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trained immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351573/multicenter-french-harmonization-study-for-pd-l1-ihc-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
J Adam, N Le Stang, I Rouquette, A Cazes, C Badoual, H Pinot-Roussel, L Tixier, C Danel, F Damiola, D Damotte, F Penault-Llorca, S Lantuéjoul
Background: Various PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays have been developed and used in clinical trials in association with different drugs. In order to harmonize and make PD-L1 testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) widely available, we conducted a multicenter study comparing PD-L1 standardized assays and laboratory-developed tests (LDT). Methods: IHC with five anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (28-8, 22C3, E1L3N, SP142 and SP263) was performed concomitantly on 41 NSCLC surgical specimens in 7 centers using Dako Autostainer Link 48 (3 centers), Leica Bond (2 centers) or Ventana BenchMark Ultra (2 centers), platforms...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346180/development-of-a-pd-l1-complementary-diagnostic-immunohistochemistry-assay-sp142-for-atezolizumab
#2
Bharathi Vennapusa, Brian Baker, Marcin Kowanetz, Jennifer Boone, Ina Menzl, Jean-Marie Bruey, Gregg Fine, Sanjeev Mariathasan, Ian McCaffery, Simonetta Mocci, Sandra Rost, Dustin Smith, Eslie Dennis, Szu-Yu Tang, Bita Damadzadeh, Espen Walker, Priti S Hegde, J Andrew Williams, Hartmut Koeppen, Zachary Boyd
Cancer immunotherapies, such as atezolizumab, are proving to be a valuable therapeutic strategy across indications, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and urothelial cancer (UC). Here, we describe a diagnostic assay that measures programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, via immunohistochemistry, to identify patients who will derive the most benefit from treatment with atezolizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody. We describe the performance of the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and the ability to stain both tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC), in NSCLC and UC tissues...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345167/dietary-supplements-for-health-adaptation-and-recovery-in-athletes
#3
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve: recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343428/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-the-swine-model-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-tablet-for-human-influenza-viruses-a-proof-of-concept-study
#4
V Busignies, G Simon, G Mollereau, O Bourry, V Mazel, M Rosa-Calatrava, P Tchoreloff
Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342432/pharmacists-scope-of-practice-in-travel-health-a-review-of-state-laws-and-regulations
#5
Keri Hurley-Kim, Rebecca Snead, Karl M Hess
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess pharmacists' authority to provide travel health services in each state and Washington, DC. Secondary objectives were to determine the need for collaborative practice agreements (CPAs), protocols, or prescriptions for this type of pharmacy practice and to identify jurisdictions where pharmacists are able to practice as travel health providers independent of CPAs or individual physician protocols. METHODS: An online survey was developed to assess pharmacists' authority to administer travel immunizations, furnish travel-related medications, and order travel-related laboratory tests...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339423/immune-protection-against-lethal-fungal-bacterial-intra-abdominal-infections
#6
Elizabeth A Lilly, Melanie Ikeh, Evelyn E Nash, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333501/feasibility-of-conducting-intradermal-vaccination-campaign-with-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-using-tropis-intradermal-needle-free-injection-system-karachi-pakistan
#7
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Ali Faisal Saleem, Ondrej Mach, Attaullah Baig, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
Background: Administration of intradermal fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) has proven to be safe and immunogenic; however, its intradermal application using needle and syringe is technically difficult and requires trained personnel. Methods: We assessed feasibility of conducting an intradermal fIPV campaign in polio high risk neighborhood of Karachi using Tropis needle-free injector. During the one-day fIPV campaign, we measured average "application time" to administer fIPV with Tropis, collected ergonomic information and measured vaccine wastage...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330325/cutting-edge-plasmodium-falciparum-induces-trained-innate-immunity
#8
Jacob E Schrum, Juliet N Crabtree, Katherine R Dobbs, Michael C Kiritsy, George W Reed, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Mihai G Netea, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Douglas T Golenbock
Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs or the malaria crystal hemozoin induced human adherent PBMCs to hyperrespond to subsequent ligation of TLR2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329528/transmission-of-measles-among-healthcare-workers-in-hospital-w-xinjiang-autonomous-region-china-2016
#9
Haimei Jia, Chao Ma, Mengting Lu, Jianping Fu, Lance E Rodewald, Qiru Su, Huaqin Wang, Lixin Hao
BACKGROUND: As China approaches the elimination of measles, outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are known to be at high risk of infection and transmission of measles virus. A measles outbreak occurred in a hospital in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. We report an investigation of this outbreak and its implications for measles elimination and outbreak preparedness. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective search for measles cases using hospital records...
January 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328917/immune-training-unlocks-innate-potential
#10
Wilbur M Song, Marco Colonna
Trained immunity is a form of innate immune memory with distinct features from classical adaptive immune memory. In the current issues of Cell and Cell Host & Microbe, five studies from the International Trained Immunity Consortium shed light on mechanisms and functional consequences of this phenomenon on cellular and whole-organism levels.
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328912/bcg-educates-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-generate-protective-innate-immunity-against-tuberculosis
#11
Eva Kaufmann, Joaquin Sanz, Jonathan L Dunn, Nargis Khan, Laura E Mendonça, Alain Pacis, Fanny Tzelepis, Erwan Pernet, Anne Dumaine, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Florence Mailhot-Léonard, Eisha Ahmed, Jad Belle, Rickvinder Besla, Bruce Mazer, Irah L King, Anastasia Nijnik, Clinton S Robbins, Luis B Barreiro, Maziar Divangahi
The dogma that adaptive immunity is the only arm of the immune response with memory capacity has been recently challenged by several studies demonstrating evidence for memory-like innate immune training. However, the underlying mechanisms and location for generating such innate memory responses in vivo remain unknown. Here, we show that access of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to the bone marrow (BM) changes the transcriptional landscape of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs), leading to local cell expansion and enhanced myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328911/western-diet-triggers-nlrp3-dependent-innate-immune-reprogramming
#12
Anette Christ, Patrick Günther, Mario A R Lauterbach, Peter Duewell, Debjani Biswas, Karin Pelka, Claus J Scholz, Marije Oosting, Kristian Haendler, Kevin Baßler, Kathrin Klee, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Thomas Ulas, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Vinod Kumar, Min Hi Park, Leo A B Joosten, Laszlo A Groh, Niels P Riksen, Terje Espevik, Andreas Schlitzer, Yang Li, Michael L Fitzgerald, Mihai G Netea, Joachim L Schultze, Eicke Latz
Long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells in response to microbes, also termed "trained immunity," causes prolonged altered cellular functionality to protect from secondary infections. Here, we investigated whether sterile triggers of inflammation induce trained immunity and thereby influence innate immune responses. Western diet (WD) feeding of Ldlr-/- mice induced systemic inflammation, which was undetectable in serum soon after mice were shifted back to a chow diet (CD). In contrast, myeloid cell responses toward innate stimuli remained broadly augmented...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328910/modulation-of-myelopoiesis-progenitors-is-an-integral-component-of-trained-immunity
#13
Ioannis Mitroulis, Klara Ruppova, Baomei Wang, Lan-Sun Chen, Michal Grzybek, Tatyana Grinenko, Anne Eugster, Maria Troullinaki, Alessandra Palladini, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Andreas Schlitzer, Marc Beyer, Leo A B Joosten, Berend Isermann, Mathias Lesche, Andreas Petzold, Kai Simons, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Joachim L Schultze, Ben Wielockx, Nicola Zamboni, Peter Mirtschink, Ünal Coskun, George Hajishengallis, Mihai G Netea, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Trained innate immunity fosters a sustained favorable response of myeloid cells to a secondary challenge, despite their short lifespan in circulation. We thus hypothesized that trained immunity acts via modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Administration of β-glucan (prototypical trained-immunity-inducing agonist) to mice induced expansion of progenitors of the myeloid lineage, which was associated with elevated signaling by innate immune mediators, such as IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and with adaptations in glucose metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328908/metabolic-induction-of-trained-immunity-through-the-mevalonate-pathway
#14
Siroon Bekkering, Rob J W Arts, Boris Novakovic, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Charlotte D C C van der Heijden, Yang Li, Calin D Popa, Rob Ter Horst, Julia van Tuijl, Romana T Netea-Maier, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Leo A B Joosten, Jos W M van der Meer, Henk Stunnenberg, Niels P Riksen, Mihai G Netea
Innate immune cells can develop long-term memory after stimulation by microbial products during infections or vaccinations. Here, we report that metabolic signals can induce trained immunity. Pharmacological and genetic experiments reveal that activation of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the synthesis of cholesterol itself, is essential for training of myeloid cells. Rather, the metabolite mevalonate is the mediator of training via activation of IGF1-R and mTOR and subsequent histone modifications in inflammatory pathways...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327339/electronic-registry-for-the-management-of-childhood-obesity-in-greece
#15
Penio Kassari, Panagiotis Papaioannou, Antonis Billiris, Haralampos Karanikas, Stergiani Eleftheriou, Eleftherios Thireos, Yannis Manios, George P Chrousos, Evangelia Charmandari
BACKGROUND: Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem in our century. In Greece, more than 30-35% of children and adolescents are either overweight or obese. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using information and communication technologies, we developed a "National Registry for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence" for guidance and training of Pediatricians and General Practitioners. The application supports interoperability with other national infrastructures and multi-layered security spanning preventive, detective and administrative controls...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324233/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-experimental-viral-infection-in-humans-through-the-induction-of-cytokines-associated-with-trained-immunity
#16
Rob J W Arts, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Shuang-Yin Wang, Marije Oosting, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Chantal B E M Reusken, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Marion P Koopmans, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322004/thoughts-modulate-the-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-and-may-improve-the-coronary-blood-flow-in-patients-after-a-myocardial-infarction
#17
Carlo Dal Lin, Mariela Marinova, Giorgio Rubino, Elisabetta Gola, Alessandra Brocca, Giorgia Pantano, Laura Brugnolo, Cristiano Sarais, Umberto Cucchini, Biancarosa Volpe, Chiara Cavalli, Maura Bellio, Emilia Fiorello, Sofia Scali, Mario Plebani, Sabino Iliceto, Francesco Tona
Background: Mental stress is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Meditation and music listening are two techniques that are able to counteract it through the activation of specific brain areas, eliciting the so-called Relaxing Response (RR). Epidemiological evidence reveals that the RR practice has a beneficial prognostic impact on patients after myocardial infarction. We aimed to study the possible molecular mechanisms of RR underlying these findings. Methods: We enrolled 30 consecutive patients after myocardial infarction and 10 healthy controls...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319511/study-of-patterns-and-markers-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-1-hiv-1-progression-and-unemployment-rate-among-patients-from-alexandria-egypt
#18
Faika M Ghoneim, May M Raouf, Noha S Elshaer, Sarah M Abdelhamid, Reem A Noor Eldeen
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316715/twelve-weeks-of-medium-intensity-exercise-therapy-affects-the-lipoprotein-profile-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#19
Winde Jorissen, Tim Vanmierlo, Inez Wens, Veerle Somers, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Jeroen F Bogie, Alan T Remaley, Bert O Eijnde, Jerome J A Hendriks
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Serum glucose alterations and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are reported in MS patients, and are commonly associated with the development of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. We previously found that a subgroup of MS patients shows alterations in their lipoprotein profile that are similar to a pre-cardiovascular risk profile. In addition, we showed that a high-intensity exercise training has a positive effect on IGT in MS patients...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315598/improved-methods-for-predicting-peptide-binding-affinity-to-mhc-class-ii-molecules
#20
Kamilla Kjaergaard Jensen, Massimo Andreatta, Paolo Marcatili, Søren Buus, Jason A Greenbaum, Zhen Yan, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters, Morten Nielsen
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented by the MHC-II molecule is therefore important for understanding the activation of T helper cells and can be used to identify T-cell epitopes. We here present updated versions of two MHC class II peptide binding affinity prediction methods, NetMHCII and NetMHCIIpan...
January 6, 2018: Immunology
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