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Genome assembly

Edson Ra Oliveira, Ronaldo Mohana-Borges, Ricardo B de Alencastro, Bruno A C Horta
Flaviviruses, such as dengue and zika viruses, are etiologic agents transmitted to humans mainly by arthropods and are of great epidemiological interest. The flavivirus capsid protein is a structural element required for the viral nucleocapsid assembly that presents the classical function of sheltering the viral genome. After decades of research, many reports have shown its different functionalities and influence over cell normal functioning. The subcellular distribution of this protein, which involves accumulation around lipid droplets and nuclear localization, also corroborates with its multi-functional characteristic...
October 14, 2016: Virus Research
Chuan Ku, William F Martin
BACKGROUND: The literature harbors many claims for lateral gene transfer (LGT) from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Such claims are typically founded in analyses of genome sequences. It is undisputed that many genes entered the eukaryotic lineage via the origin of mitochondria and the origin of plastids. Claims for lineage-specific LGT to eukaryotes outside the context of organelle origins and claims of continuous LGT to eukaryotic lineages are more problematic. If eukaryotes acquire genes from prokaryotes continuously during evolution, then sequenced eukaryote genomes should harbor evidence for recent LGT, like prokaryotic genomes do...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
Jian Huang, Lei Zhao, Ping Yang, Zhen Chen, Ni Tang, Xiong Z Ruan, Yaxi Chen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatocyte-specific DNA virus whose gene expression and replication are closely associated with hepatic metabolic processes. Thus, a potential anti-viral strategy is to target the host metabolic factors necessary for HBV gene expression and replication. Recent studies revealed that fatty acid translocase CD36 is involved in the replication, assembly, storage, and secretion of certain viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relationship between CD36 and the HBV life cycle remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Chen-Shan Chin, Paul Peluso, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Maria Nattestad, Gregory T Concepcion, Alicia Clum, Christopher Dunn, Ronan O'Malley, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Abraham Morales-Cruz, Grant R Cramer, Massimo Delledonne, Chongyuan Luo, Joseph R Ecker, Dario Cantu, David R Rank, Michael C Schatz
While genome assembly projects have been successful in many haploid and inbred species, the assembly of noninbred or rearranged heterozygous genomes remains a major challenge. To address this challenge, we introduce the open-source FALCON and FALCON-Unzip algorithms ( to assemble long-read sequencing data into highly accurate, contiguous, and correctly phased diploid genomes. We generate new reference sequences for heterozygous samples including an F1 hybrid of Arabidopsis thaliana, the widely cultivated Vitis vinifera cv...
October 17, 2016: Nature Methods
Alexandru I Tomescu, Paul Medvedev
Contig assembly is the first stage that most assemblers solve when reconstructing a genome from a set of reads. Its output consists of contigs-a set of strings that are promised to appear in any genome that could have generated the reads. From the introduction of contigs 20 years ago, assemblers have tried to obtain longer and longer contigs, but the following question remains: given a genome graph G (e.g., a de Bruijn, or a string graph), what are all the strings that can be safely reported from G as contigs? In this article, we answer this question using a model in which the genome is a circular covering walk...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Benjamin Kick, Samantha Hensler, Florian Praetorius, Hendrik Dietz, Dirk Weuster-Botz
The bacteriophage M13 has found frequent applications in nanobiotechnology due to its chemically and genetically tunable protein surface and its ability to self-assemble into colloidal membranes. Additionally, its single-stranded (ss) genome is commonly used as scaffold for DNA origami. Despite the manifold uses of M13, upstream production methods for phage and scaffold ssDNA are underexamined with respect to future industrial usage. Here, the high-cell-density phage production with Escherichia coli as host organism was studied in respect of medium composition, infection time, multiplicity of infection and specific growth rate...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Josh Clevenger, Ye Chu, Brian Scheffler, Peggy Ozias-Akins
The advent of the genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis has ushered in a new era for peanut genomics. With the goal of producing a gene atlas for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), 22 different tissue types and ontogenies that represent the full development of peanut were sequenced, including a complete reproductive series from flower to peg elongation and peg tip immersion in the soil to fully mature seed. Using a genome-guided assembly pipeline, a homeolog-specific transcriptome assembly for Arachis hypogaea was assembled and its accuracy was validated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Beryl Royer-Bertrand, Matteo Torsello, Donata Rimoldi, Ikram El Zaoui, Katarina Cisarova, Rosanna Pescini-Gobert, Franck Raynaud, Leonidas Zografos, Ann Schalenbourg, Daniel Speiser, Michael Nicolas, Laureen Vallat, Robert Klein, Serge Leyvraz, Giovanni Ciriello, Nicolò Riggi, Alexandre P Moulin, Carlo Rivolta
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare intraocular tumor that, similar to cutaneous melanoma, originates from melanocytes. To gain insights into its genetics, we performed whole-genome sequencing at very deep coverage of tumor-control pairs in 33 samples (24 primary and 9 metastases). Genome-wide, the number of coding mutations was rather low (only 17 variants per tumor on average; range 7-28), thus radically different from cutaneous melanoma, where hundreds of exonic DNA insults are usually detected. Furthermore, no UV light-induced mutational signature was identified...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Jang-Il Sohn, Jin-Wu Nam
As the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, various de novo assembly algorithms based on the de Bruijn graph have been developed to construct chromosome-level sequences. However, numerous technical or computational challenges in de novo assembly still remain, although many bright ideas and heuristics have been suggested to tackle the challenges in both experimental and computational settings. In this review, we categorize de novo assemblers on the basis of the type of de Bruijn graphs (Hamiltonian and Eulerian) and discuss the challenges of de novo assembly for short NGS reads regarding computational complexity and assembly ambiguity...
October 14, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Jia-Yun C Tsai, Jacelyn M S Loh, Fiona Clow, Natalie Lorenz, Thomas Proft
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a human pathogen that causes diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to severe invasive diseases, such as toxic shock syndrome. Each GAS strain carries a particular pilus type encoded in the variable fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T antigen (FCT) genomic region. Here we describe the functional analysis of the serotype M2 pilus encoded in the FCT-6 region. We found that, in contrast to other investigated GAS pili, the ancillary pilin 1 lacks adhesive properties...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Seema S Lakdawala, Ervin Fodor, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza A viruses bear an eight-segmented single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome that is replicated in the nucleus. Newly synthesized viral RNA (vRNA) segments are exported from the nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. Influenza viruses exploit many host proteins during these events, and this is the portion of the viral life cycle when genetic reassortment among influenza viruses occurs. Reassortment among influenza A viruses allows viruses to expand their host range, virulence, and pandemic potential...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Chu-Yu Ye, Xingchen Zhang, Qinjie Chu, Chen Liu, Yongyi Yu, Weiqin Jiang, Qian-Hao Zhu, Longjiang Fan, Longbiao Guo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified in diverse eukaryotic species and are characterized by RNA backsplicing events. Current available methods for circRNA identification are able to determine the start and end locations of circRNAs in the genome but not their full-length sequences. In this study, we developed a method to assemble the full-length sequences of circRNAs using the backsplicing RNA-Seq reads and their corresponding paired-end reads. By applying the method to an rRNA-depleted/RNase R-treated RNA-Seq dataset, we for the first time identified full-length sequences of nearly 3,000 circRNAs in rice...
October 14, 2016: RNA Biology
Sietske Grijseels, Jens Christian Nielsen, Milica Randelovic, Jens Nielsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Mhairi Workman, Jens Christian Frisvad
A new soil-borne species belonging to the Penicillium section Canescentia is described, Penicillium arizonense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 141311(T) = IBT 12289(T)). The genome was sequenced and assembled into 33.7 Mb containing 12,502 predicted genes. A phylogenetic assessment based on marker genes confirmed the grouping of P. arizonense within section Canescentia. Compared to related species, P. arizonense proved to encode a high number of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in particular hemicellulases...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yan Zhou, Chenyan Zhao, Yabin Tian, Nan Xu, Youchun Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of 7.2 kb, which consists of a 5' noncoding region, three open reading frames (ORFs), and a 3' noncoding region. ORF1 is diverse between genotypes and encodes the nonstructural proteins, which include the enzymes needed for virus replication. In addition to its role in virus replication, the function of ORF1 is relevant to viral adaption in cultured cells and may also relate to virus infection and HEV pathogenicity...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Casey Stamereilers, Lucy LeBlanc, Diane Yost, Penny S Amy, Philippos K Tsourkas
American Foulbrood Disease, caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, is one of the most destructive diseases of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Our group recently published the sequences of 9 new phages with the ability to infect and lyse P. larvae. Here, we characterize the genomes of these P. larvae phages, compare them to each other and to other sequenced P. larvae phages, and putatively identify protein function. The phage genomes are 38-45 kb in size and contain 68-86 genes, most of which appear to be unique to P...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Marek S Skrzypek, Jonathan Binkley, Gail Binkley, Stuart R Miyasato, Matt Simison, Gavin Sherlock
The Candida Genome Database (CGD, is a freely available online resource that provides gene, protein and sequence information for multiple Candida species, along with web-based tools for accessing, analyzing and exploring these data. The mission of CGD is to facilitate and accelerate research into Candida pathogenesis and biology, by curating the scientific literature in real time, and connecting literature-derived annotations to the latest version of the genomic sequence and its annotations...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Tynisha M Koenigsaecker, Jonathan A Eisen, David A Coil
Here, we present the draft genome of Gordonia sp. strain UCD-TK1. The assembly contains 5,470,576 bp in 98 contigs. This strain was isolated from a disinfected ambulatory surgery center.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Karley M Lujan, Jonathan A Eisen, David A Coil
Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Tenacibaculum soleae strain UCD-KL19. The assembly contains 3,012,701 bp in 46 contigs. This strain was isolated from a seagrass leaf (Zostera marina) collected from Bodega Bay, CA, as a part of an undergraduate student research project on isolating bacteria from seagrass.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
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