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Systemic inflammatory response

Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Tan A Nguyen, Ken C Pang, Seth L Masters
An effective innate immune response relies on the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Viruses and bacteria have co-evolved with the immune system and developed multiple strategies to usurp or circumvent host machinery and blunt the innate immune response in infected cells. Recently, it has become apparent that infected or dying cells can transmit PAMPs and host PRR signalling proteins to uninfected bystander cells to thereby bypass pathogen evasion strategies, and potentiate innate immune signalling...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Greg Hodge, Eugene Roscioli, Hubertus Jersmann, Hai B Tran, Mark Holmes, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a high-affinity steroid binding conformation, and traffic to the nucleus. We hypothesized a loss of Hsp70/90 from these lymphocytes may further contribute to steroid resistance in COPD...
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
Jan Reckenbeil, Dominik Kraus, Helmut Stark, Birgit Rath-Deschner, Andreas Jäger, Matthias Wenghoefer, Jochen Winter, Werner Götz
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on proliferation, wound healing and differentiation processes of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under inflammatory conditions and whether the protective, anabolic effects of IGF1 can attenuate unfavorable effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). DESIGN: Inflammation was mimicked through cell stimulation with IL-1β. PDL cells were characterized in respect to the presence of components of the IGF system and the responsive potential on IL-1β incubation...
October 15, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Hélène Quach, Maxime Rotival, Julien Pothlichet, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Michael Dannemann, Nora Zidane, Guillaume Laval, Etienne Patin, Christine Harmant, Marie Lopez, Matthieu Deschamps, Nadia Naffakh, Darragh Duffy, Anja Coen, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frederic Clément, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Janet Kelso, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Wei Huang, Jiyuan Wu, Huiqin Yang, Yin Xiong, Rui Jiang, Tianpen Cui, Duyun Ye
Abnormal features of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-derived neutrophils, promoted aberrant immune response, have inspired new studies of the induction of autoimmunity and the development of organ damage in SLE. In this study, we explore the effect of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) on the aberrant nitrification features in pristane-induced lupus. SLE patients and mice with pristane-induced lupus develop autoantibodies associated with MFG-E8 overproduction. However, the deletion of MFG-E8 leads to uncontrolled early pulmonary and peritoneal inflammation and tissue damage in mice with pristane-induced lupus...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Martin Rozanovic, Csaba Csontos, Lajos Bogár, Lívia Szélig, Tímea Bocskai, Patrícia Kovács, Marianna Matancic, Attila Miseta, Csaba Loibl
BACKGROUND: In polytrauma and burn injury Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) develops. SIRS is presented in many hospitalized patients, including those who never develop infection or sepsis. Both in SIRS and sepsis the leukocyte activation occurs. In acute phase reaction leukocytes' upward flotation i.e. leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) can indicate infectious origin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive power of LAR, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels regarding mortality risk and development of septic complications...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Giuliana Giardino, Vera Gallo, Rosaria Prencipe, Giovanni Gaudino, Roberta Romano, Marco De Cataldis, Paola Lorello, Loredana Palamaro, Chiara Di Giacomo, Donatella Capalbo, Emilia Cirillo, Roberta D'Assante, Claudio Pignata
Increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations has been identified in different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In such conditions, autoimmunity and immune deficiency represent intertwined phenomena that reflect inadequate immune function. Autoimmunity in PIDs may be caused by different mechanisms, including defects of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent stimulation as a result of the inability to eradicate antigens. This general immune dysregulation leads to compensatory and exaggerated chronic inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and autoimmunity...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Tobias Wiedemann, Stefan Hofbaur, Eva Loell, Gabriele Rieder
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Kevin Vivot, Malika A Benahmed, Elodie Seyfritz, William Bietiger, Karim Elbayed, Elisa Ruhland, Allan Langlois, Elisa Maillard, Michel Pinget, Nathalie Jeandidier, Jean-Pierre Gies, Izzie-Jacques Namer, Séverine Sigrist, Nathalie Reix
Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. (1)H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Naoto Sasaki, Tomoya Yamashita, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Atsushi Fukunaga, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Takuo Emoto, Keiko Yodoi, Takuya Matsumoto, Kenji Nakajima, Tomoyuki Kita, Masafumi Takeda, Taiji Mizoguchi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Mayumi Hatakeyama, Kumiko Taguchi, Ken Washio, Shimon Sakaguchi, Bernard Malissen, Chikako Nishigori, Ken-Ichi Hirata
OBJECTIVE: UVB irradiation is an established treatment for immunoinflammatory cutaneous disorders and has been shown to suppress cutaneous and systemic inflammatory diseases through modulation of the adaptive immune response. However, it remains unknown whether UVB irradiation prevents an immunoinflammatory disease of arteries such as atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we show that UVB exposure inhibits the development and progression of atherosclerosis in atherosclerosis-prone mice by expanding and enhancing the functional capacity of CD4(+) forkhead box P3(+) regulatory T cells and regulating proatherogenic T-cell responses...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Julia I Tandberg, Leidy X Lagos, Petter Langlete, Eva Berger, Anne-Lise Rishovd, Norbert Roos, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Membrane vesicles (MVs) are spherical particles naturally released from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial MV production is associated with a range of phenotypes including biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, toxin delivery, modulation of host immune responses and virulence. This study reports comparative profiling of MVs from bacterial strains isolated from three widely disperse geographical areas. Mass spectrometry identified 119, 159 and 142 proteins in MVs from three different strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from salmonids in Chile (LF-89), Norway (NVI 5692) and Canada (NVI 5892), respectively...
2016: PloS One
Mythily Srinivasan, Baindu Bayon, Nipun Chopra, Debomoy K Lahiri
In the central nervous system (CNS), activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κβ) is associated with both neuronal survival and increased vulnerability to apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying these dichotomous effects are attributed to the composition of NF-κΒ dimers. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), β-amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregates upregulate activation of p65:p50 dimers in CNS cells and enhance transactivation of pathological mediators that cause neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
2016: PloS One
Chris Durkin, Travis Schisler, Jens Lohser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite marked improvements in perioperative outcomes, esophagectomy continues to be a high-risk operation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Progress has been achieved through evidence-based changes in preoperative optimization, intraoperative ventilation strategies, fluid therapy, and analgesia, as well as expedited postoperative recovery pathways. This review will summarize the recent literature on the anesthetic management of patients undergoing esophageal resection...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Rodolfo Ciuffa, Etienne Caron, Alexander Leitner, Federico Uliana, Matthias Gstaiger, Ruedi Aebersold
NF-κB is a family of ubiquitous dimeric transcription factors that play a role in a myriad of cellular processes, ranging from differentiation to stress response and immunity. In inflammation, activation of NF-κB is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular the prototypic cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, which trigger the activation of complex signaling cascades. In spite of decades of research, the system level understanding of TNF-α signaling is still incomplete. This is partially due to the limited knowledge at the proteome level...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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