = 28...
January 15, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333661/nanocage-therapeutics-prevailing-phagocytosis-and-immunogenic-cell-death-awakens-immunity-against-cancer
#10
Eun Jung Lee, Gi-Hoon Nam, Na Kyeong Lee, Minwoo Kih, Eunee Koh, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Yeonsun Hong, Soyoun Kim, Seung-Yoon Park, Cherlhyun Jeong, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
A growing appreciation of the relationship between the immune system and the tumorigenesis has led to the development of strategies aimed at "re-editing" the immune system to kill tumors. Here, a novel tactic is reported for overcoming the activation-energy threshold of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and mediating the delivery and presentation of tumor neoantigens to the host's immune system. This nature-derived nanocage not only efficiently presents ligands that enhance cancer cell phagocytosis, but also delivers drugs that induce immunogenic cancer cell death...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332521/a-template-analysis-of-intimate-partner-violence-survivors-experiences-of-animal-maltreatment-implications-for-safety-planning-and-intervention
#11
Elizabeth A Collins, Anna M Cody, Shelby Elaine McDonald, Nicole Nicotera, Frank R Ascione, James Herbert Williams
This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning...
March 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328877/designing-difference-in-difference-studies-best-practices-for-public-health-policy-research
#12
Coady Wing, Kosali Simon, Ricardo A Bello-Gomez
The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Contemporary researchers should take an active approach to the design of DID studies, seeking to construct comparison groups, sensitivity analyses, and robustness checks that help validate the method's assumptions...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328116/hybrid-sensing-face-detection-and-registration-for-low-light-and-unconstrained-conditions
#13
Mingyuan Zhou, Haiting Lin, S Susan Young, Jingyi Yu
The capability to track, detect, and identify human targets in highly cluttered scenes under extreme conditions, such as in complete darkness or on the battlefield, has been one of the primary tactical advantages in military operations. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative, multi-spectrum sensing method to achieve face detection and registration under low-light and unconstrained conditions. We design and prototype a novel type of hybrid sensor by combining a pair of near-infrared (NIR) cameras and a thermal camera (a long-wave infrared camera)...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328032/-tactics-of-choosing-cognitive-dysfunction-therapy-in-the-postoperative-period
#14
S Dubivska, O Kudinova, Yu Grigorov, N Bitchuk
The aim of the study is to formulate the tactics of assigning adequate neuroprotective therapy to patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunctions on the basis of subtracting the indicator of the total cognitive deficiency. To achieve this goal, we conducted a study of cognitive function in patients of different age groups: young age, middle age, elderly age with acute surgical pathology before surgery and at 1, 7, 30 days after surgery compared with preoperative data. Methods of research. The study of the cognitive sphere: scale MMSE, test drawing hours, test "10 words", battery tests for frontal dysfunction, method Schulte...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328023/features-of-formation-of-collateral-circulation-in-patients-with-subclavian-steal-syndrome
#15
I Kopolovets, P Štefanič, V Rusyn, Š Tóth, V Mashura, P Berek
To date in patients with subclavian steal syndrome diagnosis is only grade of stenosis or localization of occlusion described. Authors recommend to take into account also type of a collateral compensation of cerebral circulation for selection of an optimal treatment The objective of the research was to study the features of formation of collateral circulation in patients with subclavian steal syndrome. The authors described changes in the direction of blood flow in the extracranial vessels of 42 patients with subclavian steal syndrome...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327523/association-of-physicians-of-india-position-statement-on-role-of-chirally-pure-molecules-in-clinical-practice
#16
Milind Y Nadkar, Mangesh Tiwaskar, Sanjay Kalra, Siddharth N Shah, B R Bansode, Anjanlal Dutta, Sarita Bajaj, Sameer Aggarwal, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, A K Das, Puneet Dhamija, Y K Gupta, Jubbin Jacob, Sundeep Mishra, S N Narasingan, C K Ponde, Ram Prabhoo, Balakrishnan S, Manisha Sahay, R K Sahay, I Sathyamurthy, Shilpa Tiwaskar, Agam Vora
Chirally pure molecules or enantiomers are non-superimposable mirror images of each other with a chiral center (such as carbon, sulphur, nitrogen or phosphorous atom). An equimolar mixture of enantiomers forms a racemate. Chirally pure molecules (single enantiomers) are important in the field of drug discovery as the drug targets such as enzymes and receptors are enantioselective in nature. Clinical studies have demonstrated that chirally pure drugs exhibit different pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles, reduced adverse events, improved safety profiles and similar therapeutic activity at lowered drug dosage as compared with the racemate in many therapeutic areas...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325406/polycentrism-in-global-health-governance-scholarship-comment-on-four-challenges-that-global-health-networks-face
#17
Jale Tosun
Drawing on an in-depth analysis of eight global health networks, a recent essay in this journal argued that global health networks face four challenges to their effectiveness: problem definition, positioning, coalition-building, and governance. While sharing the argument of the essay concerned, in this commentary, we argue that these analytical concepts can be used to explicate a concept that has implicitly been used in global health governance scholarship for quite a few years. While already prominent in the discussion of climate change governance, for instance, global health governance scholarship could make progress by looking at global health governance as being polycentric...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324044/the-management-of-insect-pests-in-australian-cotton-an-evolving-story
#18
Lewis J Wilson, Mary E A Whitehouse, Grant A Herron
The Australian cotton industry progressively embraced integrated pest management (IPM) to alleviate escalating insecticide resistance issues. A systems IPM approach was used with core principles that were built around pest ecology/biology and insecticide resistance management; together, these were integrated into a flexible, year-round approach that facilitated easy incorporation of new science, strategies, and pests. The approach emphasized both strategic and tactical elements to reduce pest abundance and rationalize decisions about pest control, with insecticides as a last resort...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322276/integrating-direct-observation-and-gps-tracking-to-monitor-animal-behavior-for-resource-management
#19
Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Yu-Fai Leung, Tim Kuhn, Todd Newburger
Monitoring the behavior of pack animals in protected areas informs management about use patterns and the potential associated negative impacts. However, systematic assessments of behavior are uncommon due to methodological and logistical constraints. This study integrated behavior mapping with GPS tracking, and applied behavior change point analysis, as an approach to monitor the behaviors of pack animals during overnight periods. The integrated approach identified multiple grazing patterns (i.e., locally intense grazing, ambulatory grazing) not feasible through a single methodology alone...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321895/impact-of-male-alternative-reproductive-tactics-on-female-costs-of-sexual-conflict-under-variation-in-operational-sex-ratio-and-population-density
#20
Erica Jeffery, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, Bernard Roitberg
Sexual conflict over mating rate is both pervasive and evolutionarily costly. For females, the lifetime reproductive fitness costs that arise through interactions with potential mates will be influenced by the frequency of such interactions, and the fitness cost of each interaction. Both of these factors are likely to be influenced by variation in operational sex ratio (OSR) and population density. Variation in OSR- and density-dependent male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) may be particularly important if the fitness costs that females experience vary with the reproductive tactics that males express...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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