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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#1
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#2
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073756/feature-selection-using-a-one-dimensional-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-classifier-increases-the-accuracy-of-support-vector-machine-classification-of-cdr3-repertoires
#3
Mattia Cinelli, Yuxin Sun, Katharine Best, James M Heather, Shlomit Reich-Zeliger, Eric Shifrut, Nir Friedman, John Shawe-Taylor, Benny Chain
MOTIVATION: Somatic DNA recombination, the hallmark of vertebrate adaptive immunity, has the potential to generate a vast diversity of antigen receptor sequences. How this diversity captures antigen specificity remains incompletely understood. In this study we use high throughput sequencing to compare the global changes in T cell receptor β chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3β) sequences following immunization with ovalbumin administered with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or CFA alone...
January 10, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065745/alteration-of-methyl-cpg-binding-domain-family-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#4
Jing Zhao, Yu-Chen Fan, Long-Yan Chen, Shuai Gao, Feng Li, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epigenetics contributes to the outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the role of methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has not been demonstrated. It is aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of MBD family and assess the potential association of MBD family in the progression of CHB. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA levels of MBD family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 223 patients with CHB as training cohort, 146 patients with CHB as validation cohort [immune-tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), non/low-replicative (LR) and HBeAg negative hepatitis (ENH)], and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 5, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063079/the-thyroid-the-eyes-and-the-gut-a-possible-connection
#5
REVIEW
D Covelli, M Ludgate
INTRODUCTION: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder responsible for 60-90% of thyrotoxicosis, with an incidence of 1 to 2 cases per 1000 population per year in England. Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation, not provoked directly by abnormal thyroid hormone levels, but by the consequence of the underlying autoimmune process. The aetiology of autoimmune disorders is due to an interplay between susceptibility genes and environmental factors, such as infections and stress...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060763/comparison-of-the-tumor-cell-secretome-and-patient-sera-for-an-accurate-serum-based-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#6
Shakhawan Mustafa, Longqiang Pan, Aseel Marzoq, Malak Fawaz, Laureen Sander, Felix Rückert, Andrea Schrenk, Christina Hartl, Rico Uhler, Adem Yildirim, Oliver Strobel, Thilo Hackert, Nathalia Giese, Markus W Büchler, Jörg D Hoheisel, Mohamed Saiel Saeed Alhamdani
Pancreatic cancer is the currently most lethal malignancy. Toward an accurate diagnosis of the disease in body liquids, we studied the protein composition of the secretomes of 16 primary and established cell lines of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Compared to the secretome of non-tumorous cells, 112 proteins exhibited significantly different abundances. Functionally, the proteins were associated with PDAC features, such as decreased apoptosis, better cell survival and immune cell regulation. The result was compared to profiles obtained from 164 serum samples from two independent cohorts - a training and a test set - of patients with PDAC or chronic pancreatitis and healthy donors...
January 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057002/prediction-of-anti-inflammatory-proteins-peptides-an-insilico-approach
#7
Sudheer Gupta, Ashok K Sharma, Vibhuti Shastri, Midhun K Madhu, Vineet K Sharma
BACKGROUND: The current therapy for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders involves the use of nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs and other immunosuppressant, which are often accompanied with potential side effects. As an alternative therapy, anti-inflammatory peptides are recently being exploited as anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, understanding the correlation between amino acid sequence and its potential anti-inflammatory property is of great importance for the discovery of novel and efficient anti-inflammatory peptide-based therapeutics...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056786/immune-adaptation-to-chronic-intense-exercise-training-new-microarray-evidence
#8
Dongmei Liu, Ru Wang, Ana R Grant, Jinming Zhang, Paul M Gordon, Yuqin Wei, Peijie Chen
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise training, especially the high-intensity training, exhibits a strong influence on the immune system. However, the mechanisms underpinning the immune-regulatory effect of exercise remain unclear. Consequently, we chose to investigate the alterations in the transcriptional profile of blood leukocytes in young endurance athletes as compared with healthy sedentary controls, using Affymetrix human gene 1.1 ST array. RESULTS: Group differences in the transcriptome were analyzed using Intensity-based Hierarchical Bayes method followed by a Logistic Regression-based gene set enrichment method...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050366/practices-of-health-care-personnel-regarding-occupational-exposure
#9
Manisha Jain, Ekadashi Rajni Sabharwal, Dhirendra Srivastava
INTRODUCTION: With advancing health care sciences, the prevalence of Accidental Exposure to Patient's Blood (AEBP) amongst Health Care Personnel (HCP) is bound to increase. The only means of preventing such accidental exposure is safe working practices. It is the responsibility of the teachers to inculcate these practices amongst their students. AIM: To evaluate the knowledge, practice and attitude regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) immunization amongst faculty and undergraduate students and to assess the frequency of these occupational exposure with the objective of inculcating safe working practices in the teaching curriculum...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043028/modulation-of-inflammatory-response-arising-from-high-intensity-intermittent-and-concurrent-strength-training-in-physically-active-males
#10
Paula Alves Monteiro, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Flaviane Poleto de Oliveira, Fernando Pierin Peres, José Cesar Rosa-Neto, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel, Fabio Santos Lira
The purposes of this study were to determine: (i) the extent of an acute session of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) followed by a concurrent strength session (Conc) on the increase of systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and (ii) whether eight weeks of high intensity interval training plus concurrent strength training alters the acute inflammatory response and immune status. Ten recreationally active males (aged 26.9±4.3years) performed two experimental exercise sessions interspersed by eight weeks of HIIT plus concurrent strength training...
December 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031757/leukocyte-populations-are-associated-with-heart-rate-variability-after-a-triathlon
#11
Germán Hernández Cruz, José Naranjo Orellana, Adrián Rosas Taraco, Blanca Rangel Colmenero
The purpose of this study was to analyze cellular immune components and their association with heart rate variability in triathlon athletes. Twelve athletes were included (age 36.41 ± 5.57 years, body mass 81.84 ± 10.97 kg) and blood samples were taken one week before, immediately, at 2 and 48 hours, and one week after competition. Total lymphocytes and their subpopulations, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes were analyzed. At the same time, heart rate variability was recorded for 30 minutes using Polar Team2®...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031185/metadcn-meta-analysis-framework-for-differential-co-expression-network-detection-with-an-application-in-breast-cancer
#12
Li Zhu, Ying Ding, Cho-Yi Chen, Lin Wang, Zhiguang Huo, SungHwan Kim, Christos Sotiriou, Steffi Oesterreich, George C Tseng
MOTIVATION: Gene co-expression network analysis from transcriptomic studies can elucidate genegene interactions and regulatory mechanisms. Differential co-expression analysis helps further detect alterations of regulatory activities in case/control comparison. Co-expression networks estimated from single transcriptomic study is often unstable and not generalizable due to cohort bias and limited sample size. With the rapid accumulation of publicly available transcriptomic studies, co-expression analysis combining multiple transcriptomic studies can provide more accurate and robust results...
December 28, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028619/effects-of-protein-carbohydrate-supplementation-on-immunity-and-resistance-training-outcomes-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Nadia Ashrafi, Marco Seijo, Birthe Nielsen, Judith Allgrove, Conrad P Earnest
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on resistance training outcomes, body composition, muscle thickness, blood indices of health and salivary human neutrophil peptides (HNP1-3), as reference of humoral immunity followed an 8-week resistance training program in college athletes. METHODS: Twenty-seven recreationally physically active males and females (n = 9 per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, or non-protein isoenergetic carbohydrate...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018911/a-quantitative-model-to-estimate-drug-resistance-in-pathogens
#14
Frazier N Baker, Melanie T Cushion, Aleksey Porollo
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection that occurs in humans and other mammals with debilitated immune systems. These infections are caused by fungi in the genus Pneumocystis, which are not susceptible to standard antifungal agents. Despite decades of research and drug development, the primary treatment and prophylaxis for PCP remains a combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) that targets two enzymes in folic acid biosynthesis, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012598/mechanisms-underpinning-protection-against-eccentric-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#15
Alexander Franz, Michael Behringer, Kazunori Nosaka, Bettina Alexandra Buhren, Holger Schrumpf, Constantin Mayer, Christoph Zilkens, Moritz Schumann
Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefore, strategies to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are necessary, and an extensive number of scientific studies have tried to identify potential intervention modalities to perform eccentric exercises without adverse effects...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006052/association-of-low-vitamin-d-levels-with-noninfectious-anterior-uveitis
#16
Lindsay A Grotting, Samaneh Davoudi, Deanna Palenzuela, George N Papaliodis, Lucia Sobrin
Importance: Vitamin D plays an important role in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. It has been shown to contribute to the etiology of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases through the upregulation of type 2 anti-inflammatory T helper cells and the suppression of type 1 T helper cells. Noninfectious uveitis is postulated to be caused by immune dysfunction. Objective: To determine whether there is an association between vitamin D levels and noninfectious anterior uveitis...
December 22, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005986/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-reporting-cost-per-daly-averted
#17
Peter J Neumann, Teja Thorat, Yue Zhong, Jordan Anderson, Megan Farquhar, Mark Salem, Eileen Sandberg, Cayla J Saret, Colby Wilkinson, Joshua T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005906/a-stromal-immune-module-correlated-with-the-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-prognosis-and-lymphocyte-infiltration-in-her2-positive-breast-carcinoma-is-inversely-correlated-with-hormonal-pathways
#18
Anne-Sophie Hamy, Hélène Bonsang-Kitzis, Marick Lae, Matahi Moarii, Benjamin Sadacca, Alice Pinheiro, Marion Galliot, Judith Abecassis, Cecile Laurent, Fabien Reyal
INTRODUCTION: HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive breast cancers, the prognosis of which has greatly improved since the introduction of treatments targeting HER2. However, these tumors may display intrinsic or acquired resistance to treatment, and classifiers of HER2-positive tumors are required to improve the prediction of prognosis and to develop novel therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We analyzed 2893 primary human breast cancer samples from 21 publicly available datasets and developed a six-metagene signature on a training set of 448 HER2-positive BC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002059/immunoscore-signature-a-prognostic-and-predictive-tool-in-gastric-cancer
#19
Yuming Jiang, Qi Zhang, Yanfeng Hu, Tuanjie Li, Jiang Yu, Liying Zhao, Gengtai Ye, Haijun Deng, Tingyu Mou, Shirong Cai, Zhiwei Zhou, Hao Liu, Guihua Chen, Guoxin Li, Xiaolong Qi
OBJECTIVE: We postulated that the ImmunoScore (IS) could markedly improve the prediction of postsurgical survival and chemotherapeutic benefits in gastric cancer (GC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A prediction model for GC patients was developed using data from 879 consecutive patients. METHODS: The expression of 27 immune features was detected in 251 specimens by using immunohistochemistry, and a 5-feature-based ISGC was then constructed using the LASSO Cox regression model...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001474/effects-of-resistance-training-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#20
Roberto Poton, Marcos Polito, Paulo Farinatti
The relative effects of resistance training (RT) upon muscle fitness and immune function among HIV-infected patients are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine the effects of RT upon muscle strength, muscle mass and CD4 cells count and to identify potential moderators of those outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Meta-analyses use random or fixed-effects model depending on the heterogeneity of effect sizes, complemented with Hedge's g correction factor. Thirteen trials were meta-analysed...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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