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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924003/learning-the-high-dimensional-immunogenomic-features-that-predict-public-and-private-antibody-repertoires
#1
Victor Greiff, Cédric R Weber, Johannes Palme, Ulrich Bodenhofer, Enkelejda Miho, Ulrike Menzel, Sai T Reddy
Recent studies have revealed that immune repertoires contain a substantial fraction of public clones, which may be defined as Ab or TCR clonal sequences shared across individuals. It has remained unclear whether public clones possess predictable sequence features that differentiate them from private clones, which are believed to be generated largely stochastically. This knowledge gap represents a lack of insight into the shaping of immune repertoire diversity. Leveraging a machine learning approach capable of capturing the high-dimensional compositional information of each clonal sequence (defined by CDR3), we detected predictive public clone and private clone-specific immunogenomic differences concentrated in CDR3's N1-D-N2 region, which allowed the prediction of public and private status with 80% accuracy in humans and mice...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923364/tissue-specific-immunity-at-the-oral-mucosal-barrier
#2
REVIEW
Niki M Moutsopoulos, Joanne E Konkel
The oral mucosal barrier is constantly exposed to a plethora of triggers requiring immune control, including a diverse commensal microbiome, ongoing damage from mastication, and dietary and airborne antigens. However, how these tissue-specific cues participate in the training of immune responsiveness at this site is minimally understood. Moreover, the mechanisms mediating homeostatic immunity at this interface are not yet fully defined. Here we present basic aspects of the oral mucosal barrier and discuss local cues that may modulate and train local immune responsiveness...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914426/resistance-training-status-modifies-inflammatory-response-to-explosive-and-hypertrophic-resistance-exercise-bouts
#3
Johanna K Ihalainen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Simon Walker, Gøran Paulsen, Harri Selänne, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Heikki Peltonen, Antti A Mero
The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate and prolonged immune response in circulating cytokine and adipocytokine concentrations after two different resistance exercise bouts: hypertrophic (HYP1, 5 × 10, 80% of 1RM) and maximal explosive (POW1, 10 × 5, 60% of 1RM) resistance exercise bouts and how 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) modifies these responses (HYP2, POW2). Eight men completed the study. RE-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were measured before (PRE) and immediately (POST0), 24 (POST24) and 48 (POST48) hours after RE bouts before and after RT...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912725/enhanced-strength-and-sprint-levels-and-changes-in-blood-parameters-during-a-complete-athletics-season-in-800-m-high-level-athletes
#4
Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Juan J González-Badillo
The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in sprint, strength, hematological, and hormonal parameters in high-level 800 m athletes during a complete athletics season. Thirteen male athletes of national and international level in 800 m (personal best ranging from 1:43 to 1:58 min:ss) participated in this study. A total of 5 tests were conducted during a complete athletics season. Athletes performed sprint tests (20 and 200 m), countermovement jump (CMJ), jump squat (JS), and full squat (SQ) tests. Blood samples (red and white blood profile) and hormones were collected in test 1 (T1), test 3 (T3), and test 5 (T5)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906029/il-6-production-by-monocytes-is-associated-with-graft-function-decline-in-patients-with-borderline-changes-suspicious-for-acute-t-cell-mediated-rejection-a-pilot-study
#5
Olivier Désy, Stéphanie Béland, Patrice Vallin, Julie Riopel, Eva Latulippe, Nader Najafian, Anil Chandraker, Mohsen Agharazii, Ibrahim Batal, Sacha A De Serres
Although borderline changes (BL) suspicious for acute T-cell-mediated rejection represents a diagnostic category its clinical relevance is questioned leading to heterogeneous therapeutic management. We hypothesized that measuring IL-6 secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells identifies patients with ongoing graft damage. We examined the association between secreted IL-6 and the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate at 6 months after the biopsy (ΔeGFR). We then conducted phenotypic and functional studies on patient and mouse innate immune cells in the blood and the kidney...
September 14, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901963/underlying-chronic-disease-medication-use-history-of-running-injuries-and-being-a-more-experienced-runner-are-independent-factors-associated-with-exercise-associated-muscle-cramping-a-cross-sectional-study-in-15778-distance-runners
#6
Martin P Schwellnus, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan, Wayne Derman, Dina C Janse Van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a significant medical complication in distance runners, yet factors associated with EAMC are poorly documented. OBJECTIVE: To document risk factors associated with EAMC in runners. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two ocean races (21.1 km, and 56 km). PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen thousand seven hundred seventy-eight race entrants. METHODS: Participants completed a prerace medical history screening tool including: training, cardiovascular disease (CVD), risk factors for, and symptoms of CVD, history of diseases affecting major organ systems, cancer, allergies, medication use, and running injury...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900822/an-international-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prehabilitation-compared-to-usual-care-for-cancer-patients
#7
REVIEW
C Treanor, T Kyaw, M Donnelly
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to systematically review and synthesise randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of prehabilitation compared to usual care for newly diagnosed, adult-onset cancer patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SSCI were searched up to April 2017. Studies were included if disease-related, treatment-related, patient-reported and health service utilisation outcomes were assessed. Two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the risk of bias of each study...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894312/-there-s-no-touching-in-pharmacy-training-pharmacists-for-australia-s-first-pharmacist-immunization-pilot
#8
Esther T L Lau, Michelle E Rochin, Megan DelDot, Beverley D Glass, Lisa M Nissen
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a safe, efficient, and cost-effective means of preventing, controlling, and eradicating many life-threatening infections and diseases. Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that vaccination saves between 2 million and 3 million lives annually. However, low immunization rates are a significant public health concern. Individual factors, along with the vaccination process and system, have been reported as perceived barriers and challenges to immunization...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893747/the-health-and-well-being-of-australia-s-future-medical-doctors-protocol-for-a-5-year-observational-cohort-study-of-medical-trainees
#9
Erin Cvejic, Gordon Parker, Samuel B Harvey, Zachery Steel, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Claire L Macnamara, Uté Vollmer-Conna
INTRODUCTION: Clinical training in the undergraduate medical course places multiple stressors on trainees, which have been held to lead to heightened distress, depression, suicide, substance misuse/abuse and poor mental health outcomes. To date, evidence for morbidity in trainees is largely derived from cross-sectional survey-based research. This limits the accuracy of estimates and the extent to which predispositional vulnerabilities (biological and/or psychological), contextual triggers and longer-term consequences can be validly identified...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888667/preimmunization-with-a-heat-killed-preparation-of-mycobacterium-vaccae-enhances-fear-extinction-in-the-fear-potentiated-startle-paradigm
#10
James H Fox, James E Hassell, Philip H Siebler, Mathew R Arnold, Andrew K Lamb, David G Smith, Heidi E W Day, Tessa M Smith, Emma M Simmerman, Alexander A Outzen, Kaley S Holmes, Christopher J Brazell, Christopher A Lowry
The hygiene hypothesis or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that inflammatory diseases are increasing in modern urban societies, due in part to reduced exposure to microorganisms that drive immunoregulatory circuits, and a failure to terminate inappropriate inflammatory responses. Inappropriate inflammation is also emerging as a risk factor for trauma-related, anxiety, and affective disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized as persistent re-experiencing of the trauma after a traumatic experience...
September 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885479/high-dose-subcutaneous-immunoglobulin-in-patients-with-multifocal-motor-neuropathy-a-nursing-perspective
#11
Vilija M Rasutis, Hans D Katzberg, Vera Bril
Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), an immune neuromuscular condition causing progressive weakness, usually responds to immune-mediated treatments, including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Fifteen patients with MMN receiving IVIG were enrolled in an open-label, single-center trial and switched to 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) using a smooth transition protocol (ie, changing the therapy without interruption or impact on the intended outcome of the therapy). Patients received individualized training and support based on motivation and ability to learn, follow directions, and maintain compliance...
September 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882107/statistical-classifiers-for-diagnosing-disease-from-immune-repertoires-a-case-study-using-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Jared Ostmeyer, Scott Christley, William H Rounds, Inimary Toby, Benjamin M Greenberg, Nancy L Monson, Lindsay G Cowell
BACKGROUND: Deep sequencing of lymphocyte receptor repertoires has made it possible to comprehensively profile the clonal composition of lymphocyte populations. This opens the door for novel approaches to diagnose and prognosticate diseases with a driving immune component by identifying repertoire sequence patterns associated with clinical phenotypes. Indeed, recent studies support the feasibility of this, demonstrating an association between repertoire-level summary statistics (e.g., diversity) and patient outcomes for several diseases...
September 7, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874920/the-manual-stimulation-of-acupuncture-points-in-the-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-of-clinical-emotional-freedom-techniques
#13
Dawson Church, David Feinstein
Background: The manual stimulation of acupuncture points has been combined with components of cognitive and exposure therapies into a clinical and self-help approach known as Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). More than 40 clinical trials and four meta-analytic reviews of EFT treatments have demonstrated large effect sizes with a range of conditions, including pain, PTSD (in both civilian and military veteran populations), phobias, anxiety, and depression. Objective: This review describes the approach, with a focus on PTSD in veterans and service members, provides an overview of how EFT is most commonly applied, and outlines obstacles and cautions related to its implementation...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873423/an-immunosignature-test-distinguishes-trypanosoma-cruzi-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-west-nile-virus-seropositivity-among-asymptomatic-blood-donors
#14
Michael Rowe, Jonathan Melnick, Robert Gerwien, Joseph B Legutki, Jessica Pfeilsticker, Theodore M Tarasow, Kathryn F Sykes
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma (T.) cruzi manifests in its highly dynamic genome, multi-host life cycle, progressive morphologies and immune-evasion mechanisms. Accurate determination of infection or Chagas' disease activity and prognosis continues to challenge researchers. We hypothesized that a diagnostic platform with higher ligand complexity than previously employed may hold value. METHODOLOGY: We applied the ImmunoSignature Technology (IST) for the detection of T...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872424/intensified-training-period-increases-salivary-iga-responses-but-does-not-affect-the-severity-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-symptoms-in-prepuberal-rhythmic-gymnasts
#15
Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, Alexandre Moreira
This study examined the effect of a 4-week intensified training period (IT), followed by a 2-week tapering period (TP), on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), salivary cortisol (CORT) and the severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in 23 rhythmic gymnasts (12.1±2.6 yrs; 143.9±13.7 cm; 37.2±9.4 kg). Saliva sampling was conducted at pre- and post-IT, and post-TP (analyzed using ELISA). The WURSS-21 questionnaire was completed daily to analyze the severity of URTI symptoms. The session-RPE was used to determine the internal training load and the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACW)...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861086/immunobiography-and-the-heterogeneity-of-immune-responses-in-the-elderly-a-focus-on-inflammaging-and-trained-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Stefano Salvioli, Paolo Garagnani, Magda de Eguileor, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri
Owing to its memory and plasticity, the immune system (IS) is capable of recording all the immunological experiences and stimuli it was exposed to. The combination of type, dose, intensity, and temporal sequence of antigenic stimuli that each individual is exposed to has been named "immunobiography." This immunological history induces a lifelong continuous adaptation of the IS, which is responsible for the capability to mount strong, weak or no response to specific antigens, thus determining the large heterogeneity of immunological responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860080/rituximab-desensitization-in-three-patients-with-severe-rituximab-allergy
#17
Erman Öztürk, Leyla Pur Özyiğit, Ayşe Bilge Öztürk, Meltem Olga Akay, Mustafa Çetiner, Burhan Ferhanoğlu
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 positive B cells and has a positive effect on both overall and progression-free survival in B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Combination rituximab with chemotherapy treatment provide survival improvement. Although rituximab is an important treatment option in hematological malignancies, the risk of allergic reactions is high. These reactions are usually IgE-mediated and can be varied in regard of severity from urticaria to anaphylaxis. It is an option to interrupt the treatment and ommit rituximab therapy who had allergic reactions...
July 27, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856140/new-insights-about-the-putative-role-of-myokines-in-the-context-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-and-secondary-cardiovascular-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Domenico Di Raimondo, Giuseppe Miceli, Gaia Musiari, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto
Exercise training prevents the onset and the development of many chronic diseases, acting as an effective tool both for primary and for secondary prevention. Various mechanisms that may be the effectors of these beneficial effects have been proposed during the past decades: some of these are well recognized, others less. Muscular myokines, released during and after muscular contraction, have been proposed as key mediators of the systemic effects of the exercise. Nevertheless the availability of an impressive amount of evidence regarding the systemic effects of muscle-derived factors, few studies have examined key issues: (I) if skeletal muscle cells themselves are the main source of cytokine during exercise; (II) if the release of myokines into the systemic circulation reach an adequate concentration to provide significant effects in tissues far from skeletal muscle; (III) what may be the role carried out by muscular cytokine regarding the well-known benefits induced by regular exercise, first of all the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845176/effects-of-mind-body-training-on-cytokines-and-their-interactions-with-catecholamines
#19
Joon Hwan Jang, Hye Yoon Park, Ui Soon Lee, Kyung-Jun Lee, Do-Hyung Kang
OBJECTIVE: Mind-body training (MBT) may control reactions to stress and regulate the nervous and immune systems. The present study was designed to assess the effects of MBT on plasma cytokines and their interactions with catecholamines. METHODS: The study group consisted of 80 subjects who practice MBT and a control group of 62 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine, NE; epinephrine, E; and dopamine, DA) and cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and IL-10) levels were measured, and the differences between the MBT and control groups and the interactions of cytokines with catecholamines were investigated...
July 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838344/inflammatory-and-immune-responses-to-a-3-day-period-of-downhill-running-in-active-females
#20
S Jafariyan, A Monazzami, Z Nikosefat, M Nobahar, K Yari
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by inflammatory and immune responses. However, due to the repeated bout effect, there will probably be less EIMD. Hence, the purpose was to investigate inflammatory and immune responses over a three-day period of downhill running in active females. Eleven moderately trained healthy females performed three 60-minute bouts of downhill running in -13.5% grade, separated by 24 hours, at a speed eliciting 70-80% of their VO2peak on level grade. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), range of motion (ROM) and maximum knee isotonic strength (1RM) were measured pre- and two-hour post every bout...
August 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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