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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814665/fatty-acid-oxidation-by-the-osteoblast-is-required-for-normal-bone-acquisition-in-a-sex-and-diet-dependent-manner
#1
Soohyun P Kim, Zhu Li, Meredith L Zoch, Julie L Frey, Caitlyn E Bowman, Priyanka Kushwaha, Kathleen A Ryan, Brian C Goh, Susanna Scafidi, Julie E Pickett, Marie-Claude Faugere, Erin E Kershaw, Daniel L J Thorek, Thomas L Clemens, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Postnatal bone formation is influenced by nutritional status and compromised by disturbances in metabolism. The oxidation of dietary lipids represents a critical source of ATP for many cells but has been poorly studied in the skeleton, where the prevailing view is that glucose is the primary energy source. Here, we examined fatty acid uptake by bone and probed the requirement for fatty acid catabolism during bone formation by specifically disrupting the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2), an obligate enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813599/tetraterpene-synthase-substrate-and-product-specificity-in-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-race-l
#2
Hem Raj Thapa, Su Tang, James C Sacchettini, Timothy P Devarenne
Recently, the biosynthetic pathway for lycopadiene, a C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon, was deciphered from the L race of Botryococcus braunii, an alga that produces hydrocarbon oils capable of being converted into combustible fuels. The lycopadiene pathway is initiated by the squalene synthase (SS)-like enzyme lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS), which catalyzes the head-to-head condensation of two C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) molecules to produce C40 lycopaoctaene. LOS shows unusual substrate promiscuity for SS or SS-like enzymes by utilizing C15 farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and C20 phytyl diphosphate in addition to GGPP as substrates...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813593/ptni-nanocrystals-supported-on-hollow-carbon-spheres-enhancing-the-electrocatalytic-performance-through-high-temperature-annealing-and-electrochemical-co-stripping-treatments
#3
Chunmei Zhang, Ruizhong Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Wei Chen
PtNi nanoparticles have been proved to be a type of highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) among the Pt-based nanomaterials. However, how to improve the surface catalytic activity and stability of polymer-stabilized Pt-based nanocrystals is still a critical issue for their application in fuel cells. In this work, a one-step solvothermal process was used to synthesize PVP-stabilized PtNi nanocubes supported on hollow carbon spheres. With optimized metal precursor ratio (Pt/Ni=1:1) and solvothermal temperature (130 oC), PtNi nanocrystals with uniform size and cubic shape can be synthesized and highly dispersed on hollow carbon spheres...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812881/predicting-microbial-fuel-cell-biofilm-communities-and-bioreactor-performance-using-artificial-neural-networks
#4
Keaton Larson Lesnik, Hong Liu
The complex interactions that occur in mixed-species bioelectrochemical reactors, like microbial fuel cells (MFCs), make accurate predictions of performance outcomes under untested conditions difficult. While direct correlations between any individual waste stream characteristic or microbial community structure and reactor performance have not been able to be directly established, the increase in sequencing data and readily available computational power enables the development of alternate approaches. In the current study, 33 MFCs were evaluated under a range of conditions including 8 separate substrates and 3 different wastewaters...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812746/redox-titration-of-gold-and-platinum-surface-oxides-at-porous-microelectrodes
#5
Mareike Haensch, Julian Behnken, Luis Balboa, Alexander Dyck, Gunther Wittstock
The extension of the surface interrogation mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SI-SECM) is demonstrated for porous electrode materials. These materials are often high surface area powders which are very important electrocatalysts for instance in fuel cells or water electrolyzers. The powdered electrocatalyst material is filled into a cavity-microelectrode which is then operated as the sample electrode in SECM. After a surface oxide generation step, the oxides on the porous sample are reduced by [Ru(NH3)6](2+) formed at the microelectrode probe of the SECM while the sample is at open circuit potential...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812362/nitrogen-doped-porous-graphdiyne-a-highly-efficient-metal-free-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#6
Qing Lv, Wenyan Si, Ze Yang, Ning Wang, Zeyi Tu, Yuanping Yi, Changshui Huang, Li Jiang, Mingjia Zhang, Jianjiang He, Yun-Ze Long
Metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are the desired materials for low-cost proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Graphdiyne (GDY), a novel type of 2D carbon allotrope, is featured by sp and sp2 hybridized carbon, different from the other existed carbon materials. Thus nitrogen (N) can be doped in new styles by substituting sp hybridized carbon atoms, effective for ORR, which has been displayed in this study using both experimental and theorical technologies. The N doped GDY was synthesized with pyridine and NH3 as N sources, successively, expressing similar electrocatalytic activity at potential above 0...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812083/visible-light-enhanced-power-generation-in-microbial-fuel-cells-coupling-with-3d-nitrogen-doped-graphene
#7
Dan Guo, Rong-Bin Song, Hao-Hua Shao, Jian-Rong Zhang, Jun-Jie Zhu
A new visible-light-assisted microbial fuel cell composed of a three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene self-standing sponge anode and a photoresponsive cathode has been developed for achieving multiple energy conversion and a higher power output.
August 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811077/the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-a-fuel-to-pancreatic-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Uzma Shahab, Mohd Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Mohd Waseem, Binish Arif, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) was first illustrated in the year 1992. RAGE is a single-transmembrane and multi-ligand component of the immunoglobulin protein super family. The engagement of RAGE turns out to an establishment of numerous intracellular signalling mechanisms resulting in the progression and perpetuation of many types of cancer including, the pancreatic cancer. The present review primarily focuses on the multi-ligand activation of RAGEs leading to the downstream signalling cascade activation...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810708/bacteria-induced-morphogenesis-of-ulva-intestinalis-and-ulva-mutabilis-chlorophyta-a-contribution-to-the-lottery-theory
#9
Fatemeh Ghaderiardakani, Juliet C Coates, Thomas Wichard
The green marine macroalgae of the class Ulvophyceae (Ulvophytes) are common algae distributed worldwide particularly in intertidal areas, which play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are potentially valuable resources for food, animal feed and fuel but can also cause massive nuisance blooms. Members of Ulvaceae, like many other seaweeds, harbour a rich diversity of epiphytic bacteria with functions related to host growth and morphological development. In the absence of appropriate bacterially derived signals, germ cells of the genus Ulva develop into 'atypical' colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells with abnormal cell walls...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810220/effectiveness-of-piggery-waste-treatment-using-microbial-fuel-cells-coupled-with-elutriated-phased-acid-fermentation
#10
K Chandrasekhar, Young-Ho Ahn
The present study evaluates the feasibility of increased power generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) coupled with acid elutriation fermentation. Raw piggery waste (RPW) and acid elutriation effluents (AEE) of piggery waste were used to generate bioelectricity in single-chambered air-cathode MFCs. RPW-fed MFCs exhibited stable performance after 12-days of operation, generating 540mV of open circuit voltage (OCV). RPW fed-MFCs displayed peak potential and maximal power density (PDmax) of 0.364V and 192mW/m(2) with 980Ω external resistance (Rext), respectively...
August 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809475/a-dna-fueled-and-catalytic-molecule-machine-lights-up-trace-under-expressed-micrornas-in-living-cells
#11
Daxiu Li, Wenjiao Zhou, Ruo Yuan, Yun Xiang
The detection of specific intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in living cells can potentially provide insight into the causal mechanism of cancer metastasis and invasion. However, due to the characteristic nature of miRNAs in terms of small sizes, low abundance and similarity among family members, it is of great challenge to monitor miRNAs in living cells, especially those with much lower expression levels. In this work, we describe the establishment of a DNA-fueled and catalytic molecule machinery in cell signal amplification approach for monitoring trace and under-expressed miRNAs in living cells...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809471/3d-analysis-of-fuel-cell-electrocatalyst-degradation-on-alternate-carbon-supports
#12
Brian T Sneed, David A Cullen, Kimberly S Reeves, Ondrej E Dyck, David A Langlois, Rangachary Mukundan, Rodney L Borup, Karren L More
Understanding the mechanisms associated with Pt/C electrocatalyst degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes is critical for the future development of higher-performing materials; however, there is a lack of information regarding Pt coarsening under PEMFC operating conditions within the cathode catalyst layer. We report a direct and quantitative 3D study of Pt dispersions on carbon supports (high surface area carbon (HSAC), Vulcan XC-72, and graphitized carbon) with varied surface areas, graphitic character, and Pt loadings ranging from 5-40 wt...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808498/functional-cellular-and-molecular-remodeling-of-the-heart-under-influence-of-oxidative-cigarette-tobacco-smoke
#13
REVIEW
Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Rana Ghali, George W Booz, Firas Kobeissy, Fouad A Zouein
Passive and active chronic cigarette smoking (CS) remains an international epidemic and a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. CS-induced cardiac damage is divided into two major and interchangeable mechanisms: (1) direct adverse effects on the myocardium causing smoking cardiomyopathy and (2) indirect effects on the myocardium by fueling comorbidities such as atherosclerotic syndromes and hypertension that eventually damage and remodel the heart. To date, our understanding of cardiac remodeling following acute and chronic smoking exposure is not well elucidated...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808059/linchpin-dna-binding-residues-serve-as-go-no-go-controls-in-the-replication-factor-c-catalyzed-clamp-loading-mechanism
#14
Juan Liu, Yayan Zhou, Manju M Hingorani
DNA polymerases depend on circular sliding clamps for processive replication. Clamps must be loaded onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) by clamp loaders that open and close clamps around ptDNA in an ATP-fueled reaction. All clamp loaders share a core structure in which five subunits form a spiral chamber that binds the clamp at its base in a twisted open form and encloses ptDNA within, while binding and hydrolyzing ATP to topologically link the clamp and ptDNA. To understand how clamp loaders perform this complex task, here we focused on conserved arginines that might play a central coordinating role in the mechanism, since they can alternately contact ptDNA or Walker B glutamate in the ATPase site, and lie close to the clamp loader-clamp binding interface...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806526/highly-selective-self-powered-sensing-platform-for-p-nitrophenol-detection-constructed-with-a-photocathode-based-photocatalytic-fuel-cell
#15
Kai Yan, Yaohua Yang, Yuhan Zhu, Jingdong Zhang
A photocathode-based photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) was fabricated and proposed as a self-powered sensor for p-nitrophenol (p-NP) detection. The PFC was comprised of a photocathode and an anode in separated chambers, which could generate suitable power output under photoirradiation to drive the sensing process. In this device, p-type PbS quantum dots-modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) served as the photocathode for the reduction of p-NP under photoirradiation while graphene-modified GCE was employed as the anode for the oxidation of ascorbic acid...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805062/ultrafast-electron-dynamics-in-solar-energy-conversion
#16
Carlito S Ponseca, Pavel Chábera, Jens Uhlig, Petter Persson, Villy Sundström
Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted...
August 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804512/engineering-shewanella-oneidensis-enables-xylose-fed-microbial-fuel-cell
#17
Feng Li, Yuanxiu Li, Liming Sun, Xiaofei Li, Changji Yin, Xingjuan An, Xiaoli Chen, Yao Tian, Hao Song
BACKGROUND: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a green and sustainable technology for electricity energy harvest from biomass, in which exoelectrogens use metabolism and extracellular electron transfer pathways for the conversion of chemical energy into electricity. However, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-known exoelectrogens, could not use xylose (a key pentose derived from hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass) for cell growth and power generation, which limited greatly its practical applications...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803443/solasodine-inhibits-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-suppression-of-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#18
Yu-Wen Zhuang, Cun-En Wu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Xu Chen, Jian Wu, Shan Jiang, Hai-Yan Peng, Xi Zou, Jia-Yun Liu, Da-Peng Wu, Tao Gong, Ming-Hao Qi, Tian Xue, Shen-Lin Liu, Hui Cai
Solasodine is a main active component isolated from Solanum incanum L, who performs a wide range of functions containing anti-oxidant, anti-infection and neurogenesis promotion. In this study, we explored the influence of solasodine on three types of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. The consequences displayed that solasodine apparently prohibited CRC cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and impeded CRC cell motility by downregulating Matrix metalloprotease (MMPs). Besides, solasodine was investigated to fuel caspase-cascade reaction and increase the ratio between Bax and Bcl-2 so as to induce CRC cell apoptosis...
August 13, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803164/electrochemically-active-microorganisms-from-an-acid-mine-drainage-affected-site-promote-cathode-oxidation-in-microbial-fuel-cells
#19
Claudia Rojas, Ignacio T Vargas, Mary Ann Bruns, John M Regan
The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (±0.7) mA at about -170mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (±0.9) mA between -500mV to -450mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls...
August 3, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800558/aqds-immobilized-solid-phase-redox-mediators-and-their-role-during-bioelectricity-generation-and-rr2-decolorization-in-air-cathode-single-chamber-microbial-fuel-cells
#20
Claudia M Martinez, Xiuping Zhu, Bruce E Logan
The application of immobilized redox mediators (RMs) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an emerging technology for electricity generation with simultaneous azo dye decolorization due to facilitated electrons transfer from bacteria to anodes and azo dyes. The use of immobilized RMs avoids the requirement of their continuous dosing in MFCs, which has been the main limitation for practical applications. Two strategies of anthraquinones-2,6-disulphonic salt (AQDS) immobilization, AQDS immobilized with polyvinyl alcohol particles and AQDS immobilized on anodes by electropolymerization, were evaluated and compared to achieve simultaneous reactive red 2 (RR2) dye reduction and bioelectricity generation...
July 26, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
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