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Microglia pain

Cheng-Hua Zhou, Ming-Xing Zhang, Sha-Sha Zhou, Huan Li, Jian Gao, Lei Du, Xiao-Xing Yin
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modification-mediated changes in pain-related gene expressions play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), anicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, is involved in the development of chronic pain. Moreover, SIRT1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But the role of SIRT1 in T2DM-induced neuropathic pain remains unknown. In this study, we found that spinal SIRT1 expression and activity were down-regulated significantly in high-fat-fed/low-dose STZ-induced neuropathic pain rats...
September 29, 2016: Pain
Lijuan Lu, Cailong Pan, Lu Chen, Liang Hu, Chaoyu Wang, Yuan Han, Zhixiang Cheng, Yanjing Yang, Wen-Tao Liu
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating clinical condition with few efficacious treatments, warranting development of novel therapeutics. Ozone is widely used as an alternative therapy for many different pain conditions, with exact mechanisms still elusive. In this study, we found that a single peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone decreased mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and normalized the phosphorylation of protein kinase C γ (PKCγ), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rat sciatic nerve...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Zhenpeng Song, Bingrui Xiong, Hua Zheng, Anne Manyande, Xuehai Guan, Fei Cao, Lifang Ren, Yaqun Zhou, Dawei Ye, Yuke Tian
Major histocompatibility class II (MHC II)-specific activation of CD4(+) T helper cells generates specific and persistent adaptive immunity against tumors. Emerging evidence demonstrates that MHC II is also involved in basic pain perception; however, little is known regarding its role in the development of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we demonstrate that MHC II expression was markedly induced on the spinal microglia of CIBP rats in response to STAT1 phosphorylation. Mechanical allodynia was ameliorated by either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of MHC II upregulation, which was also attenuated by the inhibition of pSTAT1 and pERK but was deteriorated by intrathecal injection of IFNγ...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Satoru Koyanagi, Naoki Kusunose, Marie Taniguchi, Takahiro Akamine, Yuki Kanado, Yui Ozono, Takahiro Masuda, Yuta Kohro, Naoya Matsunaga, Makoto Tsuda, Michael W Salter, Kazuhide Inoue, Shigehiro Ohdo
Diurnal variations in pain hypersensitivity are common in chronic pain disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are enigmatic. Here, we report that mechanical pain hypersensitivity in sciatic nerve-injured mice shows pronounced diurnal alterations, which critically depend on diurnal variations in glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. Diurnal enhancement of pain hypersensitivity is mediated by glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of the extracellular release of ATP in the spinal cord, which stimulates purinergic receptors on microglia in the dorsal horn...
October 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Marta Silva, José Tiago Costa-Pereira, Daniel Martins, Isaura Tavares
Diabetic neuropathy has a profound impact in the quality of life of patients who frequently complain of pain. The mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are no longer ascribed only to damage of peripheral nerves. The effects of diabetes at the central nervous system are currently considered causes of DPN. Management of DNP may be achieved by antidepressants that act on serotonin (5-HT) uptake, namely specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key pain control center involved in descending pain modulation at the spinal cord through local release of 5-HT and plays a peculiar role in the balance of bidirectional control (i...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Jijun Xu, Yuying Tang, Mian Xie, Bihua Bie, Jiang Wu, Hui Yang, Joseph F Foss, Bin Yang, Richard W Rosenquist, Mohamed Naguib
Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I) remains one of the most clinically challenging neuropathic pain syndromes and its mechanism has not been fully characterized. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as a promising target for treating different neuropathic pain syndromes. In neuropathic pain models, activated microglia expressing CB2 receptors are seen in the spinal cord. Chemokine fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) plays a substantial role in microglial activation and neuroinflammation. We hypothesized that a CB2 agonist could modulate neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain in an ischemia model of CRPS by regulating CB2 and CX3CR1 signaling...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Samuel S Duffy, Chamini J Perera, Preet G S Makker, Justin G Lees, Pascal Carrive, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Pain is a widespread and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although central neuroinflammation and demyelination have been implicated in MS-related pain, the contribution of peripheral and central mechanisms during different phases of the disease remains unclear. In this study, we used the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to examine both stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors, and neuroinflammatory changes, over the course of chronic disease...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Li-Na Yu, Li-Hong Sun, Min Wang, Min Yan
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), is an important member of ERK family, which is a subfamily of the large MAPK family. ERK5 is expressed in many tissues, including the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the spinal cord. In this review, we focus on elaborating ERK5-associated pathway in pathological pain, in which the ERK5/CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein) pathway plays a crucial role in the transduction of pain signal and contributes to pain hypersensitivity...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Hongbin Jia, Shuangshuang Xu, Qingzhen Liu, Jian Liu, Jianguo Xu, Weiyan Li, Yi Jin, Qing Ji
The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the modulation of neuroimmune activation in the spinal cord by the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (Pio), in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI). Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham surgery with vehicle, chronic constriction injury with vehicle or Pio (10 mg/kg), and chronic constriction injury with Pio and a PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (2 mg/kg)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Liqin Deng, Lihua Zhang, Haiying Zhao, Fengxiang Song, Gang Chen, Hanyue Zhu
OBJECTIVES: Remifentanil may induce hyperalgesia. Recent studies implicate a close relationship between post-surgical hyperalgesia and phosphorylation and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in the spinal microglia. This study aimed to investigate whether the combination of post-surgical and remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia worsens post-operative pain and whether phosphorylated p38MAPK (phospho-p38MAPK) in the spinal dorsal horn in rats is involved in remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia...
October 2016: Neurological Research
Jian Li, Xiangnan Li, Xin Jiang, Mei Yang, Rui Yang, Geoffrey Burnstock, Zhenghua Xiang, Hongbin Yuan
Microglia are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the role of microvesicles (MVs) in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. First, we found that MVs shed from microglia were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and dorsal horn of the spinal cord after SNL. Next, MVs significantly reduced paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL). In addition, the P2X7-p38 pathway was related to the bleb of MVs after SNL. Interleukin (IL)-1β was found to be significantly upregulated in the package of MVs, and PWT and PWL increased following inhibition with shRNA-IL-1β...
September 28, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
W Huang, M Calvo, T Pheby, D L H Bennett, A S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most frequent manifestation of HIV disease. It often presents with significant neuropathic pain and is associated with previous exposure to neurotoxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, HIV-SN prevalence remains high even in resource-rich settings where these drugs are no longer used. Previous evidence suggests that exposure to indinavir, a protease inhibitor commonly used in antiretroviral therapy, may link to elevated HIV-SN risk. Here we investigated whether indinavir treatment was associated with the development of a "dying back" axonal neuropathy and changes in pain-relevant limb withdrawal and thigmotactic behaviours...
September 23, 2016: Pain
Chun-Ta Huang, Seu-Hwa Chen, June-Horng Lue, Chi-Fen Chang, Wen-Hsin Wen, Yi-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain relief by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone remain uncertain. We investigated if allopregnanolone attenuates glial extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) concomitant with neuropathic pain relief in median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model rats. METHODS: We examined the time course and cellular localization of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in CN after CCI. We subsequently employed microinjection of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (ERK kinase) inhibitor, PD98059, to clarify the role of ERK phosphorylation in neuropathic pain development...
September 23, 2016: Anesthesiology
P B Tran, R E Miller, S Ishihara, R J Miller, A M Malfait
OBJECTIVE: Microgliosis, the activation of microglial cells, is thought to contribute to synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn and thereby promote chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to document the temporal profile of dorsal horn microgliosis after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in wild type (WT) and Adamts5 null mice. Since neuronal fractalkine (CX3CL1) contributes to microgliosis, we assessed its release from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures after DMM...
September 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Qian Huang, Xiao-Fang Mao, Hai-Yun Wu, Teng-Fei Li, Ming-Li Sun, Hao Liu, Yong-Xiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Aconiti brachypodi Radix (Xue-shang-yi-zhi-hao) has been prescribed to manage chronic pain, arthritis, and traumatic injuries. Bullatine A, a C20-diterpenoid alkaloid, is one of its principle effective compounds. This study aimed to investigate the anti-hypersensitivity of bullatine A in a variety of rat pain models and explore its mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rat neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, diabetic neuropathic pain, and bone cancer pain models were used...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yuta Matsumura, Tomohiro Yamashita, Atsushi Sasaki, Eriko Nakata, Keita Kohno, Takahiro Masuda, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Toshiyasu Imai, Yasushi Kuraishi, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue
Accumulating evidence indicates that purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4R: cation channels activated by extracellular ATP) expressed in spinal microglia are crucial for pathological chronic pain caused by nerve damage, suggesting a potential target for drug discovery. We identified NP-1815-PX (5-[3-(5-thioxo-4H-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl]-1H-naphtho[1, 2-b][1,4]diazepine-2,4(3H,5H)-dione) as a novel antagonist selective for P2X4R with high potency and selectivity compared with other P2XR subtypes. In in vivo assay for acute and chronic pain, intrathecal administration of NP-1815-PX produced an anti-allodynic effect in mice with traumatic nerve damage without affecting acute nociceptive pain and motor function (although its oral administration did not produce the effect)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Stephen D Skaper
Mast cells and microglia, working singly and in partnership, elaborate pro-inflammatory molecules which play key roles in a wide array of nervous system disorders. Such neuroinflammatory settings may compromise integrity of both the blood-nerve barrier and blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier. While both belong to the innate immune system mast cells are far more ubiquitous, are resident in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, and can influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics...
August 29, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Martha E Zeeman, Sonia Kartha, Beth A Winkelstein
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is linked epidemiologically to neck and back pain in humans, and to forepaw mechanical allodynia and cervical neuroinflammation in a rodent model of WBV, but the response of the low back and lumbar spine to WBV is unknown. A rat model of WBV was used to determine the effect of different WBV exposures on hind paw behavioral sensitivity and neuroinflammation in the lumbar spinal cord. Rats were exposed to 30 min of WBV at either 8 or 15 Hz on days 0 and 7, with the lumbar spinal cord assayed using immunohistochemistry at day 14...
August 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Sheu-Ran Choi, Dae-Hyun Roh, Seo-Yeon Yoon, Soon-Gu Kwon, Hoon-Seong Choi, Ho-Jae Han, Alvin J Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee
We have previously shown using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model that gap junctions contribute to the early spread of astrocyte activation in the lumbar spinal cord and that this astrocyte communication plays critical role in the induction of central neuropathic pain. Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) have been implicated in spinal astrocyte activation and the development of peripheral neuropathic pain, yet their contribution to central neuropathic pain remains unknown. Thus, we investigated whether SCI upregulates spinal Sig-1Rs, which in turn increase the expression of the astrocytic gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43) leading to the induction of central neuropathic pain...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Sasan Gazerani, Jalal Zaringhalam, Homa Manaheji, Sahar Golabi
INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of peptidergic fibers activates microglia in the dorsal horn. Microglia activation causes fractalkine (FKN) release, a neuron-glia signal, which enhances pain. The transient vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) mediates the release of neuropeptides, which can subsequently activate glia. TRPV1 and TRPV2 are generally expressed on C and Aδ fibers, respectively. Expression of both proteins is upregulated during inflammation, but expression of TRPV3 after induction of inflammation is unclear...
July 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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