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Systemic inflammatory response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449442/systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-and-quick-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-more-pieces-needed-in-the-sepsis-puzzle
#1
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448035/bioluminescence-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-transgenic-mice-after-peripheral-inoculation-of-alpha-synuclein-fibrils
#2
Sara Breid, Maria E Bernis, Julius B Tachu, Maria C Garza, Holger Wille, Gültekin Tamgüney
To study the prion-like behavior of misfolded alpha-synuclein, mouse models are needed that allow fast and simple transmission of alpha-synuclein prionoids, which cause neuropathology within the central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe that intraglossal or intraperitoneal injection of alpha-synuclein fibrils into bigenic Tg(M83(+/-):Gfap-luc(+/-)) mice, which overexpress human alpha-synuclein with the A53T mutation from the prion protein promoter and firefly luciferase from the promoter for glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), is sufficient to induce neuropathologic disease...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447971/the-local-and-systemic-inflammatory-response-in-a-pig-burn-wound-model-with-a-pivotal-role-for-complement
#3
H Ibrahim Korkmaz, Magda M W Ulrich, Wessel N van Wieringen, Marcel Vlig, Reindert W Emmens, Klaas W Meyer, Paul Sinnige, Paul A J Krijnen, Paul P M van Zuijlen, Hans W M Niessen
In patients with burns, a massive inflammatory response is induced which negatively affects the healing process of the burn wound and additionally exerts systemic effects. An important factor herein is the complement system. Here we analyzed the effects of burns on complement and inflammatory cells both locally and systemically after burn in time in a pig burn wound model. In burned pigs, burn wound biopsies and blood were collected up to 60 days after burn. Complement in blood as well as complement and inflammatory cells in the burn wound and several organs were determined...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447937/il17-factors-are-early-regulators-in-the-gut-epithelium-during-inflammatory-response-to-vibrio-in-the-sea-urchin-larva
#4
Katherine M Buckley, Eric Chun Hei Ho, Taku Hibino, Catherine S Schrankel, Nicholas W Schuh, Guizhi Wang, Jonathan Patrick Rast
IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes ten IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and two IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447763/berberine-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity-through-regulating-metabolic-endotoxemia-and-gut-hormone-levels
#5
Jian Hui Xu, Xing Zhen Liu, Wei Pan, Da Jin Zou
Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high‑fat diet‑mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447547/urinary-bladder-extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-and-matrix-bound-vesicles-differentially-regulate-central-nervous-system-neuron-viability-and-axon-growth-and-branching
#6
Anne Faust, Apoorva Kandakatla, Yolandi van der Merwe, Tanchen Ren, Luai Huleihel, George Hussey, Juan Diego Naranjo, Scott Johnson, Stephen Badylak, Michael Steketee
Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses...
April 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447503/1-6-o-o-diacetylbritannilactone-suppresses-activation-of-mast-cell-and-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#7
Meihua Jin, Sungun Kim, Nan Qin, Xi Chen, Ning Ji, Sheng-An Tang, Dexin Kong, Eunkyung Lee, Hongquan Duan
Mast cells play critical roles in allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic activities of 1,6-O,O-diacetylbritannilactone (OODBL) isolated from Inula japonica Thunb. (I. japonica) in a murine asthma model and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). In an ovalbumin-induced asthma model, OODBL administration attenuated the airway hyper-responsiveness induced by aerosolized methacholine and serum IgE level in asthmatic mice...
April 27, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447377/lupus-miliaris-disseminatus-faciei-a-resistant-case-with-response-to-cyclosporine
#8
Kabir Sardana, Shikha Chugh, Rashmi Ranjan, Nita Khurana
Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is a chronic, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology, characterized by multiple, monomorphic, symmetrical, reddish-brown papules over forehead, cheeks, and eyelids. Histopathology shows perifollicular epitheloid cell granuloma. Though numerous therapies, ranging from cyclines, macrolides, dapsone tranilast, isotretinoin, steroids, and tacrolimus have been tried, the results are inconsistent, except with systemic steroids. One approach is to administer therapies based on the histological findings and the corresponding mode of action of drugs, thus antibiotics and dapsone are effective in the early inflammatory stage while clofazamine can be used in the granulomatous stage of the disease...
April 26, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446966/monocytes-and-macrophages-in-cardiac-injury-and-repair
#9
REVIEW
Hendrik B Sager, Thorsten Kessler, Heribert Schunkert
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major contributors to worldwide morbidity and mortality. It is atherosclerosis' most dreadful complication and occurs after the supply of oxygenated blood to the heart is blocked. Understanding how cardiac tissue is injured and later regenerates is of crucial importance to improve the sequelae after the acute event. We now understand that the immune system substantially contributes to both the acute inflammatory response and the regenerative response that follow tissue injury after MI...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446679/central-nervous-system-infection-with-borna-disease-virus-causes-kynurenine-pathway-dysregulation-and-neurotoxic-quinolinic-acid-production
#10
Simone Formisano, Mady Hornig, Kavitha Yaddanapudi, Mansi Vasishtha, Loren H Parsons, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446191/longitudinal-analysis-of-serum-oxylipin-profile-as-a-novel-descriptor-of-the-inflammatory-response-to-surgery
#11
Arnaud M Wolfer, Alasdair J Scott, Claudia Rueb, Mathieu Gaudin, Ara Darzi, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes, James M Kinross
BACKGROUND: Oxylipins are potent lipid mediators demonstrated to initiate and regulate inflammation yet little is known regarding their involvement in the response to surgical trauma. As key modulators of the inflammatory response, oxylipins have the potential to provide novel insights into the physiological response to surgery and the pathophysiology of post-operative complications. We aimed to investigate the effects of major surgery on longitudinal oxylipin profile. METHODS: Adults patients undergoing elective laparoscopic or open colorectal resections were included...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446152/differential-host-gene-responses-from-infection-with-neurovirulent-and-partially-neurovirulent-strains-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus
#12
Paridhi Gupta, Anuj Sharma, Jing Han, Amy Yang, Manish Bhomia, Barbara Knollmann-Ritschel, Raj K Puri, Radha K Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. VEEV causes a bi-phasic illness in mice where primary replication in lymphoid organs is followed by entry into the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS phase of infection is marked by encephalitis and large scale neuronal death ultimately resulting in death. Molecular determinants of VEEV neurovirulence are not well understood. In this study, host gene expression response to highly neurovirulent VEEV (V3000 strain) infection was compared with that of a partially neurovirulent VEEV (V3034 strain) to identify host factors associated with VEEV neurovirulence...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446062/metabolite-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-facilitators-of-diet-related-immune-regulation
#13
Jian K Tan, Craig McKenzie, Eliana Mariño, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Nutrition and the gut microbiome regulate many systems, including the immune, metabolic, and nervous systems. We propose that the host responds to deficiency (or sufficiency) of dietary and bacterial metabolites in a dynamic way, to optimize responses and survival. A family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) termed the metabolite-sensing GPCRs bind to various metabolites and transmit signals that are important for proper immune and metabolic functions. Members of this family include GPR43, GPR41, GPR109A, GPR120, GPR40, GPR84, GPR35, and GPR91...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445944/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-overexpression-protects-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-by-multiple-mechanisms-in-rats
#14
Hui Ma, Jing Kong, Yu-Lin Wang, Jun-Long Li, Nai-Hao Hei, Xin-Ran Cao, Jing-Jing Yang, Wen-Jiang Yan, Wen-Jing Liang, Hong-Yan Dai, Bo Dong
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is considered a potential therapeutic target of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of ACE2 overexpression on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Rats were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The rats of treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 6 doses of doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) within a period of two weeks. Two weeks after the initial injection of doxorubicin, these rats were randomly divided into Mock, Ad-EGFP, Ad-ACE2, and Cilazapril groups...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445888/differential-effects-of-inflammatory-and-psychosocial-stress-on-mood-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-inflammation-in-remitted-depression
#15
Peter Niemegeers, Peter De Boer, Glenn J H Dumont, Filip Van Den Eede, Erik Fransen, Stephan J Claes, Manuel Morrens, Bernard G C Sabbe
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly recurrent. This may be due to increased stress sensitivity after remission. Both inflammatory and psychosocial stressors are implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD, but the additive or differential effect is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of inflammatory stress (i.e., typhoid vaccination), psychosocial stress (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]), or a combination of both in women (25-45 years old) with (partially) remitted recurrent MDD (n = 21) and healthy female controls (n = 18)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445241/serum-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-a-diagnostic-marker-in-pediatric-sepsis
#16
Nagwan Yossery Saleh, Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Mahmoud A El-Hawy
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the response of the body to infection injures its own tissues and organs. The early prediction of sepsis by current clinical and laboratory methods remains inadequate. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level is increased in sepsis irrespective of renal dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to correlate the serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin value determined at admission with clinical progression and severity of disease in critically ill children and to declare its role as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for sepsis in critically ill children in the emergency department...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444833/chronic-stress-induced-mechanical-hyperalgesia-is-controlled-by-capsaicin-sensitive-neurones-in-the-mouse
#17
B Scheich, P Vincze, É Szőke, É Borbély, Á Hunyady, J Szolcsányi, Á Dénes, Zs Környei, B Gaszner, Zs Helyes
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies demonstrated peripheral nociceptor deficit in stress-related chronic pain states, such as fibromyalgia. The interactions of stress and nociceptive systems have special relevance in chronic pain, but the underlying mechanisms including the role of specific nociceptor populations remain unknown. We investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in chronic stress-related nociceptive changes. METHOD: Capsaicin-sensitive neurones were desensitized by the capsaicin analogue resiniferatoxin (RTX) in CD1 mice...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444548/post-effect-of-air-quality-improvement-on-biomarkers-for-systemic-inflammation-and-microparticles-in-asthma-patients-after-the-2008-beijing-olympic-games-a-pilot-study
#18
Jinming Gao, Xiaohua Xu, Zhekang Ying, Lei Jiang, Mianhua Zhong, Aixia Wang, Lung-Chi Chen, Bo Lu, Qinghua Sun
This study's aim was to investigate the post-effect of an air quality improvement on systemic inflammation and circulating microparticles in asthmatic patients during, and 2 months after, the Beijing Olympics 2008. We measured the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and microparticles in the peripheral blood from asthma patients and healthy controls during (phase 1), and 2 months after (phase 2) the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The concentrations of circulating cytokines (including TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were still seen reduced in phase 2 when compared with those in phase 1...
April 25, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444425/pharmacogenetic-markers-to-predict-the-clinical-response-to-methotrexate-in-south-indian-tamil-patients-with-psoriasis
#19
S Indhumathi, Medha Rajappa, Laxmisha Chandrashekar, P H Ananthanarayanan, D M Thappa, V S Negi
INTRODUCTION: Despite the advent of several new systemic therapies, methotrexate remains the gold standard for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. However, there exists a significant heterogeneity in individual response to methotrexate. There are no consistently reliable markers to predict methotrexate treatment response till date. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to demonstrate the association of certain genetic variants in the HLA (HLA-A2, HLA-B17, and HLA-Cw6) and the non-HLA genes including T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 cytokine genes (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12B, and IL-23R), and T-regulatory gene (FOXP3) with the methotrexate treatment response in South Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443392/sex-differences-in-the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-response-to-endotoxin-unfold-in%C3%A2-vivo-but-not-ex-vivo-in-healthy-humans
#20
Alexander Wegner, Sven Benson, Laura Rebernik, Ingo Spreitzer, Marcus Jäger, Manfred Schedlowski, Sigrid Elsenbruch, Harald Engler
Clinical data indicate that inflammatory responses differ across sexes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we assessed in vivo and ex vivo cytokine responses to bacterial endotoxin in healthy men and women to elucidate the role of systemic and cellular factors underlying sex differences in inflammatory responses. Participants received an i.v. injection of low-dose endotoxin (0.4 ng/kg body mass), and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 responses were analyzed over a period of 6 h. In parallel, ex vivo cytokine production was measured in endotoxin-stimulated blood samples obtained immediately before in vivo endotoxin administration...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
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