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# Constant observation

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#1
Inmaculada Carpinteiro, Rosario Rodil, José Benito Quintana, Rafael Cela
In this work, the reaction of four benzodiazepines (diazepam, oxazepam, nordazepam and temazepam) during water chlorination was studied by means of liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). For those compounds that showed a significant degradation, i.e. diazepam, oxazepam and nordazepam, parameters affecting to the reaction kinetics (pH, chlorine and bromide level) were studied in detail and transformation products were tentatively identified. The oxidation reactions followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 1...
May 3, 2017: Water Research
#2
Meghan Kohne, Chen Zhu, Kurt Warncke
The kinetics of the substrate radical rearrangement reaction step in B12-dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) from Salmonella typhimurium are measured over a 92 K temperature range. The observed first-order rate constants display a piecewise-continuous Arrhenius dependence, with linear regions over 295→220 K (monoexponential) and 214→203 K (biexponential) that are delineated by a kinetic bifurcation and kinks at 219 and 217 K, respectively. The results are interpreted by using a free energy landscape model and derived microscopic kinetic mechanism...
May 26, 2017: Biochemistry
#3
Hannu-Pekka Komsa, Ryosuke Senga, Kazutomo Suenaga, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
Atomic chains are perfect systems for getting fundamental insights into the electron dynamics and coupling between the electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in one dimensional metals. Depending on the band filling, they can exhibit Peierls instabilities (or charge density waves), where equally spaced chain of atoms with partially filled band is inherently unstable, exhibiting spontaneous distortion of the lattice that further leads to metal-insulator transition in the system. Here, using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we directly image the atomic structures of a chain of iodine atoms confined inside carbon nanotubes...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
#4
Matthias Puhr, P V Buividovich
We demonstrate the nonrenormalization of the chiral separation effect (CSE) in quenched finite-density QCD in both confinement and deconfinement phases using a recently developed numerical method which allows us, for the first time, to address the transport properties of exactly chiral, dense lattice fermions. This finding suggests that CSE can be used to fix renormalization constants for axial current density. Explaining the suppression of the CSE which we observe for topologically nontrivial gauge field configurations on small lattices, we also argue that CSE vanishes for self-dual non-Abelian fields inside instanton cores...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
#5
Tatsunori Watanabe, Haruhiko Hiraoka, Takuya Araki, Daisuke Nagano, Tohru Aomori, Tomonori Nakamura, Koujirou Yamamoto, Hiroshi Baba
AIM: The kinetics of propofol are influenced by cardiac output. The aim of this study was to examine changes in blood propofol concentrations during phaeochromocytoma surgery using target-controlled infusion (TCI) anaesthesia with propofol. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. Ten patients with phaeochromocytoma who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy were included. Cardiac output was measured using an arterial pressure-based cardiac output analysis method...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
#6
E L Schaldemose, F I Fontain, P Karlsson, J R Nyengaard
INTRODUCTION: Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
#7
Yuchun Liu, Ling Xu, Chen Zhao, Ming Shao, Bin Hu
Fullerene (C60) is an important n-type organic semiconductor with high electron mobility and low thermal conductivity. In this work, we report the experimental results on the tunable Seebeck effect of C60 hybrid thin-film devices by adopting different oxide layers. After inserting n-type high-dielectric constant titanium oxide (TiOx) and zinc oxide (ZnO) layers, we observed a significantly enhanced n-type Seebeck effect in oxide/C60 hybrid devices with Seebeck coefficients of -5.8 mV K(-1) for TiOx/C60 and -2...
May 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
#8
Guisheng Song, Yijie Li, Suzheng Hu, Guiju Li, Ruihua Zhao, Xin Sun, Huixiang Xie
The kinetics and temperature-, pH- and salinity-dependences of photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE) were evaluated using laboratory solar-simulated irradiation and compared to those of Suwannee River humic substances (SRHSs). Nearly all CDOM in water at the head of the estuary (headwater herein) was photobleachable in both summer and winter, while significant fractions of CDOM (13-29%) were resistant to photobleaching in saltier waters. The photobleaching rate constant in the headwater was 25% higher in summer than that in winter...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
#9
Sebastian Żmudzki, Natnael T Hamda, Patrycja Gibas-Tybur
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of migration on copper (Cu) kinetics of male Tribolium castaneum after 25 generations of exposure for Cu-adapted and non-Cu-adapted inbred lines. Adapted lines were kept on a flour medium contaminated with 1000 mg Cu kg(-1). A medium contaminated with 2000 mg Cu kg(-1) of copper was used during the intoxication phase. Based on our data and literature reports, we introduced a new two-phase four-stage toxicokinetics (TK) model. The intoxication phase was successfully divided into three stages with separate assimilation rate constant (ka) and elimination rate constant (ke) values...
May 26, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
#10
José Sérgio Domingues, Marcos de Paula Vale, Carlos Barreira Martinez
The main aim of this study was the formula application of the superficial area of a truncated prolate spheroid (TPS) in Cartesian coordinates in obtaining a cardiac parameter that is not so much discussed in literature, related to the left ventricle (LV) surface area of the human heart, by age and sex. First we obtain a formula for the area of a TPS. Then a simple mathematical model of association of the axes measures of a TPS with the axes of the LV is built. Finally real values of the average dimensions of the humans LV are used to measure surface areas approximations of this heart chamber...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
#11
Abbas Attari, Mahin Aminoroaia, Mohammd Reza Maracy
BACKGROUND: The medical and nonmedical care of patients is the necessary skills in nursing profession. That it needs proper knowledge and attitude. Hence, it is important to promote nurses' knowledge and attitude by education based on need assessment. This study aimed to define the efficacy of a medical and nonmedical intervention educational workshop on nurses' knowledge and attitude until 3 months after holding the workshop in psychiatric wards of educational hospitals in Isfahan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental study...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
#12
Simon Schmitt, Tuvia Gefen, Felix M Stürner, Thomas Unden, Gerhard Wolff, Christoph Müller, Jochen Scheuer, Boris Naydenov, Matthew Markham, Sebastien Pezzagna, Jan Meijer, Ilai Schwarz, Martin Plenio, Alex Retzker, Liam P McGuinness, Fedor Jelezko
Precise timekeeping is critical to metrology, forming the basis by which standards of time, length, and fundamental constants are determined. Stable clocks are particularly valuable in spectroscopy because they define the ultimate frequency precision that can be reached. In quantum metrology, the qubit coherence time defines the clock stability, from which the spectral linewidth and frequency precision are determined. We demonstrate a quantum sensing protocol in which the spectral precision goes beyond the sensor coherence time and is limited by the stability of a classical clock...
May 26, 2017: Science
#13
Richa Tiwari, Lucy Haque, Sutanwi Bhuiya, Suman Das
Naturally occurring flavonoid luteolin (LTN) was found to interact with double stranded poly(A).poly(U) and triple stranded poly(U).poly(A)*poly(U) with association constants of the order of 10(4)M(-1). The association was monitored by various spectroscopic and viscometric techniques. Non-cooperative binding was observed for the association of LTN with two different polymorphic forms of RNA. Intercalation mode of binding was confirmed by fluorescence quenching and viscometric experiments. Thermal melting profiles indicated greater stabilization of the Hoogsteen base paired third strand (∼16°C) compared to Watson-Crick double strand (∼5°C) of RNA by LTN...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
#14
T Butterworth
Presented as part of the Ellen Skellern lifetime achievement award in 2016 this paper reflects on a career in mental health nursing and academia spanning 53 years. The presentation offers a series of key lessons learned in that time. They include observations on health care organisations, educational experiences, the nursing profession and the illusion of permanence in health care service organisations and the buildings that house them. The paper offers an account of how a profession must constantly develop to be relevant and how the demolition of both buildings and organisations have been a fact of life in the five decades reported...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
#15
Stephanie M Wolahan, Howard C Mao, Courtney Real, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
Carbohydrate fuel augmentation following traumatic brain injury may be a viable treatment to improve recovery when cerebral oxidative metabolism of glucose is depressed. We performed a primed constant sodium L-lactate infusion in 11 moderate to severely brain injured adults. Blood was collected before and periodically during the infusion study. We quantified global cerebral uptake of glucose and lactate and other systemic metabolites associated with energy metabolism. Our hypothesis was that cerebral lactate uptake, as measured by the arteriovenous difference of lactate (AVDlac), would increase in severely injured TBI patients in the neurocritical care unit...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
#16
Glalci A Souza, André P Lang, Wilhelm J Baader
Mechanistic studies on the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence are often conducted with imidazole as base and nucleophilic catalyst. However, it is also known that this compound, at high concentrations, leads to a drastic reduction of the chemiluminescence quantum yields, apparently due the destruction of the high-energy intermediate. Consequently, the search for new catalysts for this transformation is of importance for mechanistic studies as well as analytical application. Therefore, we report here a study on the mechanism of the peroxyoxalate reaction with sodium salicylate as base catalyst; which has already been utilized in this reaction, however, no detailed mechanistic investigation is known...
May 23, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
#17
Brenda Cirincione, Frank LaCreta, Philip Sager, Donald E Mager
Investigation of the cardiovascular proarrhythmic potential of a new chemical entity is now an integral part of drug development. Studies suggest that meals and glycemic changes can influence QT intervals, and a semimechanistic model has been developed that incorporates the effects of changes in glucose concentrations on heart rate (HR) and QT intervals. This analysis aimed to adapt the glucose-HR-QT model to incorporate the effects of exenatide, a drug that reduces postprandial increases in glucose concentrations...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
#18
Eleni Giannoulatou, Geoffrey J Maher, Zhihao Ding, Ad J M Gillis, Lambert C J Dorssers, Alexander Hoischen, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Gilean McVean, Andrew O M Wilkie, Leendert H J Looijenga, Anne Goriely
Adult male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate by mitosis and, after puberty, generate spermatocytes that undertake meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa. Germ cells are under evolutionary constraint to curtail mutations and maintain genome integrity. Despite constant turnover, spermatogonia very rarely form tumors, so-called spermatocytic tumors (SpT). In line with the previous identification of FGFR3 and HRAS selfish mutations in a subset of cases, candidate gene screening of 29 SpTs identified an oncogenic NRAS mutation in two cases...
2017: PloS One
#19
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
#20
Taras Leonidovych Petrenko, V Bryksa
At present nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complex in diamond is the most promising defect for application in the area of quantum computing. This provides a stimulus for extensive search of another defects in semiconductors with similar properties. Recently it was shown that N$_{C}$V$_{Si}$ defect complex in SiC is perspective for this goal as well. In the present work we perform comparative \textit{ab initio} studies of NV complexes in diamond and 3\textit{C}-SiC. We focus both on radiospectroscopic characterization of these defects and on calculation of equilibrium concentration of complexes in irradiated crystals...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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