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fuel cells

Bin Xu, Bor-Yann Chen, Kuan-Chieh Huang, Qing-Jiang Sun, John Chi-Wei Lan
This first-attempt study tended to decipher synergistic interactions of model redox mediators (RMs) to echinenone production for electrochemically-steered fermentation (ESF). The findings indicated that supplement of RMs could significantly stimulate the production performance of fermentation (e.g., 36% for 4-aminophenol) which was parallel with stimulation of bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as prior studies mentioned. Although redox mediators could usually enhance electron transport extracellular compartment, the mechanisms of bioelectricity generation in MFCs and echinenone production in ESF were very likely functioned in the extracellular and the intracellular compartment, respectively...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Shaofeng Zhou, Shaobin Huang, Yi Li, Nannan Zhao, Han Li, Irini Angelidaki, Yifeng Zhang
This study presents an innovative microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. The hypothesis for the function of the biosensor is that CO inhibits bacterial activity in the anode and thereby reduces electricity production. A mature electrochemically active biofilm on the anode was exposed to CO gas at varied concentrations. A proportional linear relationship (R2 = 0.987) between CO concentration and voltage drop (0.8 to 24 mV) in the range of 10% and 70% of CO concentration was observed...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Mounesha N Garaga, Vassilios Dracopoulos, Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger, Josef W Zwanziger, Manuel Maréchal, Michael Persson, Lars Nordstierna, Anna Martinelli
We report enhanced protonic and ionic dynamics in an imidazole/protic ionic liquid mixture confined within the nanopores of silica particles. The ionic liquid is 1-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([HC8Im][TFSI]), while the silica particles are microsized and characterized by internal well connected nanopores. We demonstrate that the addition of imidazole is crucial to promote a proton motion decoupled from molecular diffusion, which occurs due to the establishment of new N-HN hydrogen bonds and fast proton exchange events in the ionic domains, as evidenced by both infrared and 1H NMR spectroscopy...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Wouter Vijselaar, Roald M Tiggelaar, Han Gardeniers, Jurriaan Huskens
Most photoanodes commonly applied in solar fuel research (e.g., of Fe2 O3 , BiVO4 , TiO2 , or WO3 ) are only active and stable in alkaline electrolytes. Silicon (Si)-based photocathodes on the other hand are mainly studied under acidic conditions due to their instability in alkaline electrolytes. Here, we show that the in-diffusion of nickel into a 3D Si structure, upon thermal annealing, yields a thin (sub-100 nm), defect-free nickel silicide (NiSi) layer. This has allowed us to design and fabricate a Si microwire photocathode with a NiSi interlayer between the catalyst and the Si microwires...
May 11, 2018: ACS Energy Letters
Liang Yuan, Meng Li, Tinglian Yuan, Yimin Fang, Wei Wang
We employ a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) technique to monitor the in operando process of formaldehyde (HCHO) production during methanol oxidation with high spatial and temporal resolutions. While common wisdom suggests HCHO is generated as an intermediate during continuous electron transfer towards CO2 , we find that the majority of HCHO is produced via self-catalyzed chemical and electrochemical reactions under open-circuit conditions, which lead to an unprecedented HCHO burst immediately after withdrawal of external potential...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Yin Xiong, Yao Yang, Francis J DiSalvo, Héctor D Abruña
Design of electrocatalysts with both a high-Pt-utilization efficiency and enhanced electrochemical activity is still the key challenge in the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In the present work, Pd-Fe/C bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with an optimal Fe composition and decorated with Pt are introduced as promising catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction. These bimetallic nanoparticles have a Pd-Fe@Pd core-shell structure with a surface Pt decoration as established through the use of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kuniyasu Ogawa, Tatsuyoshi Sasaki, Shigeki Yoneda, Kumiko Tsujinaka, Ritsuko Asai
In order to increase the current density generated in a PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell), a method for measuring the spatial distribution of both the current and the water content of the MEA (membrane electrode assembly) is necessary. Based on the frequency shifts of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) signals acquired from the water contained in the MEA using 49 NMR coils in a 7 × 7 arrangement inserted in the PEFC, a method for measuring the two-dimensional spatial distribution of electric current generated in a unit cell with a power generation area of 140 mm × 160 mm was devised...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Jie Liu, Yan Huang
Pt alloy electrocatalysts are susceptible to anion adsorption in the working environment of fuel cells. In this work, the unavoidable bisulfate and sulfate ((bi)sulfate) poisoning of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on a common PtCo nanocatalyst was studied by the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The specific activity decreases linearly with the logarithm of (bi)sulfate concentration under various high potentials. This demonstrates that the (bi)sulfate adsorption does not affect the free energy of ORR activation at a given potential...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Lary C Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
Junfeng Bi, Sihan Wu, Wenjing Zhang, Paul S Mischel
Tumors cells reprogram their metabolism to fuel rapid growth. The ability to trace nutrient fluxes in the context of specific alterations has provided new mechanistic insight into the process of oncogenic transformation. A broad array of complementary genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional and translational mechanisms has been identified, revealing a metabolic landscape of cancer. However, cancer metabolism is not a static or uniform process, including within a single tumor. Tumor cells adapt to changing environmental conditions, profoundly shaping the enzymatic dependencies of individual cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Christin M Godale, Steve C Danzer
The sprouting of hippocampal dentate granule cell axons, termed mossy fibers, into the dentate inner molecular layer is one of the most consistent findings in tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Decades of research in animal models have revealed that mossy fiber sprouting creates de novo recurrent excitatory connections in the hippocampus, fueling speculation that the pathology may drive temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Conducting definitive experiments to test this hypothesis, however, has been challenging due to the difficulty of dissociating this sprouting from the many other changes occurring during epileptogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jian-Ren Xu, Lei-Yu He, Chen-Guang Liu, Xin-Qing Zhao, Feng-Wu Bai
The self-flocculation of yeast cells presents advantages for continuous ethanol fermentation such as their self-immobilization within fermenters for high density to improve ethanol productivity and cost-effective biomass recovery by gravity sedimentation. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of the self-flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPSC01 for the industrial production of fuel ethanol.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Nasser A M Barakat, Mohannad Alajami, Zafar Khan Ghouri, Saeed Al-Meer
The internal resistances of fuel cells strongly affect the generated power. Basically, in the fuel cell, the anode can be prepared by deposition of a film from the functional electrocatalyst on a proper gas diffusion layer. Accordingly, an interfacial resistance for the electron transport is created between the two layers. Electrocatalyst-functionalized gas diffusion layer (GDL) can distinctly reduce the interfacial resistance between the catalyst layer and the GDL. In this study, NiMn nanoparticles-decorated carbon felt is introduced as functionalized GDL to be exploited as a ready-made anode in a direct urea fuel cell...
May 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Peiyun Yi, Weixin Zhang, Feifei Bi, Linfa Peng, Xinmin Lai
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are renewable and clean energy conversion device, of which the metallic bipolar plates are one of the key components. However, high interfacial contact resistance and poor corrosion resistance are still great challenges for the commercialization of metallic bipolar plates. In this study, we demonstrated a novel strategy for depositing TiCx /a-C nanolayered coatings by synergy of 60 V and 300 V bias voltage to enhance corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sicong Wang, Zhenyuan Teng, Chengyin Wang, Guoxiu Wang
High activity and stability are crucial for practical electrocatalysts used for reactions in fuel cells, metal-air batteries and water electrolysis including ORR, HER, OER and oxidation reactions of formic acid and alcohols. N-C based electrocatalysts have shown promising prospects for catalyzing these reactions, however, there is no systematic review for strategies toward engineering active and stable N-C based electrocatalysts reported by far. Herein, a comprehensive comparison of recently reported N-C based electrocatalysts regarding both electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability is presented...
May 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Diana Mesquita Fernandes, Hugo C Novais, Revathi R Bacsa, Philippe Serp, Belén Bachiller-Baeza, Inmaculada Rodriguez-Ramos, Antonio Guerrero-Ruiz, Cristina Freire
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has a crucial function as the cathode reaction in energy-converting systems, such as fuel cells (FCs), which contributes to a sustainable energy supply. However, the current use of precious Pt-based electrocatalysts (ECs) is a major drawback for the economic viability of fuel cells. Hence, it is urgent to develop cost-effective and efficient electrocatalysts (ECs) without noble metals to substitute the Pt-based ECs. Herein, we report the preparation and application as ORR electrocatalysts of four new nanocomposites based on sandwich-type phosphotungstate [(TBA)7H3[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2] (TBA-Co4(PW9)2) immobilized onto different carbon nanomaterials (single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), graphene flakes (GF), carbon nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N-CNT) and nitrogen-doped few layer graphene (N-FLG))...
May 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Christopher P Muzzillo, W Ellis Klein, Zhen Li, Alexander Daniel DeAngelis, Kimberly Horsley, Kai Zhu, Nicolas Gaillard
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting is an elegant method of converting sunlight and water into H2 fuel. To be commercially advantageous, PEC devices must become cheaper, more efficient and much more durable. This work examines low-cost polycrystalline chalcopyrite films, which are successful as photovoltaic absorbers, for application as PEC absorbers. In particular, Cu-Ga-Se films with wide band gaps can be employed as top cell photocathodes in tandem devices as a realistic route to high efficiencies...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Nichanan Phansroy, Wichean Khawdas, Keigo Watanabe, Yuji Aso, Hitomi Ohara
A single chamber type microbial fuel cell (MFC) with 100 mL of chamber volume and 50 cm2 of air-cathode was developed in this study wherein a developed iron-plated carbon-felt anode and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used. The performance of the iron-plated carbon-felt anode and the possibility of corn steep liquor (CSL) as a fuel, which was the byproduct of corn wet milling and contained lactic acid, was investigated here. MFCs equipped with iron-plated or non-plated carbon-felt anodes exhibited maximum current densities of 443 or 302 mA/m2 using 10 g/L of reagent-grade lactic acid, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hang Zhang, Jingjing Li, Yanan Cao, Xiang Dong, Cong Gao, Fanfan Li
BACKGROUND: Adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment may provide the metabolic fuel or signal transduction through media and other means to promote a variety of malignant proliferation and invasion, of tumor cells, but their role in lung cancer progression is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adipocytes on lung cancer cell biology. METHODS: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes. The cell morphology was observed by microscopy and Oil Red O staining...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
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