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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229308/eeg-signatures-of-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-states
#1
E A Allen, E Damaraju, T Eichele, L Wu, V D Calhoun
The human brain operates by dynamically modulating different neural populations to enable goal directed behavior. The synchrony or lack thereof between different brain regions is thought to correspond to observed functional connectivity dynamics in resting state brain imaging data. In a large sample of healthy human adult subjects and utilizing a sliding windowed correlation method on functional imaging data, earlier we demonstrated the presence of seven distinct functional connectivity states/patterns between different brain networks that reliably occur across time and subjects...
February 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-non-human-primates
#2
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of non-human primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the MPTP model of parkinsonism...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226275/short-term-cerebral-activity-alterations-after-surgery-in-patients-with-unilateral-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#3
Yingying Tang, Wei Xia, Xiaofeng Yu, Bo Zhou, Chunyan Luo, Xiaoqi Huang, Qin Chen, Qiyong Gong, Dong Zhou
PURPOSE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), as a brain network disorder, has given increased importance to resective surgery. We aimed to examine the short-term postoperative functional network reorganization in patients with unilateral MTLE-HS using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data with a longitudinal design. METHOD: Seventeen (10 right-side and 7 left-side) patients with unilateral MTLE-HS were recruited...
January 3, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223033/children-with-asd-show-links-between-aberrant-sound-processing-social-symptoms-and-atypical-auditory-interhemispheric-and-thalamocortical-functional-connectivity
#4
Annika C Linke, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Ellyn B Pueschel, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communicative deficits, as well as repetitive behaviors and atypical sensitivity to sensory stimulation. Alterations in network connectivity are widely recognized, but their interplay with social and sensory symptoms remains largely unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostic and behavioral assessments were used in a cohort of children and adolescents with ASD (n=40) and matched typically developing (TD, n=38) controls to examine the relation between auditory processing, interhemispheric and thalamocortical network connectivity, and social-behavioral symptom severity...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186667/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-combining-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#5
Zhiliang Long, Qiang Xu, Huan-Huan Miao, Yang Yu, Mei-Ping Ding, Huafu Chen, Zhi-Rong Liu, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is associated with macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities in the thalamus. OBJECTIVES: To examine functional and structural connectivity of thalamocortical networks in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and to further investigate the effect of mutation of the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 on thalamocortical networks. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (n = 20), subdivided into proline-rich transmembrane protein 2-mutated (n = 8) and nonmutated patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 20) underwent resting-state functional MRI and diffusion imaging scan...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167837/neural-mechanisms-of-mismatch-negativity-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#6
M Lee, P Sehatpour, M J Hoptman, P Lakatos, E C Dias, J T Kantrowitz, A M Martinez, D C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits that reflect impaired cortical information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) indexes pre-attentive information processing dysfunction at the level of primary auditory cortex. This study investigates mechanisms underlying MMN impairments in schizophrenia using event-related potential, event-related spectral decomposition (ERSP) and resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) approaches. For this study, MMN data to frequency, intensity and duration-deviants were analyzed from 69 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139019/from-single-cells-single-columns-to-cortical-networks-dendritic-excitability-coincidence-detection-and-synaptic-transmission-in-brain-slices-and-brains
#7
Bert Sakmann
While patch pipettes were initially designed to record extracellularly elementary current events from muscle and neuron membrane, the whole-cell (eg Sakmann, 1992) and loose cell-attached recording configurations proved to be useful tools for examining signaling within and between nerve cells. In this Paton Lecture I will summarize first work on electrical signaling within single neurons, describing communication between its dendritic compartments, soma and nerve terminals via forward and backward propagating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133476/neuronal-activity-controls-the-development-of-interneurons-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#8
Rachel Babij, Natalia De Marco Garcia
BACKGROUND: Neuronal activity in cortical areas regulates neurodevelopment by interacting with defined genetic programs to shape the mature central nervous system. Electrical activity is conveyed to sensory cortical areas via intracortical and thalamocortical neurons, and includes oscillatory patterns that have been measured across cortical regions. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we review the most recent findings about how electrical activity shapes the developmental assembly of functional circuitry in the somatosensory cortex, with an emphasis on interneuron maturation and integration...
December 2016: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132829/studying-brain-circuit-function-with-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-optogenetic-fmri
#9
David Bernal-Casas, Hyun Joo Lee, Andrew J Weitz, Jin Hyung Lee
Defining the large-scale behavior of brain circuits with cell type specificity is a major goal of neuroscience. However, neuronal circuit diagrams typically draw upon anatomical and electrophysiological measurements acquired in isolation. Consequently, a dynamic and cell-type-specific connectivity map has never been constructed from simultaneous measurements across the brain. Here, we introduce dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for optogenetic fMRI experiments-which uniquely allow cell-type-specific, brain-wide functional measurements-to parameterize the causal relationships among regions of a distributed brain network with cell type specificity...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122326/functional-roles-of-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-with-an-emphasis-on-inhibition
#10
REVIEW
Haroon Anwar, Xinping Li, Dirk Bucher, Farzan Nadim
Almost all synapses show activity-dependent dynamic changes in efficacy. Numerous studies have explored the mechanisms underlying different forms of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), but the functional role of STP for circuit output and animal behavior is less understood. This is particularly true for inhibitory synapses that can play widely varied roles in circuit activity. We review recent findings on the role of synaptic STP in sensory, pattern generating, thalamocortical, and hippocampal networks, with a focus on synaptic inhibition...
January 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112458/plasticity-of-neonatal-neuronal-networks-in-very-premature-infants-source-localization-of-temporal-theta-activity-the-first-endogenous-neural-biomarker-in-temporoparietal-areas
#11
L Routier, M Mahmoudzadeh, M Panzani, H Azizollahi, S Goudjil, G Kongolo, F Wallois
Temporal theta slow-wave activity (TTA-SW) in premature infants is a specific signature of the early development of temporal networks, as it is observed at the turning point between non-sensory driven spontaneous local processing and cortical network functioning. The role in development and the precise location of TTA-SW remain unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that preterms from 28 weeks of gestational age (wGA) are able to discriminate phonemes and voice, supporting the idea of a prior genetic structural or activity-dependent fingerprint that would prepare the auditory network to compute auditory information at the onset of thalamocortical connectivity...
January 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105686/visual-tactile-processing-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-emerges-before-cross-modal-experience
#12
Malte Bieler, Kay Sieben, Sandra Schildt, Brigitte Röder, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
The presumptive unisensory neocortical areas process multisensory information by oscillatory entrainment of neuronal networks via direct cortico-cortical projections. While neonatal unimodal experience has been identified as necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing, it is still unclear whether early cross-modal experience equally controls the ontogeny of multisensory processing. Here, we assess the development of visual-somatosensory interactions and their anatomical substrate by performing extracellular recordings of network activity in primary sensory cortices in vivo and assessing the cortico-cortical connectivity in pigmented rats...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#13
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072383/reconstructing-contralateral-fiber-tracts-methodological-aspects-of-cerebello-thalamocortical-pathway-reconstruction
#14
Fulvia Palesi, Jacques-Donald Tournier, F Calamante, Nils Muhlert, Gloria Castellazzi, Declan Chard, E D'Angelo, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to thecerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-resolution maps, created with track density imaging (TDI), were compared with those reconstructed by defining regions of interest (ROIs) on non-diffusion weighted images (b0)...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#15
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989462/bidirectional-control-of-generalized-epilepsy-networks-via-rapid-real-time-switching-of-firing-mode
#16
Jordan M Sorokin, Thomas J Davidson, Eric Frechette, Armen M Abramian, Karl Deisseroth, John R Huguenard, Jeanne T Paz
Thalamic relay neurons have well-characterized dual firing modes: bursting and tonic spiking. Studies in brain slices have led to a model in which rhythmic synchronized spiking (phasic firing) in a population of relay neurons leads to hyper-synchronous oscillatory cortico-thalamo-cortical rhythms that result in absence seizures. This model suggests that blocking thalamocortical phasic firing would treat absence seizures. However, recent in vivo studies in anesthetized animals have questioned this simple model...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942447/altered-structural-and-functional-thalamocortical-networks-in-secondarily-generalized-extratemporal-lobe-seizures
#17
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
Structural and functional abnormalities in the thalamocortical network in primary generalized epilepsies or mesial temporal lobe epilepsy have recently been identified by voxel-wise analyses of neuroimaging. However, evidence is needed regarding the profiles of the thalamocortical network in patients with secondarily generalized seizures from focal neocortical sources. We used high-resolution T1-weighted, diffusion-tensor and resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine 16 patients with secondarily generalized extratemporal lobe seizures and 16 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919294/heantos-4-a-natural-plant-extract-used-in-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction-modulates-t-type-calcium-channels-and-thalamocortical-burst-firing
#18
Stuart M Cain, Soyon Ahn, Esperanza Garcia, Yiming Zhang, Zeina Waheed, John R Tyson, Yi Yang, Tran Van Sung, Anthony G Phillips, Terrance P Snutch
Heantos-4 is a refined combination of plant extracts currently approved to treat opiate addiction in Vietnam. In addition to its beneficial effects on withdrawal and prevention of relapse, reports of sedation during clinical treatment suggest that arousal networks in the brain may be recruited during Heantos administration. T-type calcium channels are implicated in the generation of sleep rhythms and in this study we examined whether a Heantos-4 extraction modulates T-type calcium channel currents generated by the Cav3...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902865/small-world-properties-changes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Yongxia Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate local and global efficiency changes characterized by small-world properties based on resting-state functional MRI, such as centrality and clustering coefficient, in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients; and to associate these findings with axonal injury as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as with post-concussive symptom (PCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (mean age 35 ± 13 years) with clinically defined MTBI and 45 age-matched healthy controls (mean age 37 ± 10 years) participated in the experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883901/tapping-the-brakes-cellular-and-synaptic-mechanisms-that-regulate-thalamic-oscillations
#20
REVIEW
P Michelle Fogerson, John R Huguenard
Thalamic oscillators contribute to both normal rhythms associated with sleep and anesthesia and abnormal, hypersynchronous oscillations that manifest behaviorally as absence seizures. In this review, we highlight new findings that refine thalamic contributions to cortical rhythms and suggest that thalamic oscillators may be subject to both local and global control. We describe endogenous thalamic mechanisms that limit network synchrony and discuss how these protective brakes might be restored to prevent absence seizures...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
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