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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213330/drug-discovery-strategies-in-the-field-of-tumor-energy-metabolism-limitations-by-metabolic-flexibility-and-metabolic-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#1
REVIEW
N D Amoedo, E Obre, R Rossignol
The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212344/green-microwave-assisted-combustion-synthesis-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-with-citrullus-colocynthis-l-schrad-characterization-and-biomedical-applications
#2
Susan Azizi, Rosfarizan Mohamad, Mahnaz Mahdavi Shahri
In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp) extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27-85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211932/nanostructured-material-based-biofuel-cells-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Cui-E Zhao, Panpan Gai, Rongbin Song, Ying Chen, Jianrong Zhang, Jun-Jie Zhu
During the past decade, biofuel cells (BFCs) have emerged as an emerging technology on account of their ability to directly generate electricity from biologically renewable catalysts and fuels. Due to the boost in nanotechnology, significant advances have been accomplished in BFCs. Although it is still challenging to promote the performance of BFCs, adopting nanostructured materials for BFC construction has been extensively proposed as an effective and promising strategy to achieve high energy production. In this review, we presented the major novel nanostructured materials applied for BFCs and highlighted the breakthroughs in this field...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#4
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210732/monodispersed-sub-5-0-nm-ptcu-nanoalloys-as-enhanced-bifunctional-electrocatalysts-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction-and-ethanol-oxidation-reaction
#5
Taiyang Liu, Kai Wang, Qiang Yuan, Zebin Shen, Ye Wang, Qinghong Zhang, Xun Wang
The development of effective electrocatalysts with enhanced activity and stability for both the anode and the cathode reaction in fuel cells still remains a challenge. Here, we report a one-pot route to prepare monodispersed, uniform sub-5.0 nm PtCu alloy polyhedra with a narrow size distribution. These PtCu alloy polyhedra exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activity for both cathode and anode reactions as compared to the commercial Pt/C catalyst under alkaline conditions. The specific activity and mass activity on Pt68Cu32 nanoalloys are 15 and 2...
February 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209726/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-pathological-triad-of-extrasynaptic-nmda-receptor-signaling-in-neurodegenerations
#6
REVIEW
Hilmar Bading
Activation of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors causes neurodegeneration and cell death. The disease mechanism involves a pathological triad consisting of mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of integrity of neuronal structures and connectivity, and disruption of excitation-transcription coupling caused by CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein) shut-off and nuclear accumulation of class IIa histone deacetylases. Interdependency within the triad fuels an accelerating disease progression that culminates in failure of mitochondrial energy production and cell loss...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208471/analysis-of-thermodiffusive-cellular-instabilities-in-continuum-combustion-fronts
#7
Hossein Azizi, Sebastian Gurevich, Nikolas Provatas
We explore numerically the morphological patterns of thermodiffusive instabilities in combustion fronts with a continuum fuel source, within a range of Lewis numbers and ignition temperatures, focusing on the cellular regime. For this purpose, we generalize the recent model of Brailovsky et al. to include distinct process kinetics and reactant heterogeneity. The generalized model is derived analytically and validated with other established models in the limit of infinite Lewis number for zero-order and first-order kinetics...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208016/highly-efficient-and-exceptionally-durable-co2-photoreduction-to-methanol-over-freestanding-defective-single-unit-cell-bismuth-vanadate-layers
#8
Shan Gao, Bingchuan Gu, Xingchen Jiao, Yongfu Sun, Xiaolong Zu, Fan Yang, Wenguang Zhu, Chengming Wang, Zimou Feng, Bangjiao Ye, Yi Xie
Unearthing an ideal model for disclosing the role of defect sites in solar CO2 reduction remains a great challenge. Here, freestanding gram-scale single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers are successfully synthesized for the first time. Positron annihilation spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence unveil their distinct vanadium vacancy concentrations. Density functional calculations reveal the introduction of vanadium vacancies brings a new defect level and higher hole concentration near Fermi level, resulting in increased photoabsorption and superior electronic conductivity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203654/the-effect-of-varying-solvents-for-mos2-treatment-on-its-catalytic-efficiencies-for-her-and-orr
#9
Xing Juan Chua, Martin Pumera
MoS2 has been investigated intensively in the field of catalysis for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in particular. Much effort has been made by various research teams worldwide to look into the specific catalyst design such as nano-structuring, defect engineering or hybrid structures. But what evades us is the fundamental preparation method for the dispersion of powdered MoS2. Individual research teams with their best practices might be subjective and not validated by extensive experimental results. In this report, we find that the overpotential for the catalysis of HER varies from 0...
February 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203516/solar-to-fuels-conversion-technologies-a-perspective
#10
Harry L Tuller
To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store...
2017: Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203457/effect-of-strontium-on-nd-doped-ba1-x-sr-x-ce0-65zr0-25nd0-1o3-%C3%AE-proton-conductor-as-an-electrolyte-for-solid-oxide-fuel-cells
#11
J Madhuri Sailaja, K Vijaya Babu, N Murali, V Veeraiah
This paper investigated the Sr doping effect on the microstructure, chemical stability, and conductivity of Ba1-x Sr x Ce0.65Zr0.25Nd0.1O3-δ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) electrolyte prepared by sol-gel method. The lattice constants and unit cell volumes were found to decrease as Sr atomic percentage increased in accordance with the Vegard law, confirming the formation of solid solution. Incorporation of Sr into the composition resulted in smaller grains besides suppressing the formation of secondary phases of SrCeO3...
May 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203237/activation-of-the-wnt-pathway-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-wnt-wnt-situation
#12
REVIEW
Tomás Villaseñor, Edgardo Madrid-Paulino, Rafael Maldonado-Bravo, Antonio Urbán-Aragón, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202599/bone-cell-bioenergetics-and-skeletal-energy-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Ryan C Riddle, Thomas L Clemens
The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202525/oncogenic-effects-of-high-mapk-activity-in-colorectal-cancer-mark-progenitor-cells-and-persist-irrespective-of-ras-mutations
#14
Cristina Blaj, Eva Marina Schmidt, Sebastian Lamprecht, Heiko Hermeking, Andreas Jung, Thomas Kirchner, David Horst
About 40% of colorectal cancers have mutations in KRAS accompanied by downstream activation of MAPK signaling which promotes tumor invasion and progression. Here we report that MAPK signaling shows strong intratumoral heterogeneity and unexpectedly remains regulated in colorectal cancer irrespective of KRAS mutation status. Using primary colorectal cancer tissues, xenograft models and MAPK reporter constructs, we showed that tumor cells with high MAPK activity resided specifically at the leading tumor edge, ceased to proliferate, underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and expressed markers related to colon cancer stem cells...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199953/evaluation-of-single-and-stack-membraneless-enzymatic-fuel-cells-based-on-ethanol-in-simulated-body-fluids
#15
J Galindo-de-la-Rosa, N Arjona, A Moreno-Zuria, E Ortiz-Ortega, M Guerra-Balcázar, J Ledesma-García, L G Arriaga
The purpose of this work is to evaluate single and double-cell membraneless microfluidic fuel cells (MMFCs) that operate in the presence of simulated body fluids SBF, human serum and blood enriched with ethanol as fuels. The study was performed using the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme immobilised by covalent binding through an array composed of carbon Toray paper as support and a layer of poly(methylene blue)/tetrabutylammonium bromide/Nafion and glutaraldehyde (3D bioanode electrode). The single MMFC was tested in a hybrid microfluidic fuel cell using Pt/C as the cathode...
February 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197535/relevance-of-epithelial-to-pericyte-transition-in-cancer
#16
Anitha K Shenoy, Jianrong Lu
The relevance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer is still under debate. Recently, we reported that EMT bestows key pericyte properties on cancer cells and may thus represent epithelial-to-pericyte transition (EPT). Carcinoma cells undergo EPT to stabilize blood vessels and fuel primary tumor growth. Association of EPT cancer cells with vascular niches may also promote resistance to therapy.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195724/a-drug-of-such-damned-nature-challenges-and-opportunities-in-translational-platinum-drug-research
#17
Dorian M Cheff, Matthew D Hall
The platinum-based anti-cancer agents cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, represent a spectacular translational science achievement. The basic research observations that led to the discovery of Pt complexes as DNA-binding agents that elicit cell arrest, the pre-clinical tumor regression studies, and the inorganic medicinal chemistry that led to clinical implementation of effective platinum complexes in the clinic, have fueled multi-disciplinary research into platinum-based drugs. While the successes are clear and the research activity continues, a significant window of time has passed since a new Pt drug has been approved for clinical use...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195701/synthesis-of-nanoflower-shaped-mxene-derivative-with-unexpected-catalytic-activity-for-dehydrogenation-of-sodium-alanates
#18
Guodong Zou, Baozhong Liu, Jianxin Guo, Qingrui Zhang, Carlos Fernandez, Qiuming Peng
Surface group modification and functionalization of two-dimensional materials in many cases are deemed as effective approaches to achieve some distinctive properties. Herein we present a new nanoflower-shaped TiO2/C composite which was synthesized by in-situ alcoholysis of two-dimensional layered MXene (Ti3C2(OHxF1-x)2) in a dilute HF solution (0.5 wt.%) for the first time. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it bestows a strong catalytic activity for the dehydrogenation of NaAlH4. The results show that the NaAlH4 containing 10 wt...
February 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195459/ternary-pt9rhfex-nanoscale-alloys-as-highly-efficient-catalysts-with-enhanced-activity-and-excellent-co-poisoning-tolerance-for-ethanol-oxidation
#19
Peng Wang, Shibin Yin, Ying Wen, Zhiqun Tian, Ningzhang Wang, Julian Key, Shuangbao Wang, Pei Kang Shen
To address the problems of high cost and poor stability of anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), ternary nanoparticles Pt9RhFex (x = 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) supported on carbon powder (XC-72R) have been synthesized via a facile method involving reduction by sodium borohydride followed by thermal annealing in N2 at ambient pressure. The catalysts are physically characterized by XRD, STEM, and XPS, their catalytic performance for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is evaluated by different electrochemical methods...
February 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194879/ethanol-production-by-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-furiosus-by-expression-of-bacterial-bifunctional-alcohol-dehydrogenases
#20
Matthew W Keller, Gina L Lipscomb, Diep M Nguyen, Alexander T Crowley, Gerrit J Schut, Israel Scott, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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