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Reactive airway disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422187/a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-agonist-inhibits-tertiary-lymphoid-tissue-reactivation-and-hypersensitivity-in-the-lung
#1
C A Huppé, P Blais Lecours, A Lechasseur, D R Gendron, A M Lemay, E Y Bissonnette, M R Blanchet, C Duchaine, M C Morissette, H Rosen, D Marsolais
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is characterized by pulmonary accumulation of B-cell-rich tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), which are alleged sites of amplification for antigen-specific responses. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) regulates key mechanisms underlying lymphoid tissue biology and its chemical modulation causes lymphocyte retention in lymph nodes. Given the putative immunopathogenic impact of lymphocyte accumulation in TLTs, we investigated whether or not chemical modulation of S1P1 caused lymphocyte retention within TLTs in a model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis...
April 19, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418689/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-chemical-inhalational-disasters-biology-of-lung-injury-development-of-novel-therapeutics-and-medical-preparedness
#2
Eleanor M Summerhill, Gary W Hoyle, Sven-Eric Jordt, Bronwen J Jugg, James G Martin, Sadis Matalon, Steven E Patterson, David J Prezant, Alfred M Sciuto, Erik R Svendsen, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
This report is based upon the proceedings from the Inhalational Lung Injury Workshop jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the National Institute of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program on May 21, 2013 in Philadelphia, PA. The CounterACT program facilitates research leading to the development of new and improved medical countermeasures for chemical threat agents. The workshop was initiated by the Terrorism and Inhalational Disasters (TID) Section of the Environmental, Occupational, and Population Health Assembly (EOPH) of the ATS...
April 18, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415011/design-and-synthesis-of-novel-xanthine-derivatives-as-potent-and-selective-a2b-adenosine-receptor-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-inflammatory-airway-diseases
#3
Sujay Basu, Dinesh A Barawkar, Vidya Ramdas, Meena Patel, Yogesh Waman, Anil Panmand, Santosh Kumar, Sachin Thorat, Minakshi Naykodi, Arnab Goswami, B Srinivasa Reddy, Vandna Prasad, Sandhya Chaturvedi, Azfar Quraishi, Suraj Menon, Shalini Paliwal, Abhay Kulkarni, Vikas Karande, Indraneel Ghosh, Syed Mustafa, Siddhartha De, Vaibhav Jain, Ena Ray Banerjee, Sreekanth R Rouduri, Venkata P Palle, Anita Chugh, Kasim A Mookhtiar
Adenosine induces bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in asthmatics through activation of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAdoR). Selective antagonists have been shown to attenuate airway reactivity and improve inflammatory conditions in pre-clinical studies. Hence, the identification of novel, potent and selective A2BAdoR antagonist may be beneficial for the potential treatment of asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Towards this effort, we explored several prop-2-ynylated C8-aryl or heteroaryl substitutions on xanthine chemotype and found that 1-prop-2-ynyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl moiety was better tolerated at the C8 position...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410469/18%C3%AE-glycyrrhetinic-acid-the-major-bioactive-component-of-glycyrrhizae-radix-attenuates-airway-inflammation-by-modulating-th2-cytokines-gata-3-stat6-and-foxp3-transcription-factors-in-an-asthmatic-mouse-model
#4
Seung-Hyung Kim, Jung-Hee Hong, Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Cheol Lee
18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (18Gly), the major bioactive component of Glycyrrhizae Radix, possesses anti-ulcerative, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological properties. Although 18Gly is associated with immunoregulatory functions of allergic diseases, the pathophysiological mechanisms of 18Gly action in allergic inflammatory lung disease have not been examined. Moreover, there are no in vivo studies on the anti-asthmatic effects of 18Gly in allergic asthma. We investigated its effect and mechanism of action in airway inflammation in a BALB/c mouse model of allergic asthma...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399855/characterisation-of-a-murine-model-of-the-late-asthmatic-response
#5
Katie Baker, Kristof Raemdonck, Robert J Snelgrove, Maria G Belvisi, Mark A Birrell
BACKGROUND: The incidence of asthma is increasing at an alarming rate. While the current available therapies are effective, there are associated side effects and they fail to adequately control symptoms in all patient subsets. In the search to understand disease pathogenesis and find effective therapies hypotheses are often tested in animal models before progressing into clinical studies. However, current dogma is that animal model data is often not predictive of clinical outcome. One possible reason for this is the end points measured such as antigen-challenge induced late asthmatic response (LAR) is often used in early clinical development, but seldom in animal model systems...
April 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359953/cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-exosome-release-is-mediated-by-depletion-of-exofacial-thiols-and-can-be-inhibited-by-thiol-antioxidants
#6
Birke J Benedikter, Charlotte Volgers, Pascalle H van Eijck, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Niki L Reynaert, Guido R M M Haenen, Gernot G U Rohde, Antje R Weseler, Frank R M Stassen
INTRODUCTION: Airway epithelial cells have been described to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) with pathological properties when exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). As CSE causes oxidative stress, we investigated whether its oxidative components are responsible for inducing EV release and whether this could be prevented using the thiol antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH). METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 24h to CSE, H2O2, acrolein, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), bacitracin, rutin or the anti-protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) antibody clone RL90; with or without NAC or GSH...
March 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352168/positive-correlation-of-airway-resistance-and-serum-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-level-in-copd-patients-with-systemic-markers-of-low-grade-inflammation
#7
Gabor Tajti, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Krisztian Pak, Csaba Papp, Sandor Keki, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Angela Mikaczo, Andrea Fodor, Maria Szilasi, Judit Zsuga
The major feature of COPD is a progressive airflow limitation caused by chronic airway inflammation and consequent airway remodeling. Modified arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathways are presumed to contribute to the inflammation and fibrosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) may shunt L-arginine from the NOS pathway to the arginase one by uncoupling and competitive inhibition of NOS and by enhancing arginase activity. To attest the interplay of these pathways, the relationship between ADMA and airflow limitation, described by airway resistance (Raw), was investigated in a cohort of COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286467/smoking-exposure-loss-of-forced-expiratory-volume-in-one-second-and-the-risk-of-lung-cancer-among-patients-with-malignant-disease-who-present-with-cardiac-or-pulmonary-symptoms-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Siegfried Wieshammer, Jens Dreyhaupt
BACKGROUND: Smokers with airway obstruction are at a higher risk of lung cancer than smokers without airway obstruction. Inflammation plays a key role in lung carcinogenesis. This single-center study prospectively assessed (i) the relationship between smoking exposure and the loss of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in determining lung cancer risk and (ii) the effect of lung cancer on systemic inflammation. METHODS: The study group comprised 475 consecutively enrolled patients with cancer who presented with pulmonary or cardiac symptoms...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275185/broadly-reactive-anti-rsv-g-antibodies-from-exposed-individuals-effectively-inhibit-infection-of-primary-airway-epithelial-cells
#9
B Cortjens, E Yasuda, X Yu, K Wagner, Y B Claassen, A Q Bakker, J B M van Woensel, T Beaumont
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in young children. Antibodies specific for the RSV prefusion F protein have guided RSV vaccine research and in human serum these antibodies attribute to >90% of the neutralization response, however detailed insight in the composition of the human B cell repertoire against RSV is still largely unknown. In order to study the B cell repertoire of 3 healthy donors for specificity against RSV, CD27(+) memory B cells were isolated and immortalized using BCL6 and Bcl-xL...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273344/oxidative-stress-serves-as-a-key-checkpoint-for-il-33-release-by-airway-epithelium
#10
M Uchida, E L Anderson, D L Squillace, N Patil, P J Maniak, K Iijima, H Kita, S M O'Grady
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-33 is implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and allergic diseases. However, our knowledge is limited regarding how IL-33 release is controlled. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a key role in antioxidant response regulation. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to investigate the role of cellular oxidative stress in controlling IL-33 release in airway epithelium. METHODS: Complementary approaches were used that included human bronchial epithelial cells and mouse models of airway type-2 immunity that were exposed to fungus Alternaria extract...
March 8, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256060/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-status-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
S Singh, S K Verma, S Kumar, M K Ahmad, A Nischal, S K Singh, R K Dixit
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory condition involving the airways and characterized by airflow limitation. Gaseous and noxious particles play an important role in this process. Antioxidants are the substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. The increased oxidative stress in patients with COPD is the result of an increased burden of inhaled oxidants, as well as increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by various inflammatory, immune and epithelial cells of the airways...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231574/biomarkers-in-allergic-airway-disease-simply-complex
#12
Adam M Chaker, Ulrich M Zissler, Martin Wagenmann, Carsten Schmidt-Weber
Clinical diagnoses of allergic airway disease need confirmation of a relevant sensitization to allergens. Serum-based component-resolved diagnosis has become increasingly popular and allows the precise assessment of specific IgE to molecular allergens. Molecular allergen diagnosis has improved our understanding of disease phenotypes in allergic patients, including cross-reactive patterns and food allergy. Beyond sensitization profiles, characterization of the (endo-)type and severity of a local allergic disease is useful for targeted therapy with biologics in advanced allergic airway disease...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#13
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211571/inhibitory-effects-of-a-standardized-extract-of-justicia-pectoralis-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#14
Carlos T M Moura, Francisco J Batista-Lima, Teresinha S Brito, Alfredo A V Silva, Luan C Ferreira, Cássia R Roque, Karoline S Aragão, Alexandre Havt, Francisco N Fonseca, Luzia K A M Leal, Pedro J C Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: Justicia pectoralis is a plant useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Here, we studied the antiasthmatic properties of a standardized extract of J. pectoralis (Jp). METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were actively challenged with saline or OVA to study airway hyper-responsiveness after oral treatment with saline or Jp. The ability of Jp to inhibit hyper-reactivity was evaluated in isolated trachea mounted in isolated organ bath chamber...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202112/-risk-factors-for-poor-prognosis-in-children-with-severe-adenovirus-pneumonia
#15
Miao Huang, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for poor prognosis of severe adenovirus pneumonia (SAP) in children. METHODS: The clinical data of 189 children with SAP were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for poor prognosis. RESULTS: The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the patients with hemoglobin <90 g/L, plasma albumin <30 g/L, C-reactive protein >30 mg/L, procalcitonin >10 ng/mL, alanine aminotransferase >100 U/L, or aspartate aminotransferase >100 U/L had poor prognosis (P<0...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199134/genetic-control-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Zhiqiang Jiang, Nelson H Knudsen, Gang Wang, Weiliang Qiu, Zun Zar Chi Naing, Yan Bai, Xingbin Ai, Chih-Hao Lee, Xiaobo Zhou
Bioenergetics homeostasis is important for cells to sustain normal functions and defend against injury. Genetics controls on bioenergetics homeostasis, especially lipid metabolism remain poorly understood in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), the third leading cause of death in the world. Additionally, biological function of most susceptible genes identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in COPD remains unclear. Here, we aim to address 1) how fatty acid oxidation, specifically β-oxidation (FAO), a key lipid metabolism pathway that provides energy to cells, contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD; and 2) whether and how FAM13A (family with sequence similarity 13 member A), a well-replicated COPD GWAS gene, modulates FAO pathway...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186686/combined-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-and-one-way-endobronchial-valve-placement-in-patients-with-pulmonary-emphysema-a-phase-i-clinical-trial
#17
Hugo Goulart de Oliveira, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Mariana Alves Antunes, Amarilio Vieira de Macedo Neto, Guilherme Augusto Oliveira, Fabio Munhoz Svartman, Tamara Borgonovo, Carmen Lucia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Daniel J Weiss, Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman, Marcelo Marcos Morales, José Roberto Lapa E Silva, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
One-way endobronchial valves (EBV) insertion to reduce pulmonary air trapping has been used as therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, local inflammation may result and can contribute to worsening of clinical status in these patients. We hypothesized that combined EBV insertion and intrabronchial administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) would decrease the inflammatory process, thus mitigating EBV complications in severe COPD patients. This initial study sought to investigate the safety of this approach...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128967/impact-of-mandibular-advancement-therapy-on-endothelial-function-in-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Frédéric Gagnadoux, Jean-Louis Pépin, Bruno Vielle, Vanessa Bironneau, Frédérique Chouet-Girard, Sandrine Launois, Nicole Meslier, Jean-Claude Meurice, Xuan-Lan Nguyen, Audrey Paris, Pascaline Priou, Renaud Tamisier, Wojciech Trzepizur, François Goupil, Bernard Fleury
RATIONALE: Endothelial dysfunction, a major predictor of late cardiovascular events, is linked to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment with mandibular advancement device, the main alternative to continuous positive airway pressure, improves endothelial function in patients with severe OSA. METHODS: In this trial, we randomized patients with severe OSA and no overt cardiovascular disease to receive 2 months of treatment with either effective mandibular advancement device or a sham device...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126503/-pathophysiology-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-its-cardiometabolic-consequences
#19
Marie Destors, Renaud Tamisier, Louis-Marie Galerneau, Patrick Lévy, Jean-Louis Pepin
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent partial or complete pharyngeal collapses during sleep. The pathophysiology of OSAS is complex and multifactorial. Factors influencing upper airway patency include a reduction in upper airway dimensions that can result from both anatomical and functional alterations (obesity, fluid shift or maxillo-facial structural changes), and increased pharyngeal collapsibility owing to reduced neuromuscular compensation and lack of the pharyngeal protective reflex during sleep...
January 23, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#20
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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