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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813460/mechanisms-for-pattern-specificity-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Osvaldo Matías Velarde, Germán Mato, Damián Dellavale
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764392/the-pacemaker-role-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-controlling-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles
#2
Denggui Fan, Fucheng Liao, Qingyun Wang
Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752060/sleep-onset-uncovers-thalamic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-generalised-epilepsy
#3
Andrew P Bagshaw, Joanne R Hale, Brunno M Campos, David T Rollings, Rebecca S Wilson, Marina K M Alvim, Ana Carolina Coan, Fernando Cendes
The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE), and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC) of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750590/initiation-of-spreading-depression-by-synaptic-and-network-hyperactivity-insights-into-trigger-mechanisms-of-migraine-aura
#4
Lyudmila V Vinogradova
Background Cortical spreading depression (SD) is thought to underlie migraine aura but mechanisms of triggering SD in the structurally normal, well-nourished cortex of migraine patients remain unknown. Synaptic and network dysfunctions appear to underlie episodic neurological disorders, including migraine. The narrative review summarizes old and recent experimental evidence for triggering SD by synaptic/network mechanisms and discusses the relevance of the data to migraine pathogenesis. Our hypothesis is that under some conditions synaptic/network hyperactivity may reliably ignite SD, and this mechanism may underlie triggering migraine aura in patients...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#5
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736520/combined-effects-of-feedforward-inhibition-and-excitation-in-thalamocortical-circuit-on-the-transitions-of-epileptic-seizures
#6
Denggui Fan, Lixia Duan, Qian Wang, Guoming Luan
The mechanisms underlying electrophysiologically observed two-way transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures in cerebral cortex remain unknown. The interplay within thalamocortical network is believed to give rise to these epileptic multiple modes of activity and transitions between them. In particular, it is thought that in some areas of cortex there exists feedforward inhibition from specific relay nucleus of thalamus (TC) to inhibitory neuronal population (IN) which has even more stronger functions on cortical activities than the known feedforward excitation from TC to excitatory neuronal population (EX)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659777/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-h-fields-of-forel-alleviates-tics-in-tourette-syndrome
#7
Clemens Neudorfer, Faycal El Majdoub, Stefan Hunsche, Klaus Richter, Volker Sturm, Mohammad Maarouf
The current rationale for target selection in Tourette syndrome revolves around the notion of cortico-basal ganglia circuit involvement in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, despite extensive research, the ideal target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is still under debate, with many structures being neglected and underexplored. Based on clinical observations and taking into account the prevailing hypotheses of network processing in Tourette syndrome, we chose the fields of Forel, namely field H1, as a target for DBS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601398/gaba-receptors-and-t-type-ca-2-channels-crosstalk-in-thalamic-networks
#8
REVIEW
Nathalie Leresche, Régis C Lambert
Although the thalamus presents a rather limited repertoire of GABAergic cell types compare to other CNS area, this structure is a privileged system to study how GABA impacts neuronal network excitability. Indeed both glutamatergic thalamocortical (TC) and GABAergic nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurons present a high expression of T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels whose activation that shapes the output of the thalamus critically depends upon a preceding hyperpolarisation. Because of this strict dependence, a tight functional link between GABA mediated hyperpolarization and T-currents characterizes the thalamic network excitability...
June 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592690/dynamics-of-human-subthalamic-neuron-phase-locking-to-motor-and-sensory-cortical-oscillations-during-movement
#9
Witold J Lipski, Thomas A Wozny, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios Kondylis, Robert S Turner, Donald J Crammond, Robert Mark Richardson
Coupled oscillatory activity recorded between sensorimotor regions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop is thought to reflect information transfer relevant to movement. A neuronal firing-rate model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, however, has dominated thinking about basal ganglia function for the past three decades, without knowledge of the relationship between basal ganglia single neuron firing and cortical population activity during movement itself. We recorded activity from 34 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, simultaneously with cortical local field potentials and motor output, in eleven subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulator lead placement...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591219/mechanisms-underlying-a-thalamocortical-transformation-during-active-tactile-sensation
#10
Diego Adrian Gutnisky, Jianing Yu, Samuel Andrew Hires, Minh-Son To, Michael Ross Bale, Karel Svoboda, David Golomb
During active somatosensation, neural signals expected from movement of the sensors are suppressed in the cortex, whereas information related to touch is enhanced. This tactile suppression underlies low-noise encoding of relevant tactile features and the brain's ability to make fine tactile discriminations. Layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex, the major target of the somatosensory thalamus (VPM), respond to touch, but have low spike rates and low sensitivity to the movement of whiskers. Most neurons in VPM respond to touch and also show an increase in spike rate with whisker movement...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586508/overexpressing-wild-type-%C3%AE-2-subunits-rescued-the-seizure-phenotype-in-gabrg2-q390x-dravet-syndrome-mice
#11
Xuan Huang, Chengwen Zhou, Mengnan Tian, Jing-Qiong Kang, Wangzhen Shen, Kelienne Verdier, Aurea Pimenta, Robert L MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor γ2(Q390X) subunit (Q351X in the mature peptide) has been associated with the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome, and the epilepsy syndrome genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). The mutation generates a premature stop codon that results in translation of a stable truncated and misfolded γ2 subunit that accumulates in neurons, forms intracellular aggregates, disrupts incorporation of γ2 subunits into GABAA receptors, and affects trafficking of partnering α and β subunits...
August 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584881/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-autism-brain-imaging-data-exchange
#12
Neil D Woodward, Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit differences in basic sensorimotor processing as well as general cortical excitability. These observations converge to implicate thalamocortical connectivity as a potential unifying neural mechanism. The goal of this study was to clarify mixed findings on thalamocortical functional connectivity in a large sample of individuals with ASD. METHODS: Using the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), we examined thalamocortical functional connectivity in 228 individuals with ASD and a matched comparison group of 228 typically developing individuals...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576554/absence-seizure-susceptibility-correlates-with-pre-ictal-%C3%AE-oscillations
#13
Jordan M Sorokin, Jeanne T Paz, John R Huguenard
Absence seizures are generalized, cortico-thalamo-cortical (CTC) high power electroencephalographic (EEG) or electrocorticographic (ECoG) events that initiate and terminate suddenly. ECoG recordings of absence seizures in animal models of genetic absence epilepsy show a sudden spike-wave-discharge (SWD) onset that rapidly emerges from normal ECoG activity. However, given that absence seizures occur most often during periods of drowsiness or quiet wakefulness, we wondered whether SWD onset correlates with pre-ictal changes in network activity...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526574/functional-thalamocortical-connectivity-development-and-alterations-in-preterm-infants-during-the-neonatal-period
#14
Yue Cai, Xiushuang Wu, Zihui Su, Yuan Shi, Jia-Hong Gao
The thalamus is one of the most commonly affected brain regions in preterm infants, particularly in infants with white matter lesions (WML). The aim of this paper is to explore the development and alterations of the functional thalamocortical connectivity in preterm infants with and without punctate white matter lesions (PWMLs) during the period before term equivalent age (TEA). In this study, twenty-two normal preterm infants (NP), twenty-two preterm infants with PWMLs and thirty-one full-term control infants (FT) were enrolled...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515010/aberrant-network-activity-in-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Mark J Hunt, Nancy J Kopell, Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington
Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology...
June 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486925/the-mutual-interaction-between-sleep-and-epilepsy-on-the-neurobiological-basis-and-therapy
#16
Yi-Qun Wang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Rui Li, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Sleep and epilepsy are mutually related in a complex, bidirectional manner. However, our understanding of this relationship remains unclear. In this paper, we address the issues involved in these phenomena and also discuss the various therapies used to modify them. The literatures of the neurobiological basis of the interactions between sleep and epilepsy indicate that non-rapid eye movement sleep and idiopathic generalized epilepsy share the same thalamocortical networks. Neuromodulators-such as adenosine, melatonin, prostaglandin D2, serotonin, and histamine-promote wakefulness and are considered to have antiepilepsy effects; antiepileptic drugs, in turn, also have effects on sleep...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450543/the-human-thalamus-is-an-integrative-hub-for-functional-brain-networks
#17
Kai Hwang, Maxwell A Bertolero, William B Liu, Mark D'Esposito
The thalamus is globally connected with distributed cortical regions, yet the functional significance of this extensive thalamocortical connectivity remains largely unknown. By performing graph-theoretic analyses on thalamocortical functional connectivity data collected from human participants, we found that most thalamic subdivisions display network properties that are capable of integrating multimodal information across diverse cortical functional networks. From a meta-analysis of a large dataset of functional brain-imaging experiments, we further found that the thalamus is involved in multiple cognitive functions...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#18
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432143/focal-local-field-potential-signature-of-the-single-axon-monosynaptic-thalamocortical-connection
#19
Espen Hagen, Janne C Fossum, Klas H Pettersen, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Harvey A Swadlow, Gaute T Einevoll
A resurgence has taken place in recent years in the use of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) to investigate neural network activity. To probe monosynaptic thalamic activation of cortical postsynaptic target cells, so called spike-trigger-averaged LFP (stLFP) signatures have been measured. In these experiments, the cortical LFP is measured by multielectrodes covering several cortical lamina and averaged on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical (TC) cells. Using a well established forward-modeling scheme, we investigated the biophysical origin of this stLFP signature with simultaneous synaptic activation of cortical layer-4 neurons, mimicking the effect of a single afferent spike from a single TC neuron...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407555/thalamocortical-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Elliot C Brown, Darren L Clark, Stefanie Hassel, Glenda MacQueen, Rajamannar Ramasubbu
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and potentially devastating, with widespread aberrations in brain activity. Thalamocortical networks are a potential candidate marker for psychopathology in MDD, but have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here we examined functional connectivity between major cortical areas and thalamus. METHOD: Resting-state fMRI from 54 MDD patients and 40 healthy controls were collected. The cortex was segmented into six regions of interest (ROIs) consisting of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and pre-central and post-central gyri...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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