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polymer and gene

Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Jimmy Su, Simon C Satchell, Ramille N Shah, Jason A Wertheim
Hydrogels, highly-hydrated crosslinked polymer networks, closely mimic the microenvironment of native extracellular matrix (ECM) and thus present as ideal platforms for three-dimensional cell culture. Hydrogels derived from tissue- and organ-specific decellularized ECM (dECM) may retain bioactive signaling cues from the native tissue or organ that could in turn modulate cell-material interactions and response. In this study, we demonstrate that porcine kidney dECM can be processed to form hydrogels suitable for cell culture and encapsulation studies...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Simona Bianco, Darío G Lupiáñez, Andrea M Chiariello, Carlo Annunziatella, Katerina Kraft, Robert Schöpflin, Lars Wittler, Guillaume Andrey, Martin Vingron, Ana Pombo, Stefan Mundlos, Mario Nicodemi
Structural variants (SVs) can result in changes in gene expression due to abnormal chromatin folding and cause disease. However, the prediction of such effects remains a challenge. Here we present a polymer-physics-based approach (PRISMR) to model 3D chromatin folding and to predict enhancer-promoter contacts. PRISMR predicts higher-order chromatin structure from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data. Using the EPHA4 locus as a model, the effects of pathogenic SVs are predicted in silico and compared to Hi-C data generated from mouse limb buds and patient-derived fibroblasts...
April 16, 2018: Nature Genetics
Ting Guo, Julia P Ringel, Casey G Lim, Laura G Bracaglia, Maeesha Noshin, Hannah B Baker, Douglas A Powell, John P Fisher
Proper cell-material interactions are critical to remain cell function and thus successful tissue regeneration. Many fabrication processes have been developed to create microenvironments to control cell attachment and organization on a 3D scaffold. However, these approaches often involve heavy engineering and only the surface layer can be patterned. We found that 3D extrusion based printing at high temperature and pressure will result an aligned effect on the polymer molecules, and this molecular arrangement will further induce the cell alignment and different differentiation capacities...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Kai Shi, Yan Fang, Shan Gao, Dongjuan Yang, Hongshu Bi, Jianxiu Xue, Anqi Lu, Yuai Li, Liyuan Ke, Xiaojie Lin, Xuechao Jin, Min Li
As a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the extracellular region of HER2 tyrosine kinase receptor, trastuzumab (TRAZ) has demonstrated comparable clinical efficacy and improved survival in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Nevertheless, the therapeutic potential of TRAZ is often limited due to its frequent resistance to anti-HER2 therapy. Therefore, we investigate the reversal effect of STAT3-specific decoy oligonucleotides (STAT3-decoy ODNs) on TRAZ resistance, which contain the consensus sequence within the targeted gene promoter of STAT3...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Juan M Priegue, Irene Lostalé-Seijo, Daniel Crisan, Juan R Granja, Francisco Fernández-Trillo, Javier Montenegro
The recent advances in genetic engineering demand the development of conceptually new methods to prepare and identify efficient vectors for the intracellular delivery of different nucleotide payloads ranging from short single-stranded oligonucleotides to larger plasmid double-stranded circular DNAs. Although many challenges still have to be overcome, polymers hold great potential for intracellular nucleotide delivery and gene therapy. We here develop and apply the post-polymerization modification of polyhydrazide scaffolds, with different degree of polymerization, for the in situ preparation of amphiphilic polymeric vehicles for the intracellular delivery of a circular plasmid DNA...
April 13, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Guiyuan Huang, Qiaozhen Wang, Mingqian Lu, Chao Xu, Fei Li, Rongcan Zhang, Wei Liao, Shushi Huang
Alginate lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the depolymerization of alginates into oligosaccharides or monosaccharides. These enzymes have been widely used for a variety of purposes, such as producing bioactive oligosaccharides, controlling the rheological properties of polysaccharides, and performing structural analyses of polysaccharides. The algM4 gene of the marine bacterium Vibrio weizhoudaoensis M0101 encodes an alginate lyase that belongs to the polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7). In this study, the kinetic constants V max (maximum reaction rate) and K m (Michaelis constant) of AlgM4 activity were determined as 2...
April 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
Zhongshuo Xu, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
Solid and liquid organic substances as carbon sources for denitrification process were deeply explored. In this study, the effect of three carbon sources, referred to as poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/poly (lactic acid) (PHBV/PLA) polymer, glucose and CH3 COONa, on denitrification performance, microbial community and functional genes were investigated. It was found that maximum denitrification rates of 0.37, 0.46 and 0.39gN/(L·d) were achieved in PHBV/PLA, glucose and CH3 COONa supported denitrification systems, respectively...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Payam Zarrintaj, Behnaz Bakhshandeh, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Farshid Sefat, Iraj Rezaeian, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Seeram Ramakrishna, Masoud Mozafari
The science and engineering of biomaterials have improved the human life expectancy. Tissue engineering is one of the nascent strategies with an aim to fulfill this target. Tissue engineering scaffolds are one of the most significant aspects of the recent tissue repair strategies; hence, it is imperative to design biomimetic substrates with suitable features. Conductive substrates can ameliorate the cellular activity through enhancement of cellular signaling. Biocompatible polymers with conductivity can mimic the cells' niche in an appropriate manner...
April 3, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jie Peng, Jiahui Ma, Xue Yang, Huan He, Haopeng Wu, Tongtong Ma, Jianhua Lu
We constructed a water-soluble lipopolymer (WSLP) as a nonviral gene carrier to deliver siRNA targeting NR2B. The cytotoxicity and serum stability of WSLP loaded with siRNA were evaluated, and the knockdown efficiency of WSLP/NR2B-siRNA in PC12 cells was examined. The results showed that WSLP could protect the loading siRNAs from enzymatic degradation in serum and exhibit low cytotoxicity to cells. After transfection, WSLP/NR2B-siRNA complexes reduced the NR2B transcriptional level by 50% and protein level by 55% compared to control siRNA...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Catherine A A Lee, Hannah S Seo, Anibal G Armien, Frank S Bates, Jakub Tolar, Samira M Azarin
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. 40% of X-ALD patients will convert to the deadly childhood cerebral form (ccALD) characterized by increased permeability of the brain endothelium that constitutes the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mutation information and molecular markers investigated to date are not predictive of conversion. Prior reports have focused on toxic metabolic byproducts and reactive oxygen species as instigators of cerebral inflammation and subsequent immune cell invasion leading to BBB breakdown...
April 4, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Marco Werner, Thorsten Auth, Paul A Beales, Jean Baptiste Fleury, Fredrik Höök, Holger Kress, Reid C Van Lehn, Marcus Müller, Eugene P Petrov, Lev Sarkisov, Jens-Uwe Sommer, Vladimir A Baulin
Synthetic polymers, nanoparticles, and carbon-based materials have great potential in applications including drug delivery, gene transfection, in vitro and in vivo imaging, and the alteration of biological function. Nature and humans use different design strategies to create nanomaterials: biological objects have emerged from billions of years of evolution and from adaptation to their environment resulting in high levels of structural complexity; in contrast, synthetic nanomaterials result from minimalistic but controlled design options limited by the authors' current understanding of the biological world...
April 3, 2018: Biointerphases
Isaac Jordão de Souza Araújo, Andréia Bolzan de Paula, Roberta Caroline Bruschi Alonso, Jesus Roberto Taparelli, Lúcia Helena Innocentini Mei, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Regina Maria Puppin-Rontani
The use of antimicrobial monomers, linked to the polymer chain of resin composites, is an interesting approach to circumvent the effects of bacteria on the dental and material surfaces. In addition, it can likely reduce the incidence of recurrent caries lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel Triclosan Methacrylate (TM) monomer, which was developed and incorporated into an experimental resin composite, on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms, focusing on the analyses of vicR, gtfD, gtfC, covR, and gbpB gene expression, cell viability and biofilm characteristics...
2018: PloS One
Mahshid Sadat Kashef-Saberi, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Kazem Parivar, Saeid Vakilian, Hana Hanee-Ahvaz
Over the last few decades, great advancements have been achieved in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Containing a great number of growth factors needed in the process of osteogenesis, platelet rich plasma (PRP) has gained a great deal of attention. However, due to the contradictory results achieved in different studies, its effectiveness remains a mystery. Therefore, in this study, we investigated in vitro performance of co-electrospun PRP/poly ether sulfone/poly(vinyl) alcohol (PRP/PES/PVA) composite scaffolds for the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells...
March 28, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yevgeni Mamasakhlisov, Hakob Sngryan, Shushanik Tonoyan, Artur Hakobyan, Poghos Vardevanyan
The mixture of the short segments of double-stranded DNA and a flexible polymer are addressed. It is shown that in the condensed phase rigid DNA molecules exhibit transition between isotropic and orientationally ordered phases. It is shown that orientational ordering stabilizes the secondary structure of double-stranded DNA that could be relevant for the regulation of the gene expression at the condensed state of DNA.
March 31, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yung Jin Jeon, Hyun Jik Kim
Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism...
March 30, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rossella Farra, Francesco Musiani, Francesca Perrone, Maja Čemažar, Urška Kamenšek, Federica Tonon, Michela Abrami, Aleš Ručigaj, Mario Grassi, Gabriele Pozzato, Deborah Bonazza, Fabrizio Zanconati, Giancarlo Forte, Maguie El Boustani, Lucia Scarabel, Marica Garziera, Concetta Russo Spena, Lucia De Stefano, Barbara Salis, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio, Gabriele Grassi, Barbara Dapas
Despite the advances in anticancer therapies, their effectiveness for many human tumors is still far from being optimal. Significant improvements in treatment efficacy can come from the enhancement of drug specificity. This goal may be achieved by combining the use of therapeutic molecules with tumor specific effects and delivery carriers with tumor targeting ability. In this regard, nucleic acid-based drug (NABD) and particularly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are attractive molecules due to the possibility to be engineered to target specific tumor genes...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ajay Tijore, Jean-Marc Behr, Scott Alexander Irvine, Vrushali Baisane, Subbu Venkatraman
Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting has been proposed as a method for fabricating tissue engineered small diameter vascular prostheses. This technique not only involves constructing the structural features to obtain a desired pattern but the morphology of the pattern may also be used to influence the behavior of seeded cells. Herein, we 3D bioprinted a gelatin hydrogel microchannel construct to promote and preserve the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), which is crucial for vasoresponsiveness...
March 28, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Eduardo C Moraes, Thabata M Alvarez, Gabriela F Persinoti, Geizecler Tomazetto, Livia B Brenelli, Douglas A A Paixão, Gabriela C Ematsu, Juliana A Aricetti, Camila Caldana, Neil Dixon, Timothy D H Bugg, Fabio M Squina
Background: Lignin is a heterogeneous polymer representing a renewable source of aromatic and phenolic bio-derived products for the chemical industry. However, the inherent structural complexity and recalcitrance of lignin makes its conversion into valuable chemicals a challenge. Natural microbial communities produce biocatalysts derived from a large number of microorganisms, including those considered unculturable, which operate synergistically to perform a variety of bioconversion processes...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yu Xia, Min Guo, Tiantian Xu, Yinghua Li, Changbing Wang, Zhengfang Lin, Mingqi Zhao, Bing Zhu
Background: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a new therapeutic modality holds promise for cancer treatment. However, the traditional viral carriers are prone to immunogenicity and risk of insertional mutagenesis. Methods: In order to provide a tumor-targeted delivery carrier of siRNA in cancer therapy, the hyaluronic acid (HA)-selenium (Se)-polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticle (NP) was fabricated by decorating SeNP with HA as a tumor-targeting moiety and by linking the polycationic polymers polyethylenimine PEI onto the surface of SeNP...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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