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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141660/xcell-digitally-portraying-the-tissue-cellular-heterogeneity-landscape
#1
Dvir Aran, Zicheng Hu, Atul J Butte
Tissues are complex milieus consisting of numerous cell types. Several recent methods have attempted to enumerate cell subsets from transcriptomes. However, the available methods have used limited sources for training and give only a partial portrayal of the full cellular landscape. Here we present xCell, a novel gene signature-based method, and use it to infer 64 immune and stromal cell types. We harmonized 1822 pure human cell type transcriptomes from various sources and employed a curve fitting approach for linear comparison of cell types and introduced a novel spillover compensation technique for separating them...
November 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132529/celiac-disease-and-gluten-sensitivity
#2
REVIEW
Katharine C DeGeorge, Jeanetta W Frye, Kim M Stein, Lisa K Rollins, Daniel F McCarter
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten that affects genetically predisposed individuals, typically causing intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Diagnosis requires stepwise evaluation with anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and histologic analysis of the small bowel. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the primary treatment. Patients with symptoms thought to be related to gluten but without evidence of celiac disease are difficult to diagnose and treat. Consider first advising general nutritional improvements...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126306/the-future-of-radiobiology
#3
David G Kirsch, Max Diehn, Aparna H Kesarwala, Amit Maity, Meredith A Morgan, Julie K Schwarz, Robert Bristow, Sandra Demaria, Iris Eke, Robert J Griffin, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Geoff S Higgins, Alec C Kimmelman, Randall J Kimple, Isabelle M Lombaert, Li Ma, Brian Marples, Frank Pajonk, Catherine C Park, Dörthe Schaue, Eric J Bernhard
Innovation and progress in radiation oncology depend on discovery and insights realized through research in radiation biology. Radiobiology research has led to fundamental scientific insights, from the discovery of stem/progenitor cells to the definition of signal transduction pathways activated by ionizing radiation that are now recognized as integral to the DNA damage response (DDR). Radiobiological discoveries are guiding clinical trials that test radiation therapy combined with inhibitors of the DDR kinases DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), and immune or cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123474/brain-interleukin-1-facilitates-learning-of-a-water-maze-spatial-memory-task-in-young-mice
#4
Takako Takemiya, Kumiko Fumizawa, Kanato Yamagata, Yoichiro Iwakura, Marumi Kawakami
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1) is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#5
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120315/canadian-pharmacists-as-immunizers-addressing-questions-related-to-this-new-scope-of-practice
#6
Sherilyn K D Houle
Currently, pharmacists in nine Canadian provinces can apply for authorization to administer drugs and vaccines by injection following the successful completion of a required training program and with evidence of certification in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As more provinces and pharmacists embrace this new scope, questions are being raised about their readiness and ability to provide this public health service. This commentary addresses a number of questions commonly raised about pharmacists as immunizers, taking the position that pharmacists are able and willing to play a larger role in vaccination programs...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109450/interactive-phenotyping-of-large-scale-histology-imaging-data-with-histomicsml
#7
Michael Nalisnik, Mohamed Amgad, Sanghoon Lee, Sameer H Halani, Jose Enrique Velazquez Vega, Daniel J Brat, David A Gutman, Lee A D Cooper
Whole-slide imaging of histologic sections captures tissue microenvironments and cytologic details in expansive high-resolution images. These images can be mined to extract quantitative features that describe tissues, yielding measurements for hundreds of millions of histologic objects. A central challenge in utilizing this data is enabling investigators to train and evaluate classification rules for identifying objects related to processes like angiogenesis or immune response. In this paper we describe HistomicsML, an interactive machine-learning system for digital pathology imaging datasets...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104575/-hotspots-of-antigen-presentation-revealed-by-human-leukocyte-antigen-ligandomics-for-neoantigen-prioritization
#8
Markus Müller, David Gfeller, George Coukos, Michal Bassani-Sternberg
The remarkable clinical efficacy of the immune checkpoint blockade therapies has motivated researchers to discover immunogenic epitopes and exploit them for personalized vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-binding peptides derived from processing and presentation of mutated proteins are one of the leading targets for T-cell recognition of cancer cells. Currently, most studies attempt to identify neoantigens based on predicted affinity to HLA molecules, but the performance of such prediction algorithms is rather poor for rare HLA class I alleles and for HLA class II...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102898/communication-of-health-in-experimentally-sick-men-and-women-a-pilot-study
#9
Julie Lasselin, Mats Lekander, Sofie Paues-Göranson, Mats J Olsson, John Axelsson
The way people communicate their ill-health and the factors involved in ill-health communication remain poorly known. In the present study, we tested how men and women communicate their sickness and assessed whether sickness-related variables (i.e., body temperature, immune response, subjective sickness symptoms) predicted communicative behaviors. Twenty-two participants were filmed during experimentally induced sickness, triggered by lipopolysaccharide administration (2ng/kg body weight), and after placebo administration, in presence of female care providers...
November 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092860/exercise-training-reverses-inflammation-and-muscle-wasting-after-tobacco-smoke-exposure
#10
Karsten Krüger, Michael Seimetz, Robert Ringseis, Jochen Wilhelm, Alexandra Pichl, Aline Couturier, Klaus Eder, Norbert Weissmann, Frank C Mooren
Long term cigarette smoking induces inflammatory processes in the pulmonary system which are suggested to "spill over" into systemic inflammation. Regular exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of therapeutic exercise on inflammation and muscle wasting in smoke-exposed mice. C57BL/6J-mice (n = 30) were separated into three groups to receive either: (1) controls with no specific treatment (Con group), (2) 8 months exposure to cigarette smoke (smoke-exposed (SE) group), (3) 8 months of cigarette smoke combined with exercise training during the last 2 months (SEex group)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073262/development-and-validation-of-immune-dysfunction-score-to-predict-28-day-mortality-of-sepsis-patients
#11
Wen-Feng Fang, Ivor S Douglas, Yu-Mu Chen, Chiung-Yu Lin, Hsu-Ching Kao, Ying-Tang Fang, Chi-Han Huang, Ya-Ting Chang, Kuo-Tung Huang, Yi-His Wang, Chin-Chou Wang, Meng-Chih Lin
BACKGROUND: Sepsis-induced immune dysfunction ranging from cytokines storm to immunoparalysis impacts outcomes. Monitoring immune dysfunction enables better risk stratification and mortality prediction and is mandatory before widely application of immunoadjuvant therapies. We aimed to develop and validate a scoring system according to patients' immune dysfunction status for 28-day mortality prediction. METHODS: A prospective observational study from a cohort of adult sepsis patients admitted to ICU between August 2013 and June 2016 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050337/comprehensive-immune-transcriptomic-analysis-in-bladder-cancer-reveals-subtype-specific-immune-gene-expression-patterns-of-prognostic-relevance
#12
Runhan Ren, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Charles H Graham, Madhuri Koti, D Robert Siemens
Recent efforts on genome wide profiling of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) have led to its classification into distinct genomic and transcriptomic molecular subtypes that exhibit variability in prognosis. Evolving evidence from recent immunotherapy trials has demonstrated the significance of pre-existing tumour immune profiles that could guide treatment decisions. To identify immune gene expression patterns associated with the molecular subtypes, we performed a comprehensive in silico immune transcriptomic profiling, utilizing transcriptomic data from 347 MIBC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045526/lag-3-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-breast-cancer-clinical-correlates-and-association-with-pd-1-pd-l1-tumors
#13
S Burugu, D Gao, S Leung, S K Chia, T O Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Novel immune checkpoint blockade strategies are being evaluated in clinical trials and include targeting the lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) checkpoint, alone or in combination with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. We investigated LAG-3 expression and its prognostic value in a large series of breast cancer patients, and correlated LAG-3 expression with key biomarkers including PD-1 and PD-L1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: LAG-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on two tissue microarray series incorporating 4322 breast cancer primary excision specimens (N=330 in the training and N= 3,992 in the validation set) linked to detailed clinico-pathological, biomarker and long term clinical outcome data...
September 25, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042916/the-proposal-of-paediatric-virology-and-its-perspectives-an-interview-with-professor-of-paediatrics-maria-theodoridou
#14
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037326/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-may-improve-recovery-and-muscle-adaptations-after-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Vagner R Silva, Felipe L Belozo, Thayana O Micheletti, Marcelo Conrado, Jeffrey R Stout, Gustavo D Pimentel, Adam M Gonzalez
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035391/a-gammaherpesvirus-provides-protection-against-allergic-asthma-by-inducing-the-replacement-of-resident-alveolar-macrophages-with-regulatory-monocytes
#16
Bénédicte Machiels, Mickael Dourcy, Xue Xiao, Justine Javaux, Claire Mesnil, Catherine Sabatel, Daniel Desmecht, François Lallemand, Philippe Martinive, Hamida Hammad, Martin Guilliams, Benjamin Dewals, Alain Vanderplasschen, Bart N Lambrecht, Fabrice Bureau, Laurent Gillet
The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the recent increase in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever observed in Western countries is linked to reduced exposure to childhood infections. Here we investigated how infection with a gammaherpesvirus affected the subsequent development of allergic asthma. We found that murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) inhibited the development of house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental asthma by modulating lung innate immune cells. Specifically, infection with MuHV-4 caused the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) by monocytes with regulatory functions...
October 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031957/exercise-training-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-peripheral-immunomodulation-rather-than-direct-neuroprotection
#17
Ofira Einstein, Nina Fainstein, Olga Touloumi, Roza Lagoudaki, Ester Hanya, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Abram Katz, Tamir Ben-Hur
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. METHODS: Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031950/identification-of-potential-transcriptomic-markers-in-developing-asthma-an-integrative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles
#18
Fang Fang, Jian Pan, Yanhong Li, Yiping Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang
The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing asthma by an integrative analysis of multiple public microarray data sets. Using the R software and bioconductor packages, we performed a statistical analysis to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes in asthma, and further performed functional interpretation (enrichment analysis and co-expression network construction) and classification quality evaluation of the DE genes identified. 3 microarray datasets (192 cases and 91 controls in total) were collected for this analysis...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021092/t-cells-and-their-cytokine-production-the-anti-inflammatory-and-immunosuppressive-effects-of-strenuous-exercise
#19
REVIEW
David M Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Deborah Dulson
Strenuous exercise bouts and heavy training are associated with a heightened anti-inflammatory state and a transient suppression of several immune components. In turn, many athletes are susceptible to illness, particularly upper respiratory symptoms (e.g. cough, sore throat, running nose). T-lymphocytes (T-cells) are important for orchestrating the immune response and can be categorised into subsets according to their phenotypical characteristics resulting from polarisation (i.e. type-1, type-2 and regulatory T-cells)...
October 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018149/hypothesis-stimulation-of-trained-immunity-as-adjunctive-immunotherapy-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten, Jos W M van der Meer
Cancer immunotherapy has steadily progressed during the past decades, with checkpoint inhibitor therapy becoming the latest and one of the most promising treatments. Despite the progress, most of the patients do not respond or develop resistance, and novel additional approaches are needed to improve the clinical effectiveness of immunotherapy. Trained immunity (TI) has been described recently as a process of epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming that induces a long-term enhanced function of innate immune cells...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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