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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165911/defects-and-interfaces-on-ptpb-nanoplates-boost-fuel-cell-electrocatalysis
#1
Yingjun Sun, Yanxia Liang, Mingchuan Luo, Fan Lv, Yingnan Qin, Lei Wang, Chuan Xu, Engang Fu, Shaojun Guo
Nanostructured Pt is the most efficient single-metal catalyst for fuel cell technology. Great efforts have been devoted to optimizing the Pt-based alloy nanocrystals with desired structure, composition, and shape for boosting the electrocatalytic activity. However, these well-known controls still show the limited ability in maximizing the Pt utilization efficiency for achieving more efficient fuel cell catalysis. Herein, a new strategy for maximizing the fuel cell catalysis by controlling/tuning the defects and interfaces of PtPb nanoplates using ion irradiation technique is reported...
November 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165362/enhanced-oxygen-reduction-reaction-by-in-situ-anchoring-fe%C3%A2-n-nanoparticles-on-nitrogen-doped-pomelo-peel-derived-carbon
#2
Yiqing Wang, Mingyuan Zhu, Gang Wang, Bin Dai, Feng Yu, Zhiqun Tian, Xuhong Guo
The development of effective oxygen electrode catalysts for renewable energy technologies such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells remains challenging. Here, we prepared a novel high-performance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst comprised of Fe₂N nanoparticles (NPs) in situ decorated over an N-doped porous carbon derived from pomelo peel (i.e., Fe₂N/N-PPC). The decorated Fe₂N NPs provided large quantities of Fe-N-C bonding catalytic sites. The as-obtained Fe₂N/N-PPC showed superior onset and half-wave potentials (0...
November 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164857/modeling-insight-into-battery-electrolyte-electrochemical-stability-and-interfacial-structure
#3
Oleg Borodin, Xiaoming Ren, Jenel Vatamanu, Arthur von Wald Cresce, Jaroslaw Knap, Kang Xu
Electroactive interfaces distinguish electrochemistry from chemistry and enable electrochemical energy devices like batteries, fuel cells, and electric double layer capacitors. In batteries, electrolytes should be either thermodynamically stable at the electrode interfaces or kinetically stable by forming an electronically insulating but ionically conducting interphase. In addition to a traditional optimization of electrolytes by adding cosolvents and sacrificial additives to preferentially reduce or oxidize at the electrode surfaces, knowledge of the local electrolyte composition and structure within the double layer as a function of voltage constitutes the basis of manipulating an interphase and expanding the operating windows of electrochemical devices...
November 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164368/3d-reconstruction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-a-hydrocarbon-secreting-green-alga-botryococcus-braunii-race-b
#4
Reiko Suzuki, Ichiro Nishii, Shigeru Okada, Tetsuko Noguchi
Based on 3D sections through cells of Botryococcus braunii, the structure of three domains of endoplasmic reticulum, and their spatial and functional relationships to other organelles are clarified. Oil production by photosynthetic microalgae has attracted attention since these oils can be converted into renewable, carbon-neutral fuels. The green alga B. braunii accumulates large amounts of hydrocarbons, 30-50% of cell dry weight, in extracellular spaces rather than its cytoplasm. To advance the knowledge of hydrocarbon biosynthesis and transport pathways in this alga, we utilized transmission EM combined with rapid freezing and image reconstruction...
November 22, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164195/nanochannels-as-molecular-check-valves
#5
Qian Yang, Xingyu Lin, Yafeng Wang, Bin Su
A molecular check valve is a nanomachine that enables unidirectional molecular transport. In this work, we report a novel molecular check valve fabricated by asymmetric modification of a silica nanoporous membrane (SNM) consisting of parallel nanochannels with a diameter of 2-3 nm. Asymmetric modification refers to the thermal deposition of hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) only on one side of the SNM to generate hydrophobic nanoorifices. Such an asymmetric nanostructure, designated as PDMS-SNM, could synergistically exert a hydrophobic force on the molecules by PDMS nanoorifices and an electrostatic force by naked silica nanochannels, resulting in unidirectional molecular transport under specific circumstances...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162005/on-rhythms-in-neuronal-networks-with-recurrent-excitation
#6
Christoph Börgers, R Melody Takeuchi, Daniel T Rosebrock
We investigate rhythms in networks of neurons with recurrent excitation, that is, with excitatory cells exciting each other. Recurrent excitation can sustain activity even when the cells in the network are driven below threshold, too weak to fire on their own. This sort of "reverberating" activity is often thought to be the basis of working memory. Recurrent excitation can also lead to "runaway" transitions, sudden transitions to high-frequency firing; this may be related to epileptic seizures. Not all fundamental questions about these phenomena have been answered with clarity in the literature...
November 21, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161647/simple-synthesis-of-self-supported-hierarchical-aupd-alloyed-nanowire-networks-for-boosting-electrocatalytic-activity-toward-formic-acid-oxidation
#7
Tao Yuan, Hong-Yan Chen, Xiaohong Ma, Jiu-Ju Feng, Pei-Xin Yuan, Ai-Jun Wang
Herein, self-supported hierarchical AuPd alloyed interconnected nanowire networks (AuPd NCNs) were fabricated by a one-pot co-reduction method. Theophylline was acted as the capping and structure-directing agents. The product was mainly characterized by a series of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hierarchical nanostructures had the enlarged electrochemically active surface area (EASA), and the enhanced catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) and strengthened poisoning tolerance for poisoning CO-like intermediates by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, which outperformed commercial Pd black catalyst...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161585/localized-lysosome-exocytosis-helps-breach-tissue-barriers
#8
Shaohe Wang, Kenneth M Yamada
Cell invasion across basement membrane barriers is important in both normal development and cancer metastasis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Naegeli et al. (2017) identify a mechanism for breaching basement membranes. Localized lysosome exocytosis fuels generation of large, invasive cellular protrusions that expand tiny basement membrane openings.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161018/self-powered-biosensors
#9
Matteo Grattieri, Shelley D Minteer
Self-powered electrochemical biosensors utilize biofuel cells as a simultaneous power source and biosensor, which simplifies the biosensor system, because it no longer requires a potentiostat, power for the potentiostat, and/or power for the signaling device. This Review article is focused on detailing the advances in the field of self-powered biosensors and discussing their advantages and limitations compared to other types of electrochemical biosensors. The review will discuss self-powered biosensors formed from enzymatic biofuel cells, organelle-based biofuel cells, and microbial fuel cells...
November 21, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#10
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158506/the-ikk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling%C3%A2-pathway-requires-morgana-to-drive-breast-cancer-metastasis
#11
Federica Fusella, Laura Seclì, Elena Busso, Anna Krepelova, Enrico Moiso, Stefania Rocca, Laura Conti, Laura Annaratone, Cristina Rubinetto, Maurizia Mello-Grand, Vijay Singh, Giovanna Chiorino, Lorenzo Silengo, Fiorella Altruda, Emilia Turco, Alessandro Morotti, Salvatore Oliviero, Isabella Castellano, Federica Cavallo, Paolo Provero, Guido Tarone, Mara Brancaccio
NF-κB is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathological cellular processes, including inflammation, cell survival, proliferation, and cancer cell metastasis. NF-κB is frequently hyperactivated in several cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer. Here we show that NF-κB activation in breast cancer cells depends on the presence of the CHORDC1 gene product Morgana, a previously unknown component of the IKK complex and essential for IκBα substrate recognition...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158483/noninvasive-liquid-diet-delivery-of-stable-isotopes-into-mouse-models-for-deep-metabolic-network-tracing
#12
Ramon C Sun, Teresa W-M Fan, Pan Deng, Richard M Higashi, Andrew N Lane, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L Scott, Qiushi Sun, Marc O Warmoes, Ye Yang
Delivering isotopic tracers for metabolic studies in rodents without overt stress is challenging. Current methods achieve low label enrichment in proteins and lipids. Here, we report noninvasive introduction of (13)C6-glucose via a stress-free, ad libitum liquid diet. Using NMR and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry, we quantify extensive (13)C enrichment in products of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, nucleobases, UDP-sugars, glycogen, lipids, and proteins in mouse tissues during 12 to 48 h of (13)C6-glucose feeding...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157131/degradation-of-dye-wastewater-with-a-photoelectric-integration-process-mpec-microbial-fuel-cells-assisted-dual-electrodes-thin-film-photoelectrocatalytic
#13
Deng J Zhong, Yun L Xu, Xue B Hu, Jue X Li, Jin P Jia
A novel photoelectric integration process (MPEC) was developed to degrade Amaranth. In the MPEC, the output voltage of the microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was used to assist the dual slant-placed electrodes thin-film photocatalytic (PC). With two MFCs connected in series, the MPEC process realized the highest decolorization efficiency. It is close to that of the external bias photoelectrocatalytic (PEC), and 7% higher than that of the self-generated electric field-assisted photoelectrocatalytic (SPEC). The feasibility of MPEC pre-treatment and MFC post-treatment of Amaranth was investigated...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156622/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-psoriasis
#14
REVIEW
Anastasia Papagrigoraki, Martina Maurelli, Micol Del Giglio, Paolo Gisondi, Giampiero Girolomoni
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are extremely oxidant and biologically reactive compounds, which form through oxidation of sugars, lipids and amino acids to create aldehydes that bind covalently to proteins. AGEs formation and accumulation in human tissues is a physiological process during ageing but it is enhanced in case of persistent hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative or carbonyl stress, which are common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Exogenous AGEs may derive from foods, UV irradiation and cigarette smoking...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155217/neutrophil-elastase-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#15
Irina Lerman, Stephen R Hammes
Myeloid cell production within the bone marrow is accelerated in the setting of cancer, and the numbers of circulating and infiltrating neutrophils and granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) correlate with tumor progression and patient survival. Cancer is therefore able to hijack the normally host-protective immune system and use it to further fuel growth and metastasis. Myeloid cells secrete neutrophil elastase and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to cues within the tumor microenvironment, thereby leading to enhanced activity in a variety of cancer types...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155060/controlling-cell-free-metabolism-through-physiochemical-perturbations
#16
Ashty S Karim, Jacob T Heggestad, Samantha A Crowe, Michael C Jewett
Building biosynthetic pathways and engineering metabolic reactions in cells can be time-consuming due to complexities in cellular metabolism. These complexities often convolute the combinatorial testing of biosynthetic pathway designs needed to define an optimal biosynthetic system. To simplify the optimization of biosynthetic systems, we recently reported a new cell-free framework for pathway construction and testing. In this framework, multiple crude-cell extracts are selectively enriched with individual pathway enzymes, which are then mixed to construct full biosynthetic pathways on the time scale of a day...
November 15, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155008/-alternative-fuels-contributing-to-mitochondrial-electron-transport-importance-of-non-classical-pathways-in-the-diversity-of-animal-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Allison E McDonald, Nicolas Pichaud, Charles-A Darveau
The study of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in animals has yielded a wealth of information about bioenergetics. Less is known about how animals use fuels other than glucose and less characterized enzymes that are also used to provide electrons to the electron transport system. It has become clear that bioenergetic flexibility is employed by a wide variety of animals in order to successfully grow, maintain cells, and reproduce, and has contributed to the exploitation of new environments and ecological niches through evolution...
November 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154092/anoxic-biodegradation-of-triclosan-and-the-removal-of-its-antimicrobial-effect-in-microbial-fuel-cells
#18
Lu Wang, Yulei Liu, Chao Wang, Xiaodan Zhao, Gurumurthy Dummi Mahadeva, Yicheng Wu, Jun Ma, Feng Zhao
Triclosan (TCS) is an emerging organic contaminant in the environment. Here, the anoxic bio-degradation of TCS in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was explored. It was found that anoxic biodegradation of TCS could be achieved in MFC, and the removal rate of TCS was accelerated after reactor acclimation. After 7 months of operation, 10mg/L TCS could be removed within 8days in MFCs. Fluorescence microscopy results revealed that the microbe cells in the reactors were intact, and the microbes were in active state. Flow cytometry test showed that the proliferation of inoculated microbe was higher in MFC effluent than that in TCS solution...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154004/influence-of-glass-wool-as-separator-on-bioelectricity-generation-in-a-constructed-wetland-microbial-fuel-cell
#19
Lei Xu, Yaqian Zhao, Cheng Tang, Liam Doherty
To figure out the impact of the separator on the electrical performance of the newly established constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC), two parallel upflow CW-MFC systems, with and without glass wool (GW), were set up in this study. System performances in terms of bioelectricity production were monitored for more than 4 months. Results showed that the highest voltage was achieved in non-separator (NS) system (465.7 ± 4.2 mV with electrode spacing of 5 cm), which is 48.9% higher than the highest value generated in GW system (312 ± 7...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153393/protein-based-inheritance-epigenetics-beyond-the-chromosome
#20
REVIEW
Zachary H Harvey, Yiwen Chen, Daniel F Jarosz
Epigenetics refers to changes in phenotype that are not rooted in DNA sequence. This phenomenon has largely been studied in the context of chromatin modification. Yet many epigenetic traits are instead linked to self-perpetuating changes in the individual or collective activity of proteins. Most such proteins are prions (e.g., [PSI(+)], [URE3], [SWI(+)], [MOT3(+)], [MPH1(+)], [LSB(+)], and [GAR(+)]), which have the capacity to adopt at least one conformation that self-templates over long biological timescales...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
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