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Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Anderson S Oliveira, Seyed Hamed Mousavi, Morteza Madadi-Shad
Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal planes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was determine the effects of the isolated and combined use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on peak forces and moments during gait in knee osteoarthritis patients...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
Babitha Machireddy, Gurmannat Kalra, Subash Chandra Jonnalagadda, Kandalam V Ramanujachary, Chun Wu
Human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex has been identified as a good therapeutic target in cancer treatment. G-quadruplex specific ligands that stabilize the G-quadruplex, have great potential to be developed as anticancer agents. Two crystal structures (an apo form of parallel stranded human telomeric G-quadruplex and its holo form in complex with BRACO19, a potent G-quadruple ligand) have been solved, yet the binding mechanism and pathway remains to be elusive. In this study, we simulated the binding of a free BRACO19 molecule to the apo form of the G-quadruplex using the latest AMBER DNA (OL15) and ligand GAFF2 force field...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Xukai Luo, Guangzhao Wang, Yuhong Huang, Biao Wang, Hongkuan Yuan, Hong Chen
In this work, we employ hybrid density functional theory calculations to design a two-dimensional layered CdS/C2N heterostructure for visible light photocatalytic water splitting to produce hydrogen. The calculation results show that the conduction band minimum (CBM) and the valence band maximum (VBM) of C2N monolayers are lower than those of CdS nanosheets by about 0.76 eV and 0.44 eV, respectively. The type-II band alignment, density of states, Bader charge analysis, and charge density difference of the CdS/C2N heterostructure indicate that the photogenerated electrons migrate from the CdS monolayer to the C2N monolayer, favoring the separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers, which restrains the recombination of photogenerated carriers and enhances the photocatalytic efficiency...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
André da Silva Xavier, Ana Paula Oliveira de Barros, Márcio Tadeu Godinho, Francisco Murilo Zerbini, Flávia de Oliveira Souza, Fernanda Prieto Bruckner, Poliane Alfenas Zerbini
In the present work, we report a novel mycovirus that infects Alternaria alternata. The mycovirus has isometric particles of approximately 30nm and the genome consists of two molecules of dsRNA, dsRNA1 with 1833bp, encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and dsRNA2, with 1680bp in length, encoding the putative capsid protein (CP). RdRp analysis revealed low amino acid identity with RdRps with species in the genus Gammapartitivirus, and the alignment of the RdRp revealed all the six conserved motifs present in members of Partitiviridae...
October 9, 2017: Virus Research
Ann Yi-Chiun Chuang
Myopia has become epidemic in the world. Without effective control, the progression may lead to excessive myopia with severe complications affecting vision and ocular alignment. The genetic factors and environmental factors of myopia are closely interrelated to each other. Asian ethnicity and parental myopia, among other genetic factors, influence the refractive outcome dramatically when environmental risk factors such as hours of near work and reading distance are analyzed. Outdoor activities are protective measures that retard myopia progression...
January 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
X Zhang, Z Shen, J Liu, S N Kerisit, M E Bowden, M L Sushko, J J De Yoreo, K M Rosso
Crystallization by particle attachment is impacting our understanding of natural mineralization processes and holds promise for novel materials design. When particles assemble in crystallographic alignment, expulsion of the intervening solvent and particle coalescence are enabled by near-perfect co-alignment via interparticle forces that remain poorly quantified. Here we report measurement and simulation of these nanoscale aligning forces for the ZnO(0001)-ZnO(000[Formula: see text]) system in aqueous solution...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Ghislaine Vantomme, Anne Helene Gelebart, Dirk J Broer, E W Meijer
A strategy based on doped liquid crystalline networks is described to create mechanical self-sustained oscillations of plastic films under continuous light irradiation. The photo-excitation of dopants that can quickly dissipate light into heat, coupled with anisotropic thermal expansion and self-shadowing of the film, gives rise to the self-sustained deformation. The oscillations observed are influenced by the dimensions and the modulus of the film, and by the directionality and intensity of the light. The system developed offers applications in energy conversion and harvesting for soft-robotics and automated systems...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
E Holm, M T Foged, S Beniczky, B Jespersen, J Brennum, L H Pinborg
OBJECTIVE: Despite optimal medical treatment, approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Epilepsy surgery is widely accepted as a therapeutic option in the selected subset of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Here, we report the results of the Danish epilepsy surgery programme from 2009 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 169 consecutive patients, operated at Rigshospitalet, were included. Information was gathered from digital patient records...
October 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Goli Nagaraju, S Chandra Sekhar, L Krishna Bharat, Jae Su Yu
In this work, we report a flexible battery-type electrode based on binder-free nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets adhered to nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides nanoflake arrays on nickel fabric (NC LDHs NFAs@NSs/Ni fabric) using a facile and eco-friendly synthesis methods. Herein, we utilized discarded polyester fabric as a cost-effective substrate for in situ electroless deposition of Ni, which exhibited good flexibility, light-weight and high conductivity. Subsequently, the vertically aligned NC LDHs NFAs were grown on Ni fabric by means of hot-air oven-based method and fluffy-like NC LDHs NSs branches are further decorated on NC LDHs NFAs by a simple electrochemical deposition method...
October 9, 2017: ACS Nano
Umberto Michelucci, Francesca Venturini
One of the most common limits to gas sensor performance is the presence of unwanted interference fringes arising, for example, from multiple reflections between surfaces in the optical path. Additionally, since the amplitude and the frequency of these interferences depend on the distance and alignment of the optical elements, they are affected by temperature changes and mechanical disturbances, giving rise to a drift of the signal. In this work, we present a novel semi-parametric algorithm that allows the extraction of a signal, like the spectroscopic absorption line of a gas molecule, from a background containing arbitrary disturbances, without having to make any assumption on the functional form of these disturbances...
October 7, 2017: Sensors
Pavel Afanasyev, Charlotte Seer-Linnemayr, Raimond B G Ravelli, Rishi Matadeen, Sacha De Carlo, Bart Alewijnse, Rodrigo V Portugal, Navraj S Pannu, Michael Schatz, Marin van Heel
Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can now yield near-atomic resolution structures of biological complexes. However, the reference-based alignment algorithms commonly used in cryo-EM suffer from reference bias, limiting their applicability (also known as the 'Einstein from random noise' problem). Low-dose cryo-EM therefore requires robust and objective approaches to reveal the structural information contained in the extremely noisy data, especially when dealing with small structures. A reference-free pipeline is presented for obtaining near-atomic resolution three-dimensional reconstructions from heterogeneous ('four-dimensional') cryo-EM data sets...
September 1, 2017: IUCrJ
Nikolaj Kofoed Mandsberg, Ole Hansen, Rafael Taboryski
Droplet array chips were realized using an alignment-free fabrication process in silicon. The chips were textured with a homogeneous nano-scale surface roughness but were partially covered with a self-assembled monolayer of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS), resulting in a super-biphilic surface. When submerged in water and withdrawn again, microliter sized droplets are formed due to pinning of water on the hydrophilic spots. The entrained droplet volumes were investigated under variation of spot size and withdrawal velocity...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matthew A Bartek, Anjali R Truitt, Sierra Widmer-Rodriguez, Jordan Tuia, Zoya A Bauer, Bryan A Comstock, Todd C Edwards, Sarah O Lawrence, Sarah E Monsell, Donald L Patrick, Jeffrey G Jarvik, Danielle C Lavallee
BACKGROUND: The involvement of patients in research better aligns evidence generation to the gaps that patients themselves face when making decisions about health care. However, obtaining patients' perspectives is challenging. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has gained popularity over the past decade as a crowdsourcing platform to reach large numbers of individuals to perform tasks for a small reward for the respondent, at small cost to the investigator. The appropriateness of such crowdsourcing methods in medical research has yet to be clarified...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Xin Bai, Kujin Tang, Jie Ren, Michael Waterman, Fengzhu Sun
BACKGROUND: Alignment-free sequence comparison using counts of word patterns (grams, k-tuples) has become an active research topic due to the large amount of sequence data from the new sequencing technologies. Genome sequences are frequently modelled by Markov chains and the likelihood ratio test or the corresponding approximate χ (2)-statistic has been suggested to compare two sequences. However, it is not known how to best choose the word length k in such studies. RESULTS: We develop an optimal strategy to choose k by maximizing the statistical power of detecting differences between two sequences...
October 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
Elizabeth L Fox, Gretel H Pelto, Kathleen M Rasmussen, Marie Guerda Debrosse, Vanessa A Rouzier, Jean William Pape, David L Pelletier
Worldwide, mothers with young children receive many messages about infant feeding. Some messages are generated by health providers and others by the households, communities, and social contexts in which women live. We aimed to determine the scope of infant feeding messages in urban Haiti and to examine intracultural differences in salience of these messages and their alignment with international guidelines. We applied the method of free listing with 13 health workers and 15 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers with infants 0-6 months old at Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince, Haiti...
October 4, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Pedro Ferreira, Sérgio F Sousa, Pedro A Fernandes, Maria Joao Ramos
The enhancement of the catalytic power of enzymes is a subject of enormous interest both for science and for industry. The latter, in particular, due to the vast applications enzymes can have in industrial processes, for instance in the desulfurization of crude oil, which is mandatory by law in many developed countries and that is currently achieved by costly chemical processes. In this work we sought to enhance the turnover rate of DszD from Rhodococcus erythropolis, a NADH-FMN oxidoreductase responsible to supply FMNH₂ to DszA and DszC in the biodesulfurization process of crude oil, the 4S pathway...
October 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
James W Reinhardt, Keith Gooch
We developed an agent-based model that incorporates repetitively applied traction force within a discrete fiber network to understand how microstructural properties of the network influence mechanical properties and traction force-induced remodeling. An important difference between our model and similar finite-element models is that by implementing more biologically-realistic dynamic traction, we can explore a greater range of matrix remodeling. Here, we validated our model by reproducing qualitative trends observed in three sets of experimental data reported by others: tensile and shear testing of cell-free collagen gels, collagen remodeling around a single isolated cell, and collagen remodeling between pairs of cells...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Andrzej Zielezinski, Susana Vinga, Jonas Almeida, Wojciech M Karlowski
Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. The strength of these methods makes them particularly useful for next-generation sequencing data processing and analysis. However, many researchers are unclear about how these methods work, how they compare to alignment-based methods, and what their potential is for use for their research...
October 3, 2017: Genome Biology
Giuseppe Saglio, Elias Jabbour
Patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and treated with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have long life spans. Selection of an appropriate first-line therapy can be difficult as both the unique characteristics of each TKI and patient need to be taken into account to find the optimal match. Patient characteristics include comorbidities, concomitant medications, lifestyle, risk factors, BCR-ABL1 transcript type (e.g. b2a2 or b3a2) and additional chromosomal abnormalities. Just as patients differ, side effects, drug-drug interactions, administration plans, dosing schedules and treatment-related expenses across TKIs also vary...
October 3, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Fengjiao Zhang, Erfan Mohammadi, Xuyi Luo, Joseph Strzalka, Jianguo Mei, Ying Diao
It is well-known that substrate surface properties have a profound impact on the morphology of thin films solution coated atop and the resulting solid-state properties. However, design rules for guiding the substrate selection have not yet been established. Such design rules are particularly important for solution-coated semiconducting polymers, as the substrate-directed thin film morphology can impact charge transport properties by orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that substrate surface energies dictate the thin film morphology by modulating the free energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation...
October 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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