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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548996/distal-junctional-failure-following-pediatric-spinal-fusion
#1
Lorena V Floccari, Alvin W Su, Amy L McIntosh, Karl Rathjen, William J Shaughnessy, A Noelle Larson
BACKGROUND: Adjacent segment pathology is a known complication after spinal fusion, but little has been reported on junctional failure. A series of adolescent patients presented with acute distal junctional failure (DJF). We sought to determine any common features of these patients to develop a prevention strategy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of pediatric patients who developed DJF after instrumented spinal fusion performed at 2 institutions from 1999 to 2013...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548709/-polka-dot-macrophages-on-cytology-of-bilateral-adrenal-masses-nailing-disseminated-histoplasmosis
#2
Sumit Grover, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Neena Sood, Ridhi Sood, Harpreet Kaur
Histoplasma capsulatum is a saprophytic fungus that in immunocompetent individuals causes self-limited pulmonary infection; however, in immunosuppressed patients involvement of the reticuloendothelial system, alimentary tract, urinary tract, and central nervous system is fairly common. Rarely patients present with bilateral adrenal masses which mimic tuberculosis and metastasis on radiology because of associated central necrosis. Ultrasound guided FNAC aided by special stains like Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) may help in early diagnosis in such dubious cases...
May 26, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548572/analytical-validation-of-a-reference-laboratory-elisa-for-the-detection-of-feline-leukemia-virus-p27-antigen
#3
Jesse S Buch, Genevieve H Clark, Roberta Cahill, Brendon Thatcher, Peter Smith, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Christian M Leutenegger, Thomas P O'Connor, Melissa J Beall
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. Immunoassays for the p27 core protein of FeLV aid in the detection of FeLV infections. Commercial microtiter-plate ELISAs have rapid protocols and visual result interpretation, limiting their usefulness in high-throughput situations. The purpose of our study was to validate the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA, which is designed for the reference laboratory, and incorporates sequential, orthogonal screening and confirmatory protocols. A cutoff for the screening assay was established with 100% accuracy using 309 feline samples (244 negative, 65 positive) defined by the combined results of FeLV PCR and an independent reference p27 antigen ELISA...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548484/controlled-release-of-naringin-in-metal-organic-frameworks-mofs-loaded-mineralized-collagen-coating-to-simultaneously-enhance-osseointegration-and-antibacterial-activity
#4
Mengfei Yu, Dongqi You, Junjun Zhuang, Suya Lin, Lingqing Dong, Shengtao Weng, Bin Zhang, Kui Cheng, Wen-Jian Weng, Huiming Wang
Two important goals in orthopedic implants research are to promote osseointegration and prevent infection. However, much of previous efforts have been paid on the design of coatings either to enhance osseointegration while ignoring antibacterial activity or vice versa, to prevent infection while ignoring bone integration. Here, we designed a multifunctional mineralized collagen coating on titanium with the aid of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanocrystals to control the release of naringin, a Chinese herbal medicine which could promote osseointegration and prevent bacterial infection...
May 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546155/long-term-nicotine-exposure-dampens-lps-induced-nerve-mediated-airway-hyperreactivity-in-murine-airways
#5
Yuan Xu, Lars-Olaf Cardell
Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine's effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were exposed to nicotine in vivo via subcutaneous Alzet osmotic minipumps containing nicotine tartate salt solution (24 mg/kg/day) for 28 days...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545258/marker-assisted-molecular-profiling-deletion-mutant-analysis-and-rna-seq-reveal-a-disease-resistance-cluster-associated-with-uromyces-appendiculatus-infection-in-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#6
Antonette R Todd, Nicole Donofrio, Venkateswara R Sripathi, Phillip E McClean, Rian K Lee, Marcial Pastor-Corrales, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg, (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3-mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resistant "Sierra" and susceptible crg) with rust race 53 of U...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544984/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-mediators-of-infections
#7
REVIEW
Julie E Heggelund, Annabelle Varrot, Anne Imberty, Ute Krengel
The critical first step of a microbial infection is usually the attachment of pathogens to host cell glycans. Targets on host tissues are in particular the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are present in rich diversity in the mucus layer and on the underlying mucosa. Recent structural and functional studies have revealed significant new insight into the molecular mechanisms, explaining why individuals with certain blood groups are at increased risk of some infections. The most prominent example of blood-group-associated diseases is cholera, caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544728/index-case-finding-facilitates-identification-and-linkage-to-care-of-children-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv-aids-in-malawi
#8
Saeed Ahmed, Rachael A Sabelli, Katie Simon, Nora E Rosenberg, Elijah Kavuta, Mwelura Harawa, Spencer Dick, Frank Linzie, Peter N Kazembe, Maria H Kim
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a novel index case-finding and linkage-to-care program to identify and link HIV-infected children (1-15 years) and young adults (>15-24 years) to care. METHODS: HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV services were screened and those who reported untested household members (index cases) were offered home or facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) of their household by a community health worker (CHW). HIV-infected household members identified were enrolled in a follow-up program offering home and facility-based follow-up by CHWs...
May 23, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542545/a-first-insight-into-the-involvement-of-phytohormones-pathways-in-coffee-resistance-and-susceptibility-to-colletotrichum-kahawae
#9
Inês Diniz, Andreia Figueiredo, Andreia Loureiro, Dora Batista, Helena Azinheira, Vítor Várzea, Ana Paula Pereira, Elijah Gichuru, Pilar Moncada, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Helena Oliveira, Maria do Céu Silva
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying coffee-pathogen interactions are of key importance to aid disease resistance breeding efforts. In this work the expression of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) pathways were studied in hypocotyls of two coffee varieties challenged with the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum kahawae, the causal agent of Coffee Berry Disease. Based on a cytological analysis, key time-points of the infection process were selected and qPCR was used to evaluate the expression of phytohormones biosynthesis, reception and responsive-related genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539863/pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-opportunistic-mycoses-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-report-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#10
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Richa Dewan
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is rising. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in a cohort of HIV-positive patients (n = 71) presenting with lower respiratory tract infection at a tertiary care medical center in India. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected, and potassium hydroxide mount, cultural characteristics, and lactophenol cotton blue preparations were employed to aid in the identification of Aspergillus species...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539708/assessment-of-mexican-arnica-heterotheca-inuloides-cass-and-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-extracts-on-dopamine-and-selected-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-stomach-and-brain-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infected-rats
#11
David Calderón Guzmàn, Maribel Ortiz Herrera, Norma Osnaya Brizuela, Gerardo Barragàn Mejía, Ernestina Hernàndez García, Hugo Juàrez Olguín, Armando Valenzuela Peraza, Norma Labra Ruíz, Daniel Santamaría Del Angel
BACKGROUND: The effects of some natural products on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain of infected models are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary (MAR) water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (weight 80 g) in the presence of MAR or absence (no-MAR) were treated as follows: group 1, buffer solution (controls); oseltamivir (100 mg/kg), group 2; culture of Salmonella typhimurium (S...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536674/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-specific-to-prm-monoantibody-prevent-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-infection
#12
Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Dana Huang, Yalan Huang, Xiaomin Zhang, Chao Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Renli Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536344/aptamer-technology-adjunct-therapy-for-malaria
#13
REVIEW
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Kamarudin, Nurul Adila Mohammed, Khairul Mohd Fadzli Mustaffa
Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic infection occurring in the endemic areas, primarily in children under the age of five, pregnant women, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV)/(AIDS) as well as non-immune individuals. The cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the host endothelial surface receptor is a known factor that contributes to the increased prevalence of severe malaria cases due to the accumulation of IEs, mainly in the brain and other vital organs...
January 4, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536303/implementing-a-fee-for-service-cervical-cancer-screening-and-treatment-program-in-cameroon-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
Geneva DeGregorio, Simon Manga, Edith Kiyang, Florence Manjuh, Leslie Bradford, Preetam Cholli, Richard Wamai, Rebecca Ogembo, Zacharie Sando, Yuxin Liu, Lisa Kennedy Sheldon, Kathleen Nulah, Thomas Welty, Edith Welty, Javier Gordon Ogembo
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening is one of the most effective cancer prevention strategies, but most women in Africa have never been screened. In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, a large faith-based health care system in Cameroon, initiated the Women's Health Program (WHP) to address this disparity. The WHP provides fee-for-service cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC), prioritizing care for women living with HIV/AIDS...
May 23, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536264/exosomes-from-uninfected-cells-activate-transcription-of-latent-hiv-1
#15
Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Benjamin Lepene, Seble Kassaye, Sergey Iordanskiy, Fatah Kashanchi
HIV-1 infection causes AIDS, infecting millions worldwide. The virus can persist in a state of chronic infection due to its ability to become latent. We have previously shown a link between HIV-1 infection and exosome production. Specifically, we have reported that exosomes transport viral proteins and RNA from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells. These viral products could then elicit an innate immune response, leading to activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB pathways. In this study, we asked whether exosomes from uninfected cells could activate latent HIV-1 in infected cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535397/quality-of-life-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-hiv-aids-who-present-poor-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study-in-salvador-brazil
#16
Mónica Narváez Betancur, Liliane Lins, Irismar Reis de Oliveira, Carlos Brites
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy...
May 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#17
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534032/cooking-fuel-and-respiratory-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#18
Crystal M North, Linda Valeri, Peter W Hunt, A Rain Mocello, Jeffrey N Martin, Yap Boum, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
Household air pollution (HAP) and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load...
April 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533471/the-atypical-response-regulator-atvr-is-a-new-player-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-response-to-hypoxia-and-virulence
#19
Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Thays de Oliveira Pereira, Gianlucca Gonçalves Nicastro, Ana Laura Boechat, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Regina Lúcia Baldini
Two-component systems are widespread in bacteria, allowing adaptation to environmental changes. The classical pathway is composed by a histidine kinase that phosphorylates an aspartate residue in the cognate response regulator (RR). RRs lacking the phosphorylable aspartate also occur, but their function and contribution during host-pathogen interaction are poorly characterized. AtvR (PA14_26570) is the only atypical response regulator with a DNA-binding domain in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Macrophage infection with the atvR mutant strain resulted in higher TNF-α secretion as well as increased bacterial clearance as compared to macrophages infected with the wild-type strain...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532994/johne-s-disease-in-the-eyes-of-irish-cattle-farmers-a-qualitative-narrative-research-approach-to-understanding-implications-for-disease-management
#20
Conor G McAloon, Áine Macken-Walsh, Lisa Moran, Paul Whyte, Simon J More, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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