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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715339/development-of-a-low-cost-medical-ultrasound-scanner-using-a-monostatic-synthetic-aperture
#1
Thomas L A van den Heuvel, David J Graham, Kristopher J Smith, Chris L de Korte, Jeffrey A Neasham
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present the design of low-cost medical ultrasound scanners aimed at the detection of maternal mortality risk factors in developing countries. METHOD: Modern ultrasound scanners typically employ a high element count transducer array with multichannel transmit and receive electronics. To minimize hardware costs, we employ a single piezoelectric element, mechanically swept across the target scene, and a highly cost-engineered single channel acquisition circuit...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715259/teaching-principal-components-using-correlations
#2
Peter H Westfall, Andrea L Arias, Larry V Fulton
Introducing principal components (PCs) to students is difficult. First, the matrix algebra and mathematical maximization lemmas are daunting, especially for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Second, the standard motivation involving variance maximization subject to unit length constraint does not directly connect to the "variance explained" interpretation. Third, the unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints of the standard motivation do not allow re-scaling or oblique rotations, which are common in practice...
July 17, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686252/fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-for-characterization-of-protein-chain-reductions-in-enzymatic-reactions
#3
Ulrike Böcker, Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet, Diana Lindberg, Nils Kristian Afseth
The potential of dry-film Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements as a monitoring tool for enzymatic hydrolysis of protein-based substrates is explored in this study. As a proof-of-concept, the enzymatic digestion of bovine serum albumin using Alcalase was monitored. To evaluate the analytical approach on complex substrates with industrial relevance, salmon- and chicken-based substrates were digested for 80 minutes using Alcalase and a total of 12 FTIR spectra were acquired during the course of the hydrolysis...
July 7, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667999/a-compact-linear-accelerator-based-on-a-scalable-microelectromechanical-system-rf-structure
#4
A Persaud, Q Ji, E Feinberg, P A Seidl, W L Waldron, T Schenkel, A Lal, K B Vinayakumar, S Ardanuc, D A Hammer
A new approach for a compact radio-frequency (RF) accelerator structure is presented. The new accelerator architecture is based on the Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) structure that was first developed in the 1980s. The MEQALAC utilized RF resonators producing the accelerating fields and providing for higher beam currents through parallel beamlets focused using arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQs). While the early work obtained ESQs with lateral dimensions on the order of a few centimeters, using a printed circuit board (PCB), we reduce the characteristic dimension to the millimeter regime, while massively scaling up the potential number of parallel beamlets...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626990/exhaled-breath-profiles-in-the-monitoring-of-loss-of-control-and-clinical-recovery-in-asthma
#5
P Brinkman, M A van de Pol, M G Gerritsen, L D Bos, T Dekker, B S Smids, A Sinha, C J Majoor, M M Sneeboer, H H Knobel, T J Vink, F H de Jongh, R Lutter, P J Sterk, N Fens
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, associated with episodes of exacerbations. Therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) targets airway inflammation, which aims to maintain and restore asthma control. Clinical features are only modestly associated with airways inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that exhaled volatile metabolites identify longitudinal changes between clinically stable episodes and loss of asthma control. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as measured by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and electronic nose (eNose) technology discriminate between clinically stable and unstable episodes of asthma...
June 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613951/the-fantasy-questionnaire-a-measure-to-assess-creative-and-imaginative-fantasy
#6
David Weibel, Corinna S Martarelli, Diego Häberli, Fred W Mast
This article reports the construction and validation of a comprehensive self-report measure of fantasy. Unlike previous measures of fantasy, which focus on psychopathology, we conceive fantasy as a trait with positive connotation. Principal component analysis (N = 318) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 345) were conducted using 2 sociodemographically diverse samples. The results provided support for a 2-factor conceptualization of the construct, with the dimensions imaginative fantasy and creative fantasy...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590411/a-conjugate-of-pentamethine-cyanine-and-18-f-as-a-positron-emission-tomography-near-infrared-fluorescence-probe-for-multimodality-tumor-imaging
#7
Fei-Fei An, Harikrishna Kommidi, Nandi Chen, Richard Ting
The novel synthesis of a dual-modality, pentamethine cyanine (Cy5) fluorescent, (18)F positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe is reported. The probe shows a large extinction coefficient and large quantum yield in the biologically transparent, near-infrared window (650-900 nm) for in vivo fluorescent imaging. This fluorophore bears the isotope, (18)F, giving a (18)F-PET/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF), bi-modal imaging probe, that combines the long-term stability of NIRF and the unlimited penetration depth of PET imaging...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586508/overexpressing-wild-type-%C3%AE-2-subunits-rescued-the-seizure-phenotype-in-gabrg2-q390x-dravet-syndrome-mice
#8
Xuan Huang, Chengwen Zhou, Mengnan Tian, Jing-Qiong Kang, Wangzhen Shen, Kelienne Verdier, Aurea Pimenta, Robert L MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor γ2(Q390X) subunit (Q351X in the mature peptide) has been associated with the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome, and the epilepsy syndrome genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). The mutation generates a premature stop codon that results in translation of a stable truncated and misfolded γ2 subunit that accumulates in neurons, forms intracellular aggregates, disrupts incorporation of γ2 subunits into GABAA receptors, and affects trafficking of partnering α and β subunits...
June 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553679/computational-modelling-of-wounded-tissue-subject-to-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-following-trans-femoral-amputation
#9
B Zeybek, S Li, J W Fernandez, S Stapley, V V Silberschmidt, Y Liu
Proof-of-concept computational models were developed and applied as tools to gain insights into biomechanical interactions and variations of oxygen gradients of wounded tissue subject to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), following trans-femoral amputation. A macro-scale finite-element model of a lower limb was first developed based on computed tomography data, and distributions of maximum and minimum principal stress values we calculated for a region of interest (ROI). Then, the obtained results were applied iteratively as new sets of boundary conditions for a specific spatial position in a capillary sub-model...
May 28, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544071/a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-for-assessment-of-perineal-hydrodissection-technique-for-nervesparing-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy
#10
G Hatiboglu, T Simpfendörfer, L Uhlmann, M A Bergero, S Macher-Goeppinger, S Pahernik, B Hadaschik, M Hohenfellner, D Teber
BACKGROUND: This study prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of perineal hydrodissection in robot assisted nervesparing prostatectomy. METHODS: Patients were randomized for perineal, ultrasound guided hydrodissection (HD) before radical prostatectomy and compared with standard treatment (ST). Follow-up was done every 3 months, including erectile function (IIEF5-score), reported grade of erection, ability for sexual intercourse, continence, PSA. RESULTS: 21 patients were enrolled to this prospective study, 10 for ST and 11 for HD...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512630/hand-grasping-synergies-as-biometrics
#11
Vrajeshri Patel, Poojita Thukral, Martin K Burns, Ionut Florescu, Rajarathnam Chandramouli, Ramana Vinjamuri
Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507922/sofosbuvir-use-in-the-setting-of-end-stage-renal-disease-a-single-center-experience
#12
Avin Aggarwal, Eric R Yoo, Ryan B Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Radhika Kumari, Tami J Daugherty, Alex S Lapasaran, Aijaz Ahmed
Background and Aims: Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dialysis-dependent form a unique group, in which safety, tolerability and efficacy of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) need further evaluation. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with CHC and ESRD on dialysis who received 15 courses of SOF-based therapy. We evaluated dose escalation to standard-dose SOF in this proof-of-principle experience. Results: Sustained virological response (defined as undetectable viral load at 12 weeks, SVR-12) was achieved in 13 out of the 15 (86...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500775/vaccines-against-malaria-still-a-long-way-to-go
#13
REVIEW
Kai Matuschewski
Several species of Plasmodium cause a broad spectrum of human disease that range from nausea and fever to severe anemia, cerebral malaria, and multiorgan failure. In malaria-endemic countries, continuous exposure to Plasmodium sporozoite inoculations and subsequent blood infections elicit only partial and short-lived immunity, which gradually develops over many years of parasite exposure and multiple clinical episodes. The ambitious goal of malaria vaccinology over the past 70 years has been to develop an immunization strategy that mounts protection superior to naturally acquired immunity...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465491/discovery-and-characterization-of-small-molecules-targeting-the-dna-binding-ets-domain-of-erg-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Miriam S Butler, Mani Roshan-Moniri, Michael Hsing, Desmond Lau, Ari Kim, Paul Yen, Marta Mroczek, Mannan Nouri, Scott Lien, Peter Axerio-Cilies, Kush Dalal, Clement Yau, Fariba Ghaidi, Yubin Guo, Takeshi Yamazaki, Sam Lawn, Martin E Gleave, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans, Lawrence P McIntosh, Michael E Cox, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov
Genomic alterations involving translocations of the ETS-related gene ERG occur in approximately half of prostate cancer cases. These alterations result in aberrant, androgen-regulated production of ERG protein variants that directly contribute to disease development and progression. This study describes the discovery and characterization of a new class of small molecule ERG antagonists identified through rational in silico methods. These antagonists are designed to sterically block DNA binding by the ETS domain of ERG and thereby disrupt transcriptional activity...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463641/exogenous-mir-29b-delivery-via-a-hyaluronan-based-injectable-system-yields-functional-maintenance-of-the-infarcted-myocardium
#15
Michael Monaghan, Monika Holeiter, Eva Brauchle, Shannon Layland, Yan Lu, Arjun Deb, Abhay Pandit, Ali Nsair, Katja Schenke-Layland
Myocardial infarction results in debilitating remodeling of the myocardial extracellular matrix. In this proof-of-principle study it was sought to modulate this aggressive remodeling by injecting a hyaluronic acid-based reservoir delivering exogenous microRNA-29B (miR-29B). This proof-of-principal study was executed whereby myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was performed on C57BL/6 mice for 45 minutes after which five 10 µl boluses of a hydrogel composed of thiolated hyaluronic acid crosslinked with poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate, containing exogenous miR-29B as an active therapy, were injected into the borderzone of the infarcted myocardium...
May 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459870/a-fine-structure-genetic-analysis-evaluating-ecoregional-adaptability-of-a-bos-taurus-breed-hereford
#16
H D Blackburn, B Krehbiel, S A Ericsson, C Wilson, A R Caetano, S R Paiva
Ecoregional differences contribute to genetic environmental interactions and impact animal performance. These differences may become more important under climate change scenarios. Utilizing genetic diversity within a species to address such problems has not been fully explored. In this study Hereford cattle were genotyped with 50K Bead Chip or 770K Bovine Bead Chip to test the existence of genetic structure in five U.S. ecoregions characterized by precipitation, temperature and humidity and designated: cool arid (CA), cool humid (CH), transition zone (TZ), warm arid (WA), and warm humid (WH)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459537/comparison-of-the-deacylase-and-deacetylase-activity-of-zinc-dependent-hdacs
#17
Jesse J McClure, Elizabeth S Inks, Cheng Zhang, Yuri K Peterson, Jiaying Li, Kalyan Chundru, Bradley Lee, Ashley Buchanan, Shiqin Miao, C James Chou
The acetylation status of lysine residues on histone proteins has long been attributed to a balance struck between the catalytic activity of histone acetyl transferases and histone deacetylases (HDAC). HDACs were identified as the sole removers of acetyl post-translational modifications (PTM) of histone lysine residues. Studies into the biological role of HDACs have also elucidated their role as removers of acetyl PTMs from lysine residues of nonhistone proteins. These findings, coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry studies that revealed the presence of acyl-group PTMs on lysine residues of nonhistone proteins, brought forth the possibility of HDACs acting as removers of both acyl- and acetyl-based PTMs...
June 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454300/single-cell-genomic-profiling-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-for-clinical-use-a-pilot-study
#18
Benedict Yan, Yongli Hu, Kenneth H K Ban, Zenia Tiang, Christopher Ng, Joanne Lee, Wilson Tan, Lily Chiu, Tin Wee Tan, Elaine Seah, Chin Hin Ng, Wee-Joo Chng, Roger Foo
Although bulk high-throughput genomic profiling studies have led to a significant increase in the understanding of cancer biology, there is increasing awareness that bulk profiling approaches do not completely elucidate tumor heterogeneity. Single-cell genomic profiling enables the distinction of tumor heterogeneity, and may improve clinical diagnosis through the identification and characterization of putative subclonal populations. In the present study, the challenges associated with a single-cell genomics profiling workflow for clinical diagnostics were investigated...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419111/time-resolved-and-label-free-monitoring-of-extracellular-metabolites-by-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#19
Victoria Shalabaeva, Laura Lovato, Rosanna La Rocca, Gabriele C Messina, Michele Dipalo, Ermanno Miele, Michela Perrone, Francesco Gentile, Francesco De Angelis
Metabolomics is an emerging field of cell biology that aims at the comprehensive identification of metabolite levels in biological fluids or cells in a specific functional state. Currently, the major tools for determining metabolite concentrations are mass spectrometry coupled with chromatographic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance, which are expensive, time consuming and destructive for the samples. Here, we report a time resolved approach to monitor metabolite dynamics in cell cultures, based on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398342/two-subgroups-of-antipsychotic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-identified-with-a-gaussian-mixture-model-on-cognition-and-electrophysiology
#20
N Bak, B H Ebdrup, B Oranje, B Fagerlund, M H Jensen, S W Düring, M Ø Nielsen, B Y Glenthøj, L K Hansen
Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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