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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#1
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910898/hydrogen-overproducing-nitrogenases-obtained-by-random-mutagenesis-and-high-throughput-screening
#2
Emma Barahona, Emilio Jiménez-Vicente, Luis M Rubio
When produced biologically, especially by photosynthetic organisms, hydrogen gas (H2) is arguably the cleanest fuel available. An important limitation to the discovery or synthesis of better H2-producing enzymes is the absence of methods for the high-throughput screening of H2 production in biological systems. Here, we re-engineered the natural H2 sensing system of Rhodobacter capsulatus to direct the emission of LacZ-dependent fluorescence in response to nitrogenase-produced H2. A lacZ gene was placed under the control of the hupA H2-inducible promoter in a strain lacking the uptake hydrogenase and the nifH nitrogenase gene...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907871/fluorescent-probe-based-subcellular-distribution-of-cu-ii-ions-in-living-electrotrophs-isolated-from-cu-ii-reduced-biocathodes-of-microbial-fuel-cells
#4
Ye Tao, Hua Xue, Liping Huang, Peng Zhou, Wei Yang, Xie Quan, Jinxiu Yuan
Based on the four indigenous electrotrophs (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia JY1, Citrobacter sp. JY3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa JY5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. JY6) isolated from well adapted Cu(II)-reduced biocathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), a rhodamine based Cu(II) fluorescent probe was used to imaginably and quantitatively track subcellular Cu(II) ions in these electrotrophs. Cathodic electrons led to more Cu(II) ions (14.3-30.1%) in the intracellular sites at operation time of 2-3h with Cu(II) removal rates of 2...
November 22, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906130/braf-activates-pax3-to-control-muscle-precursor-cell-migration-during-forelimb-muscle-development
#5
Jaeyoung Shin, Shuichi Watanabe, Soraya Hoelper, Marcus Krüger, Sawa Kostin, Jochen Pöling, Thomas Kubin, Thomas Braun
Migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells is a key step during limb muscle development and depends on the activity of PAX3 and MET. Here, we demonstrate that BRAF serves a crucial function in formation of limb skeletal muscles during mouse embryogenesis downstream of MET and acts as a potent inducer of myoblast cell migration. We found that a fraction of BRAF accumulates in the nucleus after activation and endosomal transport to a perinuclear position. Mass spectrometry based screening for potential interaction partners revealed that BRAF interacts and phosphorylates PAX3...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905602/achieving-enhanced-ionic-mobility-in-nanoporous-silica-by-controlled-surface-interactions
#6
Mounesha Nagendrachar Garaga, Luis Aguilera, Negin Yaghini, Aleksandar Matic, Michael Persson, Anna Martinelli
We report a strategy to enhance the ionic mobility in an emerging class of gels, based on robust nanoporous silica micro-particles, by chemical functionalization of the silica surface. Two very different ionic liquids are used to fill the nano-pores of silica at varying pore filling factors, namely one aprotic imidazolium based (1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, C6C1ImTFSI), and one protic ammonium based (diethylmethylammonium methanesulfonate, DEMAOMs) ionic liquid. Both these ionic liquids display higher ionic mobility when confined in functionalized silica as compared to untreated silica nano-pores, an improvement that is more pronounced at low pore filling factors (i...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905599/non-scaling-behavior-of-electroosmotic-flow-in-voltage-gated-nanopores
#7
Cheng Lian, Alejandro Gallegos, Honglai Liu, Jianzhong Wu
Ionic transport through nanopores is of fundamental importance for the design and development of nanofiltration membranes and novel electrochemical devices including supercapacitors, fuel cells and batteries. Recent experiments have shown an unusual variation of electrical conductance with the pore size and the electrolyte parameters that defies conventional scaling relations. Here ionic transport through voltage-gated nanopores was studied by using the classical density functional theory for ion distributions in combination with the Navier-Stokes equation for the electroosmotic flow...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905597/mechanism-for-the-enhanced-oxygen-reduction-reaction-of-la0-6sr0-4co0-2fe0-8o3-%C3%AE-by-strontium-carbonate
#8
Mei Li, Zhongti Sun, Wenqiang Yang, Tao Hong, Zhesheng Zhu, Yanxiang Zhang, Xiaojun Wu, Changrong Xia
Strontium doped lanthanum cobalt ferrite (LSCF) is a widely applied electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operated at intermediate temperatures. Sr surface segregation in long-term operation has been reported to have contradicting effects that either degrade or improve the reaction. Thus, it is critical to understand the mechanism of surface Sr compounds on ORR kinetics. This work aims to verify the effect and propose the mechanism by decorating SrCO3 nanoparticles using the infiltration method...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902405/microbial-nanowires-an-electrifying-tale
#9
Sandeep K Sure, Leigh M Ackland, Angel A Torriero, Alok Adholeya, Mandira Kochar
Electromicrobiology has gained momentum in the last ten years with advances in microbial fuel cells and the discovery of microbial nanowires (MNWs). The list of MNWs producing microorganisms is growing and providing intriguing insights into the presence of such microorganisms in diverse environments and the potential roles MNWs can perform. This review discusses the MNWs produced by different microorganisms, including their structure, composition and role in electron transfer through MNWs. Two hypotheses, metallic-like conductivity and an electron hopping model, have been proposed for electron transfer and we present a current understanding of both these hypotheses...
October 21, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902285/raineyella-antarctica-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-psychrotolerant-d-amino-acid-utilizing-anaerobe-isolated-from-two-geographic-locations-of-the-southern-hemisphere
#10
Elena V Pikuta, Rodolfo Javier Menes, Alisa Michelle Bruce, Zhe Lyu, Nisha Patel, Yuchen Liu, Richard Brice Hoover, Hans Jürgen Busse, Paul A Lawson, William Barney Whitman
Gram-positive bacterium, strain LZ-22T, was isolated from a rhizosphere of moss Leptobryum sp. collected at the shore of Lake Zub in Antarctica. Cells were motile, straight or pleomorphic rods with sizes of 0.6-1.0 x 3.5-10 μm. The new isolate was a facultatively anaerobic, catalase positive, psychrotolerant mesophile. Growth was observed at 3-41 oC (optimum 24-30 oC), 0-7 % NaCl, w/v (optimum, 0.25 %) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum 7.8). The quinone system of strain LZ-22T possessed predominately menaquinones MK-9(H4)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900581/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-orientation-properties-of-cytochrome-c-on-the-surface-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Bing Zhang, Jia Xu, Shu-Fan Mo, Jian-Xi Yao, Song-Yuan Dai
Electron transfer between cytochrome c (Cytc) and electrodes can be influenced greatly by the orientation of protein on the surface of the electrodes. In the present study, different initial orientations of Cytc on the surface of five types of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), with different diameters and chirality, were constructed. Properties of the orientations of proteins on the surface of these tubes were first investigated through molecular dynamics simulations. It was shown that variations in SWNT diameter do not significantly affect the orientation; however, the chirality of the SWNTs is crucial to the orientation of the heme embedded in Cytc, and the orientation of the protein can consequently be influenced by the heme orientation...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898958/technical-note-a-procedure-to-estimate-glucose-requirements-of-an-activated-immune-system-in-steers
#12
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M Abuajamieh, E J Mayorga, M V Sanz Fernandez, L H Baumgard
: Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897286/nanostructured-discotic-pd-ii-metallomesogens-as-one-dimensional-proton-conductors
#13
Cristián Cuerva, José A Campo, Mercedes Cano, Rainer Schmidt
A novel family of square-planar Pd(ii) complexes based on isoquinoline-functionalised pyrazolate ligands [Pd(pz(R(n,n)iq))2] (R(n,n) = C6H3(OCnH2n+1)2, n = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18) has been synthesised and characterised. The new complexes show mesomorphic properties and exhibit columnar mesophases that are highly-stable in exceptionally wide temperature ranges of up to 345 °C. The formation of nanochannels in the fluid liquid crystal phases generates continuous pathways for one-dimensional proton conduction on the basis of C-HN proton transfer...
November 29, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896217/adapt-recycle-and-move-on-proteostasis-and-trafficking-mechanisms-in-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
Seyma Demirsoy, Shaun Martin, Hannelore Maes, Patrizia Agostinis
Melanoma has emerged as a paradigm of a highly aggressive and plastic cancer, capable to co-opt the tumor stroma in order to adapt to the hostile microenvironment, suppress immunosurveillance mechanisms, and disseminate. In particular, oncogene- and aneuploidy-driven dysregulations of proteostasis in melanoma cells impose a rewiring of central proteostatic processes, such as the heat shock and unfolded protein responses, autophagy, and the endo-lysosomal system, to avoid proteotoxicity. Research over the past decade has indicated that alterations in key nodes of these proteostasis pathways act in conjunction with crucial oncogenic drivers to increase intrinsic adaptations of melanoma cells against proteotoxic stress, modulate the high metabolic demand of these cancer cells and the interface with other stromal cells, through the heightened release of soluble factors or exosomes...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895639/netosis-as-source-of-autoantigens-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
REVIEW
Elisa Corsiero, Federico Pratesi, Edoardo Prediletto, Michele Bombardieri, Paola Migliorini
In neutrophils (but also in eosinophils and in mast cells), different inflammatory stimuli induce histone deimination, chromatin decondensation, and NET formation. These web-like structures that trap and kill microbes contain DNA, cationic granule proteins, and antimicrobial peptides, but the most abundant proteins are core histones. Histones contained in NETs have been deiminated, and arginines are converted in citrullines. While deimination is a physiological process amplified in inflammatory conditions, only individuals carrying genetic predisposition to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) make antibodies to deiminated proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892575/heat-treated-carbon-supported-iron-ii-phthalocyanine-oxygen-reduction-catalysts-elucidation-of-the-structure-activity-relationship-using-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#16
Hamish A Miller, Marco Bellini, Werner Oberhauser, Xin Deng, Hengquan Chen, Qinggang He, Maurizio Passaponti, Massimo Innocenti, Ruoou Yang, Fanfei Sun, Zheng Jiang, Francesco Vizza
This paper focuses on studying the influence of the heat treatment on the structure and activity of carbon supported Fe(ii)phthalocyanine (FePc/C) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts under alkaline conditions. The FePc macrocycle was deposited onto ketjen black carbon and heated treated for 2 hours under inert atmosphere (Ar) at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C). The atomic structure of Fe in each sample has been determined by XAS and correlated to the activity and ORR mechanisms determined in electrochemical half cells and in a complete H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEM-FC)...
November 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889476/yeast-and-carbon-nanotube-based-biocatalyst-developed-by-synergetic-effects-of-covalent-bonding-and-hydrophobic-interaction-for-performance-enhancement-of-membraneless-microbial-fuel-cell
#17
Marcelinus Christwardana, Yongchai Kwon
Membraneless microbial fuel cell (MFC) employing new microbial catalyst formed as yeast cultivated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carbon nanotube (yeast/CNT) is suggested. To analyze its catalytic activity and performance and stability of MFC, several characterizations are performed. According to the characterizations, the catalyst shows excellent catalytic activities by facile transfer of electrons via reactions of NAD, FAD, cytochrome c and cytochrome a3, while it induces high maximum power density (MPD) (344mW·m(-2))...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887615/developing-a-set-of-strong-intronic-promoters-for-robust-metabolic-engineering-in-oleaginous-rhodotorula-rhodosporidium-yeast-species
#18
Yanbin Liu, Sihui Amy Yap, Chong Mei John Koh, Lianghui Ji
BACKGROUND: Red yeast species in the Rhodotorula/Rhodosporidium genus are outstanding producers of triacylglyceride and cell biomass. Metabolic engineering is expected to further enhance the productivity and versatility of these hosts for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Promoters with strong activity during oil-accumulation stage are critical tools for metabolic engineering of these oleaginous yeasts. RESULTS: The upstream DNA sequences of 6 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis or accumulation in Rhodotorula toruloides were studied by luciferase reporter assay...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878978/elimination-of-power-overshoot-caused-by-electron-depletion-of-limited-anodic-kinetic-at-bio-anode-through-assistance-current-in-microbial-fuel-cell
#19
Bongkyu Kim, Junyeong An, In Seop Chang
The power overshoot generated by electron depletion in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was characterized in this study. Various causes of power overshoot, identified in previous studies, are discussed in terms of their plausible contributions to electron depletion. We found that power overshoot occurred if the anodic overpotential generated by electron depletion exceeded the cathodic overpotential. The introduction of assistance current from anode connections, which ameliorated the electron depletion in the MFCs, immediately eliminated the power overshoot...
November 22, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878746/electricity-production-and-characterization-of-high-strength-industrial-wastewaters-in-microbial-fuel-cell
#20
Afsin Y Cetinkaya, Oguz Kaan Ozdemir, Ahmet Demir, Bestami Ozkaya
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance...
November 23, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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