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fuel cells

Juan Xiong, Meihua Hu, Xiaoping Li, Hongying Li, Xin Li, Xiang Liu, Guozhong Cao, Weishan Li
A porous graphite (PG) is proposed as anode electrocatalyst of microbial fuel cell (MFC), which is synthesized by thermally decomposing ferrous gluconate followed by leaching iron. The physical characterizations from scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicate that the resulting PG is mesopore-rich and exhibits high graphitization with oxygen-containing functional groups...
March 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jay K Bhattarai, Dharmendra Neupane, Bishal Nepal, Vasilii Mikhaylov, Alexei V Demchenko, Keith J Stine
Nanoporous gold (np-Au), because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
He Wang, Jianjia Li, Xiaoyi Zhang, Tingting Ning, Dandan Ma, Yihong Ge, Shuaimei Xu, Yilin Hao, Buling Wu
To seek a potential target for periodontal tissue regeneration, this study aimed to explore the role of Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Transwell assay, Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK8) assay, cell cycle assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and western blot were used to investigate the effects of ITGA5 on PDLSC migration, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo effect was investigated by nude mice subcutaneous transplantation with cell and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) complex...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Saurabh Sudha Dhiman, Namita Shrestha, Aditi David, Neha Basotra, Glenn R Johnson, Bhupinder S Chadha, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Rajesh K Sani
Residual solid and liquid streams from the one-pot CRUDE (Conversion of Raw and Untreated Disposal into Ethanol) process were treated with two separate biochemical routes for renewable energy transformation. The solid residual stream was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), which produced 95 ± 7 L methane kg-1 volatile solid with an overall energy efficiency of 12.9 ± 1.7%. A methanotroph, Methyloferula sp., was deployed for oxidation of mixed TAD biogas into methanol. The residual liquid stream from CRUDE process was used in a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) to produce electricity...
March 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ambra Masuzzo, Julien Royet
Immune responses and metabolic regulation are tightly coupled in animals, but the underlying mechanistic connections are not fully understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lee et al. (2018) reveal how sustained ROS production in the gut depends on an upstream metabolic switch.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Jatindranath Maiti, Nitul Kakati, Sung Pil Woo, Young Soo Yoon
This data provides the fuel cell performance of Nafion based hybrid membranes containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid (IL) at 70 °C under anhydrous condition. Readers are requested to go through the article entitled "Nafion® based hybrid composite membrane containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell" (Maiti et al., 2017) [1] for further interpretation and discussion.
February 2018: Data in Brief
Joao Incio, Jennifer A Ligibel, Daniel T McManus, Priya Suboj, Keehoon Jung, Kosuke Kawaguchi, Matthias Pinter, Suboj Babykutty, Shan M Chin, Trupti D Vardam, Yuhui Huang, Nuh N Rahbari, Sylvie Roberge, Dannie Wang, Igor L Gomes-Santos, Stefan B Puchner, Christopher L Schlett, Udo Hoffmman, Marek Ancukiewicz, Sara M Tolaney, Ian E Krop, Dan G Duda, Yves Boucher, Dai Fukumura, Rakesh K Jain
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has failed to improve survival in patients with breast cancer (BC). Potential mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy include the up-regulation of alternative angiogenic and proinflammatory factors. Obesity is associated with hypoxic adipose tissues, including those in the breast, resulting in increased production of some of the aforementioned factors. Hence, we hypothesized that obesity could contribute to anti-VEGF therapy's lack of efficacy. We found that BC patients with obesity harbored increased systemic concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and their tumor vasculature was less sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Qian Liu, Yang Yang, Xiaoxue Mei, Bingfeng Liu, Chuan Chen, Defeng Xing
Ferric iron can affect the current generation of microbial electrochemical system (MES); however, how it influences microbial biofilm formation and metabolic activity has not been reported. Here, we describe the response of microbial electrode biofilm communities to insoluble ferric iron (Fe3+ ) at different concentrations in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Insoluble ferric iron (200μM) improved electrochemical activity of the MFCs microbial biofilms during start-up and resulted in a higher maximum power density of 0...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Péter Bakonyi, László Koók, Enikő Keller, Katalin Bélafi-Bakó, Tamás Rózsenberszki, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Dinh Duc Nguyen, J Rajesh Banu, Nándor Nemestóthy
The purpose of this research was to improve microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance - treating landfill-derived waste liquor - by applying effluents of various biogas fermenters as inocula. It turned out that the differences of initial microbial community profiles notably influenced the efficiency of MFCs. In fact, the adaptation time (during 3 weeks of operation) has varied significantly, depending on the source of inoculum and accordingly, the obtainable cumulative energy yields were also greatly affected (65% enhancement in case of municipal wastewater sludge inoculum compared to sugar factory waste sludge inoculum)...
March 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
N Shaari, S K Kamarudin, S Basri, L K Shyuan, M S Masdar, D Nordin
The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3 H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane...
March 13, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Dongya Jia, Jun Hyoung Park, Kwang Hwa Jung, Herbert Levine, Benny Abraham Kaipparettu
Aerobic glycolysis, also referred to as the Warburg effect, has been regarded as the dominant metabolic phenotype in cancer cells for a long time. More recently, it has been shown that mitochondria in most tumors are not defective in their ability to carry out oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Instead, in highly aggressive cancer cells, mitochondrial energy pathways are reprogrammed to meet the challenges of high energy demand, better utilization of available fuels and macromolecular synthesis for rapid cell division and migration...
March 13, 2018: Cells
Tanya Schild, Vivien Low, John Blenis, Ana P Gomes
Metastases arising from tumors have the proclivity to colonize specific organs, suggesting that they must rewire their biology to meet the demands of the organ colonized, thus altering their primary properties. Each metastatic site presents distinct metabolic challenges to a colonizing cancer cell, ranging from fuel and oxygen availability to oxidative stress. Here, we discuss the organ-specific metabolic adaptations that cancer cells must undergo, which provide the ability to overcome the unique barriers to colonization in foreign tissues and establish the metastatic tissue tropism phenotype...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Sadia Kabir, Kateryna Artyushkova, Alexey Serov, Plamen Atanassov
This study elucidates the synthesis-structure-property correlations of nitrogen moieties present in nitrogen functionalized graphene nanomaterials towards oxygen reduction reactions and their electrochemical pathways in acidic and alkaline electrolytes. Porous three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (N/3D-GNS) were fabricated using the Sacrificial Support Method (SSM) and doped with nitrogen using 10 at.% NH3 under thermal pyrolysis at T= 650°C, 850°C and 1050°C for evaluating the nitrogen species formed under different temperatures...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Roberta R Rodrigues, Jared Heath Delcamp, Hammad Cheema
The development of high voltage solar cells is an attractive way to use sunlight for solar-to-fuel devices, multijunction solar-to-electric systems, and to power limited area consumer electronics. By designing a low oxidation potential organic dye (RR9)/redox shuttle (Fe(bpy)33+/2+) pair for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices, the highest single device photovoltage (1.42 V) has been realized for a DSC not relying on doped TiO2. Additionally, Fe(bpy)33+/2+ offers a robust, readily tunable ligand platform for redox potential tuning...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Guolong Xing, Tingting Yan, Saikat Das, Teng Ben, Shilun Qiu
Self-assembled crystalline porous organic salts (CPOSs) formed by the acid-base combination and with one-dimensional polar channels containing water molecules inside the channels have been synthesized. The water content in the channels of the porous salts plays an important role in the proton conduction performance of the materials. The porous salts described in this study feature high proton conductivity at ambient conditions and can reach as high as 2.2 x10-2 S cm-1 at 333 K and high humid conditions, which is among the best conductivity values reported yet for other porous materials e...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Edson Baltazar Estrada-Arriaga, Jesús Hernández-Romano, Liliana García-Sánchez, Rosa Angélica Guillén Garcés, Erick Obed Bahena-Bahena, Oscar Guadarrama-Pérez, Gabriela Eleonora Moeller Chavez
In this study, a continuous flow stack consisting of 40 individual air-cathode MFC units was used to determine the performance of stacked MFC during domestic wastewater treatment operated with unconnected individual MFC and in series and parallel configuration. The voltages obtained from individual MFC units were of 0.08-1.1 V at open circuit voltage, while in series connection, the maximum power and current density were 2500 mW/m2 and 500 mA/m2 (4.9 V), respectively. In parallel connection, the maximum power and current density was 5...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Rui Lin, Xin Cai, Hao Zeng, Zhuoping Yu
Due to their environmental sustainability and high efficiency, proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are expected to be an essential type of energy source for electric vehicles, energy generation, and the space industry in the coming decades. Here, the recent developments regarding shape-controlled nanostructure catalysts are reviewed, with a focus on the stability of high-performance Pt-based catalysts and related mechanisms. The catalysts, which possess great activity, are still far from meeting the requirements of their applications, due to stability issues, especially in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs)...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Carlo Santoro, Mounika Kodali, Sergio Herrera, Alexey Serov, Ioannis Ieropoulos, Plamen Atanassov
Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalyst with different loadings was investigated in air breathing electrodes microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Firstly, the electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of the catalyst was investigated by rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) setup with different catalyst loadings. The results showed that higher loading led to an increased in the half wave potential and the limiting current and to a further decrease in the peroxide production. The electrons transferred also slightly increased with the catalyst loading up to the value of ≈3...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Power Sources
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