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Breast biomechanics

Jared A Weis, Michael I Miga, Thomas E Yankeelov
The use of quantitative medical imaging data to initialize and constrain mechanistic mathematical models of tumor growth has demonstrated a compelling strategy for predicting therapeutic response. More specifically, we have demonstrated a data-driven framework for prediction of residual tumor burden following neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer that uses a biophysical mathematical model combining reaction-diffusion growth/therapy dynamics and biomechanical effects driven by early time point imaging data. Whereas early work had been based on a limited dimensionality reduction (two-dimensional planar modeling analysis) to simplify the numerical implementation, in this work, we extend our framework to a fully volumetric, three-dimensional biophysical mathematical modeling approach in which parameter estimates are generated by an inverse problem based on the adjoint state method for numerical efficiency...
February 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Anoeska A A van de Moosdijk, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, Robert B Clarke, Renée van Amerongen
The ENBDC workshop "Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer" is an established international forum to showcase the latest technical advances in the field. The eighth meeting focused on emerging concepts and technologies for studying normal and neoplastic breast development.
November 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
A S Ribeiro, F A Carvalho, J Figueiredo, R Carvalho, T Mestre, J Monteiro, A F Guedes, M Fonseca, J Sanches, R Seruca, N C Santos, J Paredes
Physical forces mediated by cell-cell adhesion molecules, as cadherins, play a crucial role in preserving normal tissue architecture. Accordingly, altered cadherins' expression has been documented as a common event during cancer progression. However, in most studies, no data exist linking pro-tumorigenic signaling and variations in the mechanical balance mediated by adhesive forces. In breast cancer, P-cadherin overexpression increases in vivo tumorigenic ability, as well as in vitro cell invasion, by activating Src family kinase (SFK) signalling...
November 16, 2016: Nanoscale
Jaclyn N Chopp-Hurley, Rebecca L Brookham, Clark R Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical models are often used to estimate the muscular demands of various activities. However, specific muscle dysfunctions typical of unique clinical populations are rarely considered. Due to iatrogenic tissue damage, pectoralis major capability is markedly reduced in breast cancer population survivors, which could influence arm internal and external rotation muscular strategies. METHODS: Accordingly, an optimization-based muscle force prediction model was systematically modified to emulate breast cancer population survivors through adjusting pectoralis capability and enforcing an empirical muscular co-activation relationship...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Nikos A Afratis, Konstantina Karamanou, Zoi Piperigkou, Demitrios H Vynios, Achilleas D Theocharis
Glycosaminoglycans are integral part of the dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) network that control crucial biochemical and biomechanical signals required for tissue morphogenesis, differentiation, homeostasis and cancer development. Breast cancer cells communicate with stromal ones to modulate ECM mainly through release of soluble effectors during cancer progression. The intracellular cross-talk between cell surface receptors and estrogen receptors is important for the regulation of breast cancer cell properties and production of ECM molecules...
October 24, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Chih-Hao Liu, Alexander Schill, Chen Wu, Manmohan Singh, Kirill V Larin
Optical elastic wave imaging is a powerful technique that can quantify local biomechanical properties of tissues. However, typically long acquisition times make this technique unfeasible for clinical use. Here, we demonstrate non-contact single shot elastographic holography using a line-field interferometer integrated with an air-pulse delivery system. The propagation of the air-pulse induced elastic wave was imaged in real time, and required a single excitation for a line-scan measurement. Results on tissue-mimicking phantoms and chicken breast muscle demonstrated the feasibility of this technique for accurate assessment of tissue biomechanical properties with an acquisition time of a few milliseconds using parallel acquisition...
August 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Haitham H Khalil, Marco N Malahias, Balapathiran Balasubramanian, Madava G Djearaman, Babu Naidu, Melvin F Grainger, Maninder Kalkat
BACKGROUND: Management of complex thoracic defects post tumor extipiration is challenging because of the nature of pathology, the radical approach, and the insertion of prosthetic material required for biomechanical stability. Wound complications pose a significant problem that can have detrimental effect on patient outcome. The authors outline an institutional experience of a multidisciplinary thoracic oncoplastic approach to improve outcomes. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 71 consecutive patients treated with chest wall resection and reconstruction were analyzed (2009-2015)...
July 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Massimiliano Fraldi, Luca Esposito, Arsenio Cutolo, Angelo Rosario Carotenuto, Ciro Adamo, Guido Molea
Breast Capsular Contracture (BCC) is one of the adverse complications occurring with greater incidence in breast augmentation surgical procedures. Its formation can be interpreted as the conclusive result of the physiological process known as response to a foreign body. From a biochemical standpoint, the formation of the peri-prosthetic capsule is certainly a multifactorial process: many hypotheses concerning its etiology have been suggested in the literature and a number of related pharmacological protocols have been consequently proposed to clinically treat this pathology with the aim to prevent further complications and avoid future re-interventions...
December 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Deep Pokharel, Philip Wijesinghe, Vici Oenarto, Jamie F Lu, David D Sampson, Brendan F Kennedy, Vincent P Wallace, Mary Bebawy
Deciphering the role of cell-to-cell communication in acquisition of cancer traits such as metastasis is one of the key challenges of integrative biology and clinical oncology. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important vectors in cell-to-cell communication and serve as conduits in the transfer of cellular constituents required for cell function and for the establishment of cellular phenotypes. In the case of malignancy, they have been shown to support the acquisition of common traits defined as constituting the hallmarks of cancer...
August 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Nicola Brown, Joanna Scurr
Literature has established that a range of physiological, biomechanical, and training variables influence marathon performance. The influence of anthropometric characteristics has also received attention. However, despite major marathons exceeding 40,000 participants and approximately a third of these runners being female, no data exist on the influence of the breast on running performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the impact of breast mass on marathon finish time. One hundred and sixty-eight of 321 female marathon runners contacted completed an on-line survey focusing on marathon performance during the 2012 London marathon...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Yujuan Zheng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Giuseppina Barutello, Kungchun Chiu, Maddalena Arigoni, Costanza Giampietro, Federica Cavallo, Lars Holmgren
Transmission of mechanical force via cell junctions is an important component that molds cells into shapes consistent with proper organ function. Of particular interest are the cadherin transmembrane proteins, which play an essential role in connecting cell junctions to the intra-cellular cytoskeleton. Understanding how these biomechanical complexes orchestrate intrinsic and extrinsic forces is important for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving morphogenesis. We have previously identified the Amot protein family, which are scaffold proteins that integrate polarity, junctional, and cytoskeletal cues to modulate cellular shape in endothelial as well as epithelial cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jeffry S Nyman, Alyssa R Merkel, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Bijaya Nayak, Barbara Rowland, Alexander J Makowski, Babatunde O Oyajobi, Julie A Sterling
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients frequently develop tumor-induced bone destruction, yet no therapy completely eliminates the tumor or fully reverses bone loss. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity often contributes to tumor-induced bone disease, and pre-clinical studies have indicated that TGF-β inhibition improves bone volume and reduces tumor growth in bone metastatic breast cancer. We hypothesized that inhibition of TGF-β signaling also reduces tumor growth, increases bone volume, and improves vertebral body strength in MM-bearing mice...
October 2016: Bone
Jihan Kim, Christopher A R Jones, Nicholas Scott Groves, Bo Sun
Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress...
2016: PloS One
Debbie Risius, Alexandra Milligan, Jason Berns, Nicola Brown, Joanna Scurr
To assess the effectiveness of breast support previous studies monitored breast kinematics and kinetics, subjective feedback, muscle activity (EMG), ground reaction forces (GRFs) and physiological measures in isolation. Comparing these variables within one study will establish the key performance variables that distinguish between breast supports during activities such as running. This study investigates the effects of changes in breast support on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Vanessa Bellat, Hyun Hee Lee, Linda Vahdat, Benedict Law
We previously reported a high aspect ratio peptide nanofiber that could be effectively delivered to tumors with minimal nonspecific uptake by other organs. The peptidic nature offers the design flexibility of smart formulation with unique responsiveness. Two new formulations that behave congruously as nanotransformers (NTFs) are reported herein. NTF1 and NTF2 could biomechanically remodel upon enzyme activation to generate a degradable and an aggregable effect, respectively, within the lysosomal compartment...
June 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
M A Lago, M J Rúperez, F Martínez-Martínez, S Martínez-Sanchis, P R Bakic, C Monserrat
This paper presents a novel methodology to in-vivo estimate the elastic constants of a constitutive model proposed to characterize the mechanical behavior of the breast tissues. An iterative search algorithm based on genetic heuristics was constructed to in-vivo estimate these parameters using only medical images, thus avoiding invasive measurements of the mechanical response of the breast tissues. For the first time, a combination of overlap and distance coefficients were used for the evaluation of the similarity between a deformed MRI of the breast and a simulation of that deformation...
November 30, 2015: Expert Systems with Applications
Rémy Brossel, Alexandre Yahi, Stéphane David, Laura Moreno Velasquez, Jean-Marc Guinebretière
In the past ten years, many studies have shown that malignant tissue has been "normalized" in vitro using mechanical signals. We apply the principles of physical oncology (or mechanobiology) in vivo to show the effect of a "constraint field" on tumor growth. The human breast cancer cell line, MDA MB 231, admixed with ferric nanoparticles was grafted subcutaneously in Nude mice. The magnetizable particles rapidly surrounded the growing tumor. Two permanent magnets located on either side of the tumor created a gradient of magnetic field...
2016: PloS One
Matthew D Treiser, Tracy Lahair, Matthew J Carty
UNLABELLED: Overfill of tissue expanders is a commonly used modality to achieve customized dimensions in breast reconstruction. Little formal study of the dynamics of hyperexpansion of these devices has been performed to date, however. METHODS: Overfill trials were performed using both Natrelle 133 MV and Mentor 8200 tissue expanders of indicated capacities ranging from 250 to 800 mL. Each expander was initially filled to its indicated capacity with normal water and then injected in regular increments to 400% overfill...
February 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Katelyn Hasse, John Neylon, Ke Sheng, Anand P Santhanam
PURPOSE: Breast elastography is a critical tool for improving the targeted radiotherapy treatment of breast tumors. Current breast radiotherapy imaging protocols only involve prone and supine CT scans. There is a lack of knowledge on the quantitative accuracy with which breast elasticity can be systematically measured using only prone and supine CT datasets. The purpose of this paper is to describe a quantitative elasticity estimation technique for breast anatomy using only these supine/prone patient postures...
March 2016: Medical Physics
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