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Yongbin Yan, Sang-Ho Kim, Fu Zhang, Longhai Piao, Hu Zhou
Rapid macroscopic-scale assembly of Ag nanowires was demonstrated through facile self-assembly at the water/air interface. This self-assembly was induced by heating due to the surface tension effect and convection. Interestingly, a rippled hairstyle superstructure was observed when the aqueous dispersions of thinner Ag nanowires were heated. Applying the Euler buckling theory for a set of aligned Ag nanowires, it was found that the water surface tension was sufficient to bend or buckle these free Ag nanowires trapped between two nanowire stripes, which resulted in the formation of the rippled hairstyle superstructure...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Emanuele Crosato, Richard E Spinney, Ramil Nigmatullin, Joseph T Lizier, Mikhail Prokopenko
We study self-organization of collective motion as a thermodynamic phenomenon in the context of the first law of thermodynamics. It is expected that the coherent ordered motion typically self-organises in the presence of changes in the (generalized) internal energy and of (generalized) work done on, or extracted from, the system. We aim to explicitly quantify changes in these two quantities in a system of simulated self-propelled particles and contrast them with changes in the system's configuration entropy...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Tongtong Tian, Qi Kang, Tao Wang, Jianhong Xiao, Li Yu
A series of cationic gemini surfactants with diverse chemical structures, that is, imidazolium-based gemini surface active ionic liquids (gemini IM-SAILs) with different alkyl chain length or spacer length, viz. 1,s-bis(3-alkylimidazolium-1-yl) ethane bromide ([C n -s-C n im]Br 2 ; s = 2, n = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16; n = 12, s = 2, 4, 6, 10), and quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants (gemini QASaa) with different symmetries, viz. 1,2-bisalkylquaternary ammonium bromide (m-2-n; m = 12, 14, 16, n = 8, 10, 12, m + n = 24), were synthesized and utilized to decorate aqueous/liquid crystal interfaces (ALI)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Cuiling Meng, Manchun Tseng, Shutuen Tang, Hoising Kwok
A front polarizer-free optically rewritable (ORW) liquid crystal display (LCD) has been made via a hybrid alignment configuration with dye-doped LCs. The hybrid structure consists of one optically active planar and one optically passive homeotropic alignment layer. The rewritability of the device is achieved by photo-reorienting the azo dye molecules in the active planar alignment layer. The dye is doped in LCs to function as a polarizer by following the LCs' direction via a guest-host effect so that the front polarizer can be eliminated...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rui Yan, Seonah Moon, Samuel J Kenny, Ke Xu
As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples...
February 14, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lisa Hui, Mary Norton
Any screening approach, including with cell-free DNA, will have an inferior detection rate compared with 100% diagnostic testing with chromosomal microarrays. Cell-free DNA-based screening, however, should not be seen as a threat to informed choice or maximising the benefits of diagnostic testing. Screening methods have become so much better that more women are now comfortable relying on such screening and do not need the certainty of a diagnostic test. This has not lead to a decline in detection of fetal chromosome abnormalities - in fact, we are now seeing historically high yields from prenatal screening...
February 14, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Priscilla Harries, Carolyn Unsworth, Hulya Gokalp, Miranda Davies, Christopher Tomlinson, Luke Harries
BACKGROUND: Driving licensing jurisdictions require detailed assessments of fitness-to-drive from occupational therapy driver assessors (OTDAs). We developed decision training based on the recommendations of expert OTDAs, to enhance novices' capacity to make optimal fitness-to-drive decisions. The aim of this research was to determine effectiveness of training on novice occupational therapists' ability to make fitness-to-drive decisions. METHODS: A double blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial was conducted to test the effectiveness of decision training on novices' fitness-to-drive recommendations...
February 13, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Jolle W Jolles, Kate L Laskowski, Neeltje J Boogert, Andrea Manica
Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sung-Ho Jin, Ho-Yeol Park, Saripally Sudhaker Reddy, Haeun Kwon, Jongmoon Shin, Myungkwan Song, Chang-Su Kim
A new set of simply structured triphenylamine-based small molecules are synthesized and evaluated as dopant-free hole transporting materials (HTMs) for high performance perovksite solar cells (PSCs) and bulk heterojunction inverted organic solar cells (BHJ IOSCs). Surprisingly, the new amphiphilic-type HTM-1 (with internal hydrophilic groups and peripheral hydrophobic alkyl tails) showed better compatibility and performance than did the actual target molecule, i.e., HTM-2 in PSCs and BHJ IOSCs. Importantly, the HTM-1-based dopant-free PSCs and BHJ IOSCs exhibited high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 11...
February 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kasra Amini, Evgeny Savelyev, Felix Brauße, Nora Berrah, Cédric Bomme, Mark Brouard, Michael Burt, Lauge Christensen, Stefan Düsterer, Benjamin Erk, Hauke Höppner, Thomas Kierspel, Faruk Krecinic, Alexandra Lauer, Jason W L Lee, Maria Müller, Erland Müller, Terence Mullins, Harald Redlin, Nora Schirmel, Jan Thøgersen, Simone Techert, Sven Toleikis, Rolf Treusch, Sebastian Trippel, Anatoli Ulmer, Claire Vallance, Joss Wiese, Per Johnsson, Jochen Küpper, Artem Rudenko, Arnaud Rouzée, Henrik Stapelfeldt, Daniel Rolles, Rebecca Boll
We explore time-resolved Coulomb explosion induced by intense, extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond pulses from a free-electron laser as a method to image photo-induced molecular dynamics in two molecules, iodomethane and 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene. At an excitation wavelength of 267 nm, the dominant reaction pathway in both molecules is neutral dissociation via cleavage of the carbon-iodine bond. This allows investigating the influence of the molecular environment on the absorption of an intense, femtosecond XUV pulse and the subsequent Coulomb explosion process...
January 2018: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
Pablo Carbonell, Jerry Wong, Neil Swainston, Eriko Takano, Nicholas J Turner, Nigel S Scrutton, Douglas B Kell, Rainer Breitling, Jean-Loup Faulon, Oliver Stegle
Summary: Synthetic biology applies the principles of engineering to biology in order to create biological functionalities not seen before in nature. One of the most exciting applications of synthetic biology is the design of new organisms with the ability to produce valuable chemicals including pharmaceuticals and biomaterials in a greener; sustainable fashion. Selecting the right enzymes to catalyze each reaction step in order to produce a desired target compound is, however, not trivial...
February 7, 2018: Bioinformatics
Antonio A Ginart, Joseph Hui, Kaiyuan Zhu, Ibrahim Numanagić, Thomas A Courtade, S Cenk Sahinalp, David N Tse
The most effective genomic data compression methods either assemble reads into contigs, or replace them with their alignment positions on a reference genome. Such methods require significant computational resources, but faster alternatives that avoid using explicit or de novo-constructed references fail to match their performance. Here, we introduce a new reference-free compressed representation for genomic data based on light de novo assembly of reads, where each read is represented as a node in a (compact) trie...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Satoru Ohisa, Kohei Endo, Kosuke Kasuga, Michinori Suzuki, Takayuki Chiba, Yong-Jin Pu, Junji Kido
We report the development of solution-processed reduced phosphomolybdic acid (rPMA) containing molybdenum oxide units for post-treatment-free hole-injection layers (HILs) in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). The physical and chemical properties of rPMA, including its structure, solubility in several solvents, film surface roughness, work function, and valence states, were investigated. The formation of gap states just below the Fermi level of rPMA was observed. Without any post-treatment after the formation of rPMA films, OLEDs employing rPMA as an HIL exhibited a very low driving voltage and a high luminous efficiency...
February 8, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Jon L Wardle, David W Sibbritt, Jon Adams
Aim This study examines GP perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of complementary medicine (CM), and to understand contextual factors that influence these perceptions, attitudes and knowledge. BACKGROUND: CM use is increasing, and its influence on primary care becoming increasingly significant. Although general practitioners (GPs) often have central primary care gate-keeper roles within health systems, few studies have looked specifically at GPs' perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of CM...
February 8, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Gabriel Villalobos
By means of a computational model, we study the relation between two complementary views of gelation, rheological tests against the characterization of a network of consecutive particles. The model we propose consists of slender, plane, colloidal sized particles, which we name laths, which self-assemble into long ordered aggregates of several particles; called whiskers in the literature. Within a whisker, the interaction potential is a minimum when: the planes of two consecutive laths are aligned, thus favoring their alignment; when the center of three consecutive laths lie in a straight line, thus favoring stacking; and when the center of two consecutive laths are located at a certain distance, which mimics excluded volume...
2018: PloS One
Stéphanie Bricq, Hiliwi Leake Kidane, Jorge Zavala-Bojorquez, Alexandra Oudot, Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, François Brunotte, Paul Michael Walker, Alexandre Cochet, Alain Lalande
PET images deliver functional data, whereas MRI images provide anatomical information. Merging the complementary information from these two modalities is helpful in oncology. Alignment of PET/MRI images requires the use of multi-modal registration methods. Most of existing PET/MRI registration methods have been developed for humans and few works have been performed for small animal images. We proposed an automatic tool allowing PET/MRI registration for pre-clinical study based on a two-level hierarchical approach...
February 7, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Li-Li Man, Dian-Jun Xiang, Chun-Lan Zhang
The plasminogen-free fibrin plate assay method was used to isolate Bacillus subtilis MX-6, a strain with high production of nattokinase from Chinese douchi. The presence of aprN, a gene-encoding nattokinase, was verified with PCR method. The predicted amino acid sequence was aligned with homologous sequences, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Nattokinase was sublimated with ammonium sulfate, using a DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, a CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and a Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column...
February 6, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Yunxia Huang, Shuwu Xu
We demonstrate that the population of the molecular rotational state through a stimulated impulsive Raman excitation can be controlled by tailoring the femtosecond laser pulse with a V-style phase modulation. The results show that, by precisely manipulating the modulation parameters, both the odd and even populations of the molecular rotational state can be completely suppressed or reconstructed. Meanwhile, the relative excitation between the odd and even populations can be obtained. Finally, we show that field-free molecular alignment can be controlled due to the modulation of the molecular rotational state populations...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hailiang Fang, Johan Cedervall, Daniel Hedlund, Samrand Shafeie, Stefano Deledda, Fredrik Olsson, Linus von Fieandt, Jozef Bednarcik, Peter Svedlindh, Klas Gunnarsson, Martin Sahlberg
The low cost, rare earth free τ-phase of MnAl has high potential to partially replace bonded Nd2Fe14B rare earth permanent magnets. However, the τ-phase is metastable and it is experimentally difficult to obtain powders suitable for the permanent magnet alignment process, which requires the fine powders to have an appropriate microstructure and high τ-phase purity. In this work, a new method to make high purity τ-phase fine powders is presented. A high purity τ-phase Mn0.55Al0.45C0.02 alloy was synthesized by the drop synthesis method...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Leduc, Zeng Qi Zhao, Valentin Verdon, Yumei Xu
The placement of the rare deep-sea nematode order Rhaptothyreida remains unclear due to the unique morphology of this group, an unknown life cycle with morphologically distinct juvenile stages which may or may not be parasitic, and lack of molecular sequences. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic placement and status of the Rhaptothyreida based on SSU and D2-D3 of LSU rDNA sequences of Rhaptothyerus typicus specimens obtained from the continental slope of New Zealand. Molecular sequences of three adults and a late stage juvenile were identical, confirming that they belong to the same species despite pronounced morphological differences...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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