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warm versus cold shock

Jason P Londo, Alisson P Kovaleski, Jacquelyn A Lillis
Low-temperature stresses limit the sustainability and productivity of grapevines when early spring frosts damage young grapevine leaves. Spring conditions often expose grapevines to low, but not damaging, chilling temperatures and these temperatures have been shown to increase freeze resistance in other model systems. In this study, we examined whole-transcriptome gene expression patterns of young leaf tissue from cuttings of five different grapevine cultivars, exposed to chill and freeze shock, in order to understand the underlying transcriptional landscape associated with cold stress response...
2018: Horticulture Research
Carsten K W De Dreu, Mathijs A van Dijk
Human history is shaped by landmark discoveries in science and technology. However, across both time and space the rate of innovation is erratic: Periods of relative inertia alternate with bursts of creative science and rapid cascades of technological innovations. While the origins of the rise and fall in rates of discovery and innovation remain poorly understood, they may reflect adaptive responses to exogenously emerging threats and pressures. Here we examined this possibility by fitting annual rates of scientific discovery and technological innovation to climatic variability and its associated economic pressures and resource scarcity...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas I Kelly, Chris C Wilson, Suzanne Currie, Gary Burness
The ability of cold-adapted species to persist in the face of climate change will depend on the capacity of individuals for thermal acclimation, adaptation, and the degree of physiological variation that exists among populations. We tested the acclimation capacity of cardiac HSP70 and HSP90 in four populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), a cold-adapted salmonid. We acclimated fish to four temperatures (8°C, 11°C, 15°C, and 19°C) and measured cardiac HSP70 and HSP90 levels by western blot prior to and following an acute (1h) heat shock at 23°C...
December 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Suchitra Ranjit, Rajeswari Natraj, Sathish Kumar Kandath, Niranjan Kissoon, Balasubramaniam Ramakrishnan, Paul E Marik
AIMS: We previously reported that vasodilatation was common in pediatric septic shock, regardless of whether they were warm or cold, providing a rationale for early norepinephrine (NE) to increase venous return (VR) and arterial tone. Our primary aim was to evaluate the effect of smaller fluid bolus plus early-NE versus the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) approach to more liberal fluid boluses and vasoactive-inotropic agents on fluid balance, shock resolution, ventilator support and mortality in children with septic shock...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Pablo G Sanchez, Gregory J Bittle, Katrina Williams, Chetan Pasrija, Kai Xu, Xufeng Wei, Zhongjun J Wu, Bartley P Griffith
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prearrest heparin administration on lung quality in a model of donation after cardiac death (DCD), and to assess the potential application of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) in the identification of better grafts from the DCD donor pool. METHODS: Cardiac death was induced by electric shock in 10 pigs. One group received a prearrest heparin dose of 300 units/kg (H group, n = 5) and the other did not (NH group, n = 5). Animals remained at room temperature for 1 hour without ventilation, defining the warm ischemic time...
March 2013: Annals of Surgery
Sarah A Hosgood, Meeta Patel, Michael L Nicholson
BACKGROUND: A short period of isolated normothermic perfusion (NP) can be used to improve the condition of the kidney after periods of warm and cold ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porcine kidneys were retrieved after 10 min of warm ischemic injury and stored by either static cold storage (CS) for 24 h (control) or CS for 23 h followed by 1 h of NP at 38°C with leukocyte-depleted autologous blood (NP)...
June 1, 2013: Journal of Surgical Research
M S Qureshi, C J Callaghan, J A Bradley, C J E Watson, G J Pettigrew
BACKGROUND: Organ scarcity has prompted increased use of organs from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. An early single-centre experience of simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation from controlled DCD donors is described here. METHODS: Outcomes of SPK transplants from DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) donors between August 2008 and January 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: SPK transplants from 20 DCD and 40 DBD donors were carried out...
June 2012: British Journal of Surgery
Scott L Weiss, Min Yu, Lawrence Jennings, Shannon Haymond, Gang Zhang, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: Genetic variability in the regulation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway may influence hemodynamic changes in pediatric sepsis. We sought to determine whether functional polymorphisms in DDAH2, which metabolizes the NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), are associated with susceptibility to sepsis, plasma ADMA, distinct hemodynamic states, and vasopressor requirements in pediatric septic shock. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective study, blood and buccal swabs were obtained from 82 patients ≤ 18 years (29 with severe sepsis/septic shock plus 27 febrile and 26 healthy controls)...
2012: PloS One
Yasuhiro Fujino, Yasuhisa Kamoda, Yasuki Tanioka, Tetsuya Sakai, Yoshikazu Kuroda
BACKGROUND: The development of graft arteriosclerosis is a significant contributor to chronic rejection in organ transplant recipients. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether or not the cavitary two-layer method can prevent graft arteriosclerosis after rat heart transplantation. METHODS: F-344 rats served as donors to Lewis recipients. Grafts in the control group (group C) were immediately allotransplanted without preservation. Grafts were also transplanted after cold preservation for 3 h in University of Wisconsin solution (group UW), or employing the cavitary two-layer (CTL) method (group TL)...
July 2012: Journal of Surgical Research
Xianren Wu, Patrick M Kochanek, Kristin Cochran, Ala Nozari, Jeremy Henchir, S William Stezoski, Robert Wagner, Stephen Wisniewski, Samuel A Tisherman
INTRODUCTION: Clinical studies have demonstrated improved survival after cardiac arrest with induction of mild hypothermia (34 degrees C). Infusion of ice-cold saline seems beneficial. The American Heart Association recommends therapeutic hypothermia for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. For hemorrhagic shock (HS), laboratory studies suggest that mild hypothermia prolongs the golden hour for resuscitation. Yet, the effects of hypothermia during HS are unclear since retrospective clinical studies suggest that hypothermia is associated with increased mortality...
August 2005: Journal of Trauma
Hartmut Jaeschke, Anwar Farhood
Kupffer cell-derived oxidant stress is critical for reperfusion injury after no-flow ischemia. However, the importance of Kupffer cells as source of reactive oxygen formation is unclear in a hemorrhagic shock model. Therefore, we evaluated Kupffer cell activation after 60 or 120 min of hemorrhage and 90 min of resuscitation (HS/RS) in pentobarbital-anesthetized male Fischer rats. Plasma glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as indicator for a vascular oxidant stress showed no significant changes after HS/RS. Plasma ALT activities were only moderately increased (100-200 U/L)...
July 15, 2002: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
J E Flack, J R Cook, S J May, S Lemeshow, R M Engelman, J A Rousou, D W Deaton
BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding which cardioplegic solution, temperature, and route of administration provides superior protection. The CABG Patch Trial enrolled a high-risk group of coronary artery disease patients with an ejection fraction of <36%. Thus, they constitute an ideal group to benefit most from optimal cardioplegic protection. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients randomized into the trial were compared with respect to the use of blood and crystalloid cardioplegia...
November 7, 2000: Circulation
A Gowda, C Yang, G K Asimakis, S Rastegar, M Motamedi
BACKGROUND: Improved methods of donor heart preparation before preservation could allow for prolonged storage and permit remote procurement of these organs. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of heat-shock protein 72 provides protection against ischemic cardiac damage. We sought to determine whether rats subjected to heat stress with only 6-hour recovery could acquire protection to a subsequent heart storage for 12 hours at 4 degrees C. METHODS: Three groups of animals (n = 10 each) were studied: control, sham-treated, and heat-shocked rats (whole-body hyperthermia 42 degrees C for 15 minutes)...
December 1998: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
R Menguy, Y F Masters
"Ice-cold" gastric lavage is an important part of the treatment of bleeding from stress ulceration. The purpose of this study was to find out if cooling modifies ischemic injury of the gastric mucosa. Four series of experiments were performed in rabbits. In the first, we studied the influence of cooling on the rate of breakdown of gastric mucosal high energy phosphates during complete, ex vivo ischemia achieved by rapid excision of the stomach. We then studied the influence of cold versus warm gastric lavage on the severity of gastric mucosal injury and on the rate of breakdown of gastric mucosal adenosine phosphates during hemorrhagic shock...
July 1981: Annals of Surgery
E R Rosenkranz, G D Buckberg, H Laks, D G Mulder
This report reviews the initial clinical application of our experimental studies inducing cardioplegia with a warm (37 degrees C) glutamate-enriched blood solution in ischemically damaged hearts. Over 15 months, 23 consecutive coronary patients requiring preoperative intra-aortic balloon and inotropic drug support for cardiogenic shock underwent operation for left ventricular power failure. Twelve patients were given a warm glutamate-enriched blood cardioplegic solution during the first 5 minutes of aortic clamping before multidose cold (4 degrees C) glutamate blood cardioplegia was begun; 11 patients received standard multidose cold blood cardioplegia without glutamate...
October 1983: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
B S Allen, E Rosenkranz, G D Buckberg, H Davtyan, H Laks, J Tillisch, D C Drinkwater
Eighty consecutive patients receiving maximum inotropic and intraaortic balloon support underwent emergency coronary artery bypass grafting 3.4 +/- 1 days (mean +/- standard error) after infarction for severe left ventricular power failure (stroke work index less than 25 gm-m, left atrial pressure greater than 20 mm Hg). All underwent induction of cardioplegia with a 37 degrees C glutamate/aspartate blood cardioplegic solution, multidose cold (4 degrees C) replenishment, and warm reperfusate. Viable areas were grafted first to ensure cardioplegic distribution...
November 1989: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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