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Proof of principal

Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Pierre-Louis Hervé, Delphyne Descamps, Charlotte Deloizy, Véronique Dhelft, Daphné Laubreton, Edwige Bouguyon, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Catherine Dubuquoy, Thibaut Larcher, Pierre-Henri Benhamou, Jean-François Eléouët, Nicolas Bertho, Lucie Mondoulet, Sabine Riffault
To put a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccine onto the market, new vaccination strategies combining scientific and technical innovations need to be explored. Such a vaccine would also need to be adapted to the vaccination of young children that are the principal victims of acute RSV infection. In the present project, we describe the development and the preclinical evaluation of an original epicutaneous RSV vaccine that combines two technologies: Viaskin® epicutaneous patches as a delivery platform and RSV N-nanorings (N) as a subunit antigen...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jennifer B Permuth, Jung Choi, Yoganand Balarunathan, Jongphil Kim, Dung-Tsa Chen, Lu Chen, Sonia Orcutt, Matthew P Doepker, Kenneth Gage, Geoffrey Zhang, Kujtim Latifi, Sarah Hoffe, Kun Jiang, Domenico Coppola, Barbara A Centeno, Anthony Magliocco, Qian Li, Jose Trevino, Nipun Merchant, Robert Gillies, Mokenge Malafa
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cancer precursors incidentally discovered by cross-sectional imaging. Consensus guidelines for IPMN management rely on standard radiologic features to predict pathology, but they lack accuracy. Using a retrospective cohort of 38 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (20 benign; 18 malignant) with preoperative computed tomography (CT) images and matched plasma-based 'miRNA genomic classifier (MGC)' data, we determined whether quantitative 'radiomic' CT features (+/- the MGC) can more accurately predict IPMN pathology than standard radiologic features 'high-risk' or 'worrisome' for malignancy...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Hui Chen, Xiaoyan Zheng, Ran Wang, Na Gao, Ziyang Sheng, Dongying Fan, Kaihao Feng, Xianzheng Liao, Jing An
PURPOSE: We aimed to use the dengue virus (DV) serotype 2 as a proof of principal for testing the efficacy of a DNA vaccine candidate via in vivo electroporation in mice and rabbits prior to the development of a tetravalent vaccine. METHODS: Different dosages of DNA pVAX1-D2ME encoding DV2 prME genes were vaccinated in mice via intramuscular injection or in vivo electroporation, immune responses and protection were determined. In DNA-vaccinated rabbits via electroporation, antibody titer and protein expression were tested...
October 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Stephen Palmisano, Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio, Jack S Fogarty
This proof-of-concept study investigated whether a time-frequency EEG approach could be used to examine vection (i.e., illusions of self-motion). In the main experiment, we compared the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) data of 10 observers during and directly after repeated exposures to two different types of optic flow display (each was 35° wide by 29° high and provided 20 s of motion stimulation). Displays consisted of either a vection display (which simulated constant velocity forward self-motion in depth) or a control display (a spatially scrambled version of the vection display)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Barbara Roda, Mara Mirasoli, Andrea Zattoni, Monica Casale, Paolo Oliveri, Alessandro Bigi, Pierluigi Reschiglian, Patrizia Simoni, Aldo Roda
An integrated sensing system is presented for the first time, where a metal oxide semiconductor sensor-based electronic olfactory system (MOS array), employed for pathogen bacteria identification based on their volatile organic compound (VOC) characterisation, is assisted by a preliminary separative technique based on gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF). In the integrated system, a preliminary step using GrFFF fractionation of a complex sample provided bacteria-enriched fractions readily available for subsequent MOS array analysis...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Takashi Ishida, Satoshi Takahashi, Chen-Yi Lai, Masanori Nojima, Ryo Yamamoto, Emiko Takeuchi, Yasuo Takeuchi, Masaaki Higashihara, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Makoto Otsu
Cord blood (CB) is a valuable donor source in hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, the initial time to engraftment in CB transplantation (CBT) is often delayed because of low graft cell numbers. This limits the use of CB. To overcome this cell dose barrier, we modeled an insufficient dose CBT setting in lethally irradiated mice and then added hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs; HSPCs) derived from four mouse allogeneic strains. The mixture of HSPCs rescued recipients and significantly accelerated hematopoietic recovery...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jiaojie Tan, Jingyu Liu, Mingdong Li, Hind El Hadri, Vincent A Hackley, Michael R Zachariah
The novel hyphenation of electrospray-differential mobility analysis with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ES-DMA-spICPMS) was demonstrated with the capacity for real-time size, mass, and concentration measurement of nanoparticles (NPs) on a particle-to-particle basis. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of this technique was validated through both concentration and mass calibration using NIST gold NP reference materials. A detection limit of 10(5) NPs mL(-1) was determined under current experimental conditions, which is about 4 orders of magnitude lower in comparison to that of a traditional ES-DMA setup using a condensation particle counter as detector...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Hendrik Treutler, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Andrea Porzel, Karin Gorzolka, Alain Tissier, Steffen Neumann, Gerd Ulrich Balcke
The identification of metabolites by mass spectrometry constitutes a major bottleneck which considerably limits the throughput of metabolomics studies in biomedical or plant research. Here, we present a novel approach to analyze metabolomics data from untargeted, data-independent LC-MS/MS measurements. By integrated analysis of MS(1) abundances and MS/MS spectra, the identification of regulated metabolite families is achieved. This approach offers a global view on metabolic regulation in comparative metabolomics...
August 16, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Luke Aaron Wiley, Erin Burnight, Arlene V Drack, Bailey B Banach, Dalyz Ochoa, Cathryn M Cranston, Robert A Madumba, Jade S East, Robert F Mullins, Edwin Stone, Budd A Tucker
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a childhood neurodegenerative disease with early-onset, severe central vision loss. Affected children develop seizures and central nervous system degeneration accompanied by severe motor and cognitive deficits. There is no cure for JNCL and patients usually die during the second or third decade of life. In this study, independent lines of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from two patients with molecularly confirmed mutations in CLN3, the gene mutated in JNCL...
July 11, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Nurcan Tuncbag, Pamela Milani, Jenny L Pokorny, Hannah Johnson, Terence T Sio, Simona Dalin, Dennis O Iyekegbe, Forest M White, Jann N Sarkaria, Ernest Fraenkel
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of malignant human brain tumor. Molecular profiling experiments have revealed that these tumors are extremely heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is one of the principal challenges for developing targeted therapies. We hypothesize that despite the diverse molecular profiles, it might still be possible to identify common signaling changes that could be targeted in some or all tumors. Using a network modeling approach, we reconstruct the altered signaling pathways from tumor-specific phosphoproteomic data and known protein-protein interactions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
A continuing challenge in analytical chemistry is species-level determination of the constituents of mixtures that are made of a combination of plant species. There is an added urgency to identify components in botanical mixtures that have mind altering properties, due to the increasing global abuse of combinations of such plants. Here we demonstrate the proof of principle that ambient ionization mass spectrometry, namely direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS), and statistical analysis tools can be used to rapidly determine the individual components within a psychoactive brew (Ayahuasca) made from a mixture of botanicals...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Vered Marks, Anisleidys Munoz, Priyamvada Rai, Jamie D Walls
Metabolomic profiling is an increasingly important method for identifying potential biomarkers in cancer cells with a view towards improved diagnosis and treatment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a potentially noninvasive means to accurately characterize differences in the metabolomic profiles of cells. In this work, we use (1)H NMR to measure the metabolomic profiles of water soluble metabolites extracted from isogenic control and oncogenic HRAS-, KRAS-, and NRAS-transduced BEAS2B lung epithelial cells to determine the robustness of NMR metabolomic profiling in detecting differences between the transformed cells and their untransformed counterparts as well as differences among the RAS-transformed cells...
2016: PeerJ
Hozeifa Mohamed Hassan, Hongli Guo, Bashir Alsiddig Yousef, Mounia Guerram, Aida Mejda Hamdi, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Isoniazid (INH) remains the core drug in tuberculosis management, but serious hepatotoxicity and potentially fatal liver injury continue to accompany INH consumption. Among numerous theories that have been established to explain INH-induced liver injury, an inflammatory stress theory has recently been widely used to explain the idiosyncrasy. Inflammatory stress usually sensitizes tissues to a drug's toxic consequences. Therefore, the present study was conducted to verify whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation may have a role in enhancing INH hepatotoxicity...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Katie Schelli, Joshua Rutowski, Julia Roubidoux, Jiangjiang Zhu
Recently, novel bioanalytical methods, such as NMR and mass spectrometry based metabolomics approaches, have started to show promise in providing rapid, sensitive and reproducible detection of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance. Here we performed a proof-of-concept study focused on the application of HPLC-MS/MS based targeted metabolic profiling for detecting and monitoring the bacterial metabolic profile changes in response to sub-lethal levels of methicillin exposure. One hundred seventy-seven targeted metabolites from over 20 metabolic pathways were specifically screened and one hundred and thirty metabolites from in vitro bacterial tests were confidently detected from both methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively)...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andrew C Daly, Gráinne M Cunniffe, Binulal N Sathy, Oju Jeon, Eben Alsberg, Daniel J Kelly
The ability to print defined patterns of cells and extracellular-matrix components in three dimensions has enabled the engineering of simple biological tissues; however, bioprinting functional solid organs is beyond the capabilities of current biofabrication technologies. An alternative approach would be to bioprint the developmental precursor to an adult organ, using this engineered rudiment as a template for subsequent organogenesis in vivo. This study demonstrates that developmentally inspired hypertrophic cartilage templates can be engineered in vitro using stem cells within a supporting gamma-irradiated alginate bioink incorporating Arg-Gly-Asp adhesion peptides...
September 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
R Kenneth Marcus, Htoo W Paing, Lynn X Zhang
The concept of ambient desorption-optical emission spectroscopy (AD-OES) is demonstrated using a liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) microplasma as the desorption/excitation source. The LS-APGD has previously been employed for elemental analysis of solution samples and particulates introduced via laser ablation in both the optical emission and mass spectrometries (OES, MS) modes. In addition, the device has been shown to be effective for the analysis of elemental and molecular species operating in an ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) mode...
June 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Eugenio Alladio, Roberto Caruso, Enrico Gerace, Eleonora Amante, Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti
The Technical Document TD2014EAAS was drafted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in order to fight the spread of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) misuse in several sport disciplines. In particular, adoption of the so-called Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) - Steroidal Module allowed control laboratories to identify anomalous EAAS concentrations within the athletes' physiological urinary steroidal profile. Gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), indicated by WADA as an appropriate technique to detect urinary EAAS, was utilized in the present study to develop and fully-validate an analytical method for the determination of all EAAS markers specified in TD2014EAAS, plus two further markers hypothetically useful to reveal microbial degradation of the sample...
May 30, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sylvain Harquel, Thibault Bacle, Lysianne Beynel, Christian Marendaz, Alan Chauvin, Olivier David
Brain dynamics at rest depend on the large-scale interactions between oscillating cortical microcircuits arranged into macrocolumns. Cytoarchitectonic studies have shown that the structure of those microcircuits differs between cortical regions, but very little is known about interregional differences of their intrinsic dynamics at a macro-scale in human. We developed here a new method aiming at mapping the dynamical properties of cortical microcircuits non-invasively using the coupling between robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
K D Nizio, K A Perrault, A N Troobnikoff, M Ueland, S Shoma, J R Iredell, P G Middleton, S L Forbes
Chronic pulmonary infections are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to the polymicrobial nature of these infections, the identification of the particular bacterial species responsible is an essential step in diagnosis and treatment. Current diagnostic procedures are time-consuming, and can also be expensive, invasive and unpleasant in the absence of spontaneously expectorated sputum. The development of a rapid, non-invasive methodology capable of diagnosing and monitoring early bacterial infection is desired...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
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