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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639138/veterinary-vaccine-nanotechnology-pulmonary-and-nasal-delivery-in-livestock-animals
#1
REVIEW
Daniella Calderon-Nieva, Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Susantha Gomis, Marianna Foldvari
Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases...
June 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638518/automated-reporting-of-trainee-metrics-using-electronic-clinical-systems
#2
Jonathan C Levin, Jonathan Hron
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has called for increased emphasis on reporting objective performance measures to trainees and programs. However, reporting of objective measures, including clinical volume, is largely omitted from training programs. OBJECTIVE: To use automated electronic medical systems at a tertiary pediatric care hospital to create a dashboard that reports objective trainee and program metrics, including clinical volume and diagnoses in a pediatrics residency...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634479/whole-blood-profiling-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-innate-immunity-in-infants-identifies-epidermal-growth-factor-il-6-platelet-derived-growth-factor-ab-bb-and-natural-killer-cell-activation
#3
Steven G Smith, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Mihai G Netea, Hazel M Dockrell
Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625248/-core-knowledge-and-skill-based-approach-to-subspecialty-construction-in-critical-intensive-care-medicine-with-distinct-chinese-peculiarity
#4
Lijun Wang, Fang Tian
With the rapid development of critical care medicine (CCM) in China, there are increases in the number of intensive care units (ICUs), the scale of one center ICU and the team. Subspecialty construction of CCM is of great concerns for personnel training as well as discipline development, and is currently one of the urgent problems that need to be resolved. Experience of CCM subspecialty construction from Europe and the United States is lacking and it is necessary to propose some opinions on innovation to construct CCM subspecialties with Chinese characteristics...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624577/identification-of-an-immune-specific-class-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-molecular-features
#5
Daniela Sia, Yang Jiao, Iris Martinez-Quetglas, Olga Kuchuk, Carlos Villacorta-Martin, Manuel Castro de Moura, Juan Putra, Genis Camprecios, Laia Bassaganyas, Nicholas Akers, Bojan Losic, Samuel Waxman, Swan N Thung, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Manel Esteller, Scott L Friedman, Myron Schwartz, Augusto Villanueva, Josep M Llovet
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Agents that induce an immune response against tumors by altering T-cell regulation have increased survival times of patients with advanced-stage tumors, such as melanoma or lung cancer. We aimed to characterize molecular features of immune cells that infiltrate hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) to determine whether these types of agents might be effective against liver tumors. METHODS: We analyzed HCC samples from 956 patients. We separated gene expression profiles from tumor, stromal, and immune cells using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618109/vaccination-timeliness-in-preterm-infants-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Helen Sisson, Eric Gardiner, Roger Watson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To take a systematic approach to reviewing the scientific literature examining the timeliness of vaccination in preterm infants and to identify any factors associated with timeliness. BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are vulnerable to infection and guidance advocates they are vaccinated in accordance with their full term peers. Vaccination is well tolerated and protective immune responses are observed, yet some early enquiries suggest that preterm infants experience unwarranted delays...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616851/effect-of-aerobic-interval-training-on-serum-il-10-tnf%C3%AE-and-adipokines-levels-in-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-possible-relations-with-fatigue-and-quality-of-life
#7
Motahare Mokhtarzade, Rouholah Ranjbar, Nastaran Majdinasab, Darpan Patel, Mehdieh Molanouri Shamsi
PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis...
June 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601946/clinical-management-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-in-high-resource-settings
#8
G Marshall Lyon, Aneesh K Mehta, Bruce S Ribner
Like most viral illnesses in humans, supportive care of the patient is the mainstay of clinical care for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The goal is to maintain and sustain the patient until a specific immune response develops and clears the viral infection. Clearly, antiviral therapy may eventually help speed recovery, but supportive care will likely always be the centerpiece of care of the patient with EVD. While terrible in terms of human suffering and loss, the EVD outbreak of 2014-2016 provided an unheralded opportunity to advance our understanding in the care of patients (WHO 2016)...
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600802/mtorc1-and-mtorc2-as-regulators-of-cell-metabolism-in-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Monika Linke, Stephanie Deborah Fritsch, Nyamdelger Sukhbaatar, Markus Hengstschläger, Thomas Weichhart
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that senses intra- and extracellular nutrients, growth factors, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns to regulate the function of innate and adaptive immune cell populations. In this Review, we focus on the role of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 in the regulation of the cellular energy metabolism of these immune cells to regulate and support immune responses. In this regard, mTORC1 and mTORC2 generally promote an anabolic response by stimulating protein synthesis, glycolysis, mitochondrial functions, and lipid synthesis to influence proliferation and survival, effector and memory responses, innate training and tolerance as well as hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
June 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593786/characterization-of-liver-changes-in-zsf1-rats-an-animal-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Marta Borges Canha, José Pedro Portela-Cidade, Glória Conceição, Cláudia Sousa-Mendes, Sara Leite, Dulce Fontoura, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves, Inês Falcão-Pires, André Lourenço, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Pedro Pimentel-Nunes
BACKGROUND: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic counterpart of the metabolic syndrome. ZSF1 rats are a metabolic syndrome animal model in which liver changes have not been described yet. AIM: The characterization of liver histological and innate immunity changes in ZSF1 rats. METHODS: Five groups of rats were included (n = 7 each group): healthy Wistar-Kyoto control rats (Ctrl), hypertensive ZSF1 lean (Ln), ZSF1 obese rats with a normal diet (Ob), ZSF1 obese rates with a high-fat diet (Ob-HFD), and ZSF1 obese rats with low-intensity exercise training (Ob-Ex)...
June 8, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592086/-comparative-analyze-on-hepatitis-b-seroepidemiological-surveys-among-population-aged-1-29-years-in-different-epidemic-regions-of-china-in-1992-and-2014
#11
F Z Wang, G M Zhang, L P Shen, H Zheng, F Wang, N Miao, Q L Yuan, X J Sun, S L Bi, X F Liang, H Q Wang
Objective: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China. Methods: Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574016/coverage-missed-opportunity-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-gorakhpur-division-uttar-pradesh-india-2015-implications-for-japanese-encephalitis-control
#12
Manoj V Murhekar, Chinmay Oak, Prashant Ranjan, K Kanagasabai, Satish Shinde, Ashok Kumar Pandey, Mahima Mittal, Milind Gore, Sanjay M Mehendale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two doses of JE vaccine ( first during 9-12 months and second during 16-24 months of age) are administered under the Universal Immunization Programme. We conducted surveys to estimate the coverage of JE vaccine and magnitude of missed opportunity for vaccination (MoV) for JE in Gorakhpur division. METHODS: To estimate the JE vaccine coverage, cluster surveys were conducted in four districts of Gorakhpur division by selecting 30 clusters by probability proportional to size method in each district, seven children aged 25-36 months were selected from each cluster and their mothers were interviewed about JE vaccination...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571045/new-zealand-doctors-and-nurses-views-on-legalising-assisted-dying-in-new-zealand
#13
Pam Oliver, Michael Wilson, Phillipa Malpas
BACKGROUND: Assisted dying (AD) has been legalised by statute or court decisions in at least 15 jurisdictions internationally. Nonetheless, only three medical professional bodies (and none in nursing) across those jurisdictions have proactively developed authorised policy, practice standards, guidelines or protocols, or other professional supports for health practitioners who may legally participate in AD services, and the majority internationally remain formally opposed to AD. There is a perceived likelihood that AD may be legalised in New Zealand soon...
June 2, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569335/assessment-of-coverage-and-analysis-of-the-determinants-of-adherence-to-influenza-vaccination-in-the-general-practitioners-of-taranto
#14
F Desiante, G Caputi, R Cipriani, C Nanula, I Aprile, A Pesare, M Conversano
BACKGROUND: In Italy, the general practitioner (GP) is the operations manager of the campaigns regarding influenza immunization. He/she identifies people eligible for vaccination among the clients, invites them actively and administers the vaccine. The GPs are directly in contact with the target population that should be vaccinated and their opinion about the flu vaccine may ultimately influence the decision of the patient to accept or not the vaccination. This study aims to assess levels of immunization for influenza vaccination among GPs and factors influencing their adherence to the vaccinations recommended for GPs in the province of Taranto (Apulia region, Southern Italy)...
July 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566033/hospital-waste-management-in-developing-countries-a-mini-review
#15
Mustafa Ali, Wenping Wang, Nawaz Chaudhry, Yong Geng
Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries...
June 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558974/computational-prediction-of-immune-cell-cytotoxicity
#16
Anna K Schrey, Janette Nickel-Seeber, Malgorzata N Drwal, Paula Zwicker, Nadin Schultze, Beate Haertel, Robert Preissner
Immunotoxicity, defined as adverse effects of xenobiotics on the immune system, is gaining increasing attention in the approval process of industrial chemicals and drugs. In-vivo and ex-vivo experiments have been the gold standard in immunotoxicity assessment so far, so the development of in-vitro and in-silico alternatives is an important issue. In this paper we describe a widely applicable, easy-to use computational approach which can serve as an initial immunotoxicity screen of new chemical entities. Molecular fingerprints describing chemical structure were used as parameters in a machine-learning approach based on the Naïve-Bayes learning algorithm...
May 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556395/effects-of-exercise-training-on-breast-cancer-metastasis-in-a-rat-model
#17
Antonieta Alvarado, Rui M Gil da Costa, Ana I Faustino-Rocha, Rita Ferreira, Carlos Lopes, Paula A Oliveira, Bruno Colaço
Exercise training is thought to play a protective role against cancer development and metastasis, either by reducing hormonal stimulation of hormone-dependent cancers or by reducing the permeability of vascular walls towards invading metastatic cells. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the role of long-term exercise training in the development and metastasis of breast cancer, in an immune-competent 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) induced rat model. A single MNU dose was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age and the rats were subjected to exercise training on a treadmill at 20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks...
February 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550712/combined-immune-checkpoint-blockade-anti-pd-1-anti-ctla-4-evaluation-and-management-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#18
REVIEW
Jessica C Hassel, Lucie Heinzerling, Jens Aberle, Oliver Bähr, Thomas K Eigentler, Marc-Oliver Grimm, Victor Grünwald, Jan Leipe, Niels Reinmuth, Julia K Tietze, Jörg Trojan, Lisa Zimmer, Ralf Gutzmer
Combined immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) provides unprecedented efficacy gains in numerous cancer indications, with PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab plus CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab in advanced melanoma as first-ever approved therapies for combined ICB. However, gains in efficacy must be balanced against a higher frequency and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADR). Because delays in diagnosis and management might result in symptom worsening and further complications, clinicians shall be well trained to identify ADR promptly and monitor patients adequately...
June 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545902/uptake-of-influenza-vaccination-awareness-and-its-associated-barriers-among-medical-students-of-a-university-hospital-in-central-saudi-arabia
#19
Mohammed S Abalkhail, Mohannad S Alzahrany, Khaled A Alghamdi, Muath A Alsoliman, Mosa A Alzahrani, Badr S Almosned, Ibrahim M Gosadi, Shabana Tharkar
Outbreaks of influenza epidemics are common but influenza vaccination is sub-optimal among the healthcare staff including the medical students. The study aims to assess the rate of vaccine uptake among medical students, its associated barriers and levels of awareness. A cross sectional study was done at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia on 421 medical students by self administered questionnaire from February to March 2015. The immunization rate of seasonal influenza vaccine was just 20.7% in 2015, while it was 57% for cumulative of previous three-year period...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536307/gene-expression-profiling-in-braf-mutated-melanoma-reveals-patient-subgroups-with-poor-outcomes-to-vemurafenib-that-may-be-overcome-by-cobimetinib-plus-vemurafenib
#20
Matthew J Wongchenko, Grant A McArthur, Brigitte Dréno, James Larkin, Paolo A Ascierto, Jeffrey Sosman, Luc Andries, Mark Kockx, Stephen D Hurst, Ivor Caro, Isabelle Rooney, Priti S Hegde, Luciana Molinero, Huibin Yue, Ilsung Chang, Lukas C Amler, Yibing Yan, Antoni Ribas
The association of tumor gene expression profiles with progression-free survival (PFS) outcomes in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma treated with vemurafenib or cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib was evaluated. <br /><br />Experimental Design: Gene expression of archival tumor samples from patients in four trials (BRIM-2, BRIM-3, BRIM-7, and coBRIM) was evaluated. Genes significantly associated with PFS (P<0 .05) were identified by univariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, then subjected to unsupervised hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and recursive partitioning to develop optimized gene signatures...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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