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Aids, infection,

Robert Westermann, Chris A Anthony, Kyle R Duchman, Yubo Gao, Andrew J Pugely, Carolyn M Hettrich, Ned Amendola, Brian R Wolf
Infection following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is rare. Previous authors have concluded that diabetes, tobacco use, and previous knee surgery may influence infection rates following ACLR. The purpose of this study was to identify a cohort of patients undergoing ACLR and define (1) the incidence of infection after ACLR from a large multicenter database and (2) the risk factors for infection after ACLR. We identified patients undergoing elective ACLRs in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2007 and 2013...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
L Hepburn, D J Hijnen, B R Sellman, T Mustelin, M A Sleeman, R D May, I Strickland
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of UK children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonised with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitisation, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Ahmad Kotb, Antonina Klippert, Maria Daskalaki, Ulrike Sauermann, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Berit Neumann
Granzyme B-expressing (GrB(+)) B cells are thought to contribute to immune dysfunctions in HIV patients, but so far their exact role is unknown. This report demonstrates for the first time the existence of GrB(+) B cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, which represent the most commonly used nonhuman primate model for HIV research. Similar to HIV patients, we found significantly higher frequencies of these cells in the blood of chronically SIV-infected rhesus monkeys compared with uninfected healthy ones. These frequencies correlated with plasma viral load and inversely with absolute CD4 T-cell counts...
October 25, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Margaret O'Donoghue, Suk-Hing Ng, Lorna Kp Suen, Maureen Boost
BACKGROUND: Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
D Pereira-Torres, A T Gonçalves, V Ulloa, R Martínez, H Carrasco, A F Olea, L Espinoza, C Gallardo-Escárate, A Astuya
The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has global concerns with health management and control strategies to prevent and/or treat diseases and increase sustainability standards. Saprolegniosis is a disease caused by Saprolegnia parasitica, and is characterized by promoting an immunosuppression in the host. This study evaluated in vitro the extract and one active compound (polygodial) of Drimys winteri, a Chilean medicinal tree as a potential early immunostimulatory aid in Saprolegniosis control. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney cells (ASK-1) were incubated with both extract and pure polygodial before exposure to S...
October 21, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A Turkova, E Chappell, S Chalermpantmetagul, M Della Negra, A Volokha, N Primak, S Solokha, V Rozenberg, G Kiselyova, E Yastrebova, M Miloenko, N Bashakatova, S Kanjanavanit, J Calvert, P Rojo, S Ansone, G Jourdain, R Malyuta, R Goodall, A Judd, C Thorne
SETTING: Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. DESIGN: Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011-2013. RESULTS: Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py)...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Leila Katirayi, Caspian Chouraya, Kwashie Kudiabor, Mohammed Ali Mahdi, Mary Pat Kieffer, Karen Marie Moland, Thorkild Tylleskar
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in sub-Saharan Africa, 26 % of the adult population is infected with HIV. The prevalence is highest among pregnant women, at 41.1 %. According to Swaziland's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines, approximately 50 % of pregnant women are eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) by CD4 criteria (<350 cells/ml). Studies have shown that most mother-to-child transmission and postnatal deaths occur among women who are eligible for ART...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Ye Rin Lee, Kanghee Moon, Young Ae Kim, So Youn Park, Chang Mo Oh, Kyung Suk Lee, In Hwan Oh
Globally, the incidence of communicable diseases has decreased compared to non-communicable diseases. However, chronic communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis persist worldwide. Furthermore, emerging new infections such as H1N1 influenza pose a new threat to public health. However, most studies have focused on non-communicable diseases because of their increasing incidence, with fewer studies investigating communicable diseases. Therefore, we estimated the burden of communicable diseases in Korea using national representative 2012 data...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Kokouvi Kassegne, Eniola Michael Abe, Jun-Hu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Genetics combined with proteomics allows for a better understanding of parasite-host interactions and host immune responses. Immunomics elucidates that antigens are targets of induced or naturally acquired immunity (NAI), a promising solution to the challenge of eradicating human infections. High-throughput protein microarrays enhance rapid antigen discovery for the development of serodiagnostic tests/vaccines. Areas covered: This review systematically analyzes the emergence of protein microarrays as a powerful technology for parasite antigen discovery and subsequently summarizes some of the attributes and disadvantages of these approaches...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
Heli Siikamäki, Pia Kivelä, Mikael Fotopoulos, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Although infections represent the most common health problem of travellers abroad, data on morbidity and incidences of various infections are scarce. METHOD: Data on infections of Finnish travellers during 2010 to 2012 were retrieved from the database of SOS International, an assistance organization covering 95% of Finns requiring aid abroad. The study included 30,086 cases. For incidence calculation, the data were linked to the numbers of Finns visiting these regions during the same period as recorded by the Official Statistics of Finland...
October 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Helen L Barr, Nigel Halliday, David A Barrett, Paul Williams, Douglas L Forrester, Daniel Peckham, Kate Williams, Alan R Smyth, David Honeybourne, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash, Jane Dewar, Andrew Clayton, Alan J Knox, Miguel Cámara, Andrew W Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection is associated with poor outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) and early diagnosis is challenging, particularly in those who are unable to expectorate sputum. Specific P. aeruginosa 2-alkyl-4-quinolones are detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of adults with CF, suggesting that they have potential as biomarkers for P. aeruginosa infection. AIM: To investigate systemic 2-alkyl-4-quinolones as potential biomarkers for pulmonary P...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Matthew P Schreiber, Andrew F Shorr
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a distinct clinical entity characterized by an onset after 48 hours of the application of mechanical ventilation (MV). Protocols exist to aid in the prevention of VAP, but this infection carries a devastating impact on patient morbidity and potentially mortality. Areas covered: In this review we present key concepts from existing guidelines to aid clinicians. Challenges remain in defining this disease and, most importantly appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment is the main determinant of outcome...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Massimiliano Berretta, Raffaele Di Francia, Brigida Stanzione, Gaetano Facchini, Arben LLeshi, Paolo De Paoli, Michele Spina, Umberto Tirelli
The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) into clinical practice has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV-infected patients by prolonging their survival. The increase in life expectancy has led to an increased risk of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity, including cardiovascular diseases, neurocognitive diseases, neuroendocrine dysfunctions and cancer. Areas Covered: The GICAT (Italian Cooperation Group on AIDS and Tumors) has demonstrated that patients who receive a multidisciplinary approach with the combination of anticancer agents (AC) and HAART can achieve better responses and survival rates than patients who receive AC alone...
October 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Lingling Qiu, Teng Ma, Guobin Chang, Xiangping Liu, Xiaomin Guo, Lu Xu, Yang Zhang, Wenming Zhao, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
NLRC5, a protein belonging to the NOD-like receptor protein family (NLRs), is highly expressed in immune tissues and cells. NLRC5 plays an important role in the immune response of humans, where its regulatory mechanism has been elucidated. However, the function and regulation of NLRC5 in chickens remains unclear. In this study, temporal expression characteristics of NLRC5 and associated genes in the STAT1 pathway in chickens following infection with Salmonellapullorum were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and hierarchical cluster analyses...
October 20, 2016: Gene
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
October 19, 2016: Lancet HIV
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Sok Chamreun Choub, Carinne Brody
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among key populations in Cambodia continues to rise. To address this issue, KHANA, the largest national HIV organization in the country developed and implemented the Sustainable Action against HIV and AIDS in Communities (SAHACOM) project. This study aims to determine the impacts of the SAHACOM on sexual behaviors and the uptake of HIV/STI services among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cambodia. METHODS: We compared outcome indicators at midterm (n = 352) and endline (n = 394)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Heather A Vallier
Displaced distal tibia shaft fractures are effectively treated with standard plates and intramedullary nails. Plate fixation performed with meticulous soft tissue handling results in minimal risks of infection and poor wound healing. Standard plates have high rates of primary union, whereas locking plates may delay union because of increased stiffness. Tibial healing may also be delayed after plating of the fibula, although fibula reduction and fixation may aid accuracy of reduction of the tibia. Malalignment occurs more often with infrapatellar intramedullary nailing versus plates, and early results of suprapatellar nailing appear promising in minimizing intraoperative malalignment...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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