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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345896/transcriptomics-and-lipidomics-of-the-environmental-strain-rhodococcus-ruber-point-out-consumption-pathways-and-potential-metabolic-bottlenecks-for-polyethylene-degradation
#1
Kevin Gravouil, Romain Ferru-Clement, Steven Colas, Reynald Helye, Linette Kadri, Ludivine Bourdeau, Bouziane Moumen, Anne Mercier, Thierry Ferreira
Polyethylene (PE), one of the most prominent synthetic polymer used worldwide, is very poorly biodegradable in the natural environment. Consequently, PE represents by itself more than half of all plastic wastes. PE biodegradation is achieved through the combination of abiotic and biotic processes. Several microorganisms have been shown to grow on the surface of PE materials, among which are the species of the Rhodococcus genus, suggesting a potent ability of these microorganisms to use, at least partly, PE as a potent carbon source...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338690/a-viscous-solvent-enables-information-transfer-from-gene-length-nucleic-acids-in-a-model-prebiotic-replication-cycle
#2
Christine He, Isaac Gállego, Brandon Laughlin, Martha A Grover, Nicholas V Hud
Many hypotheses concerning the nature of early life assume that genetic information was once transferred through the template-directed synthesis of RNA, before the emergence of coded enzymes. However, attempts to demonstrate enzyme-free, template-directed synthesis of nucleic acids have been limited by 'strand inhibition', whereby transferring information from a template strand in the presence of its complementary strand is inhibited by the stability of the template duplex. Here, we use solvent viscosity to circumvent strand inhibition, demonstrating information transfer from a gene-length template (>300 nt) within a longer (545 bp or 3 kb) duplex...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338090/septin-9_i2-is-downregulated-in-tumors-impairs-cancer-cell-migration-and-alters-subnuclear-actin-filaments
#3
P Verdier-Pinard, D Salaun, H Bouguenina, S Shimada, M Pophillat, S Audebert, E Agavnian, S Coslet, E Charafe-Jauffret, T Tachibana, A Badache
Functions of septin cytoskeletal polymers in tumorigenesis are still poorly defined. Their role in the regulation of cytokinesis and cell migration were proposed to contribute to cancer associated aneuploidy and metastasis. Overexpression of Septin 9 (Sept9) promotes migration of cancer cell lines. SEPT9 mRNA and protein expression is increased in breast tumors compared to normal and peritumoral tissues and amplification of SEPT9 gene was positively correlated with breast tumor progression. However, the existence of multiple isoforms of Sept9 is a confounding factor in the analysis of Sept9 functions...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336456/small-nanosized-poly-vinyl-benzyl-trimethylammonium-chloride-based-polyplexes-for-sirna-delivery
#4
Bo Lou, Nataliia Beztsinna, Grigoris Mountrichas, Joep B van den Dikkenberg, Stergios Pispas, Wim E Hennink
The success of siRNA gene therapy requires the availability of safe and efficient delivery systems. In the present study, we investigated poly(vinyl benzyl trimethylammonium chloride) (PVTC) and its block copolymer with poly(oligo(ethyleneglycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) as delivery vector for siRNA. Small polyplexes ranging from 8 to 25nm in diameter were formed in aqueous solution by spontaneous self-assembly of both the homopolymer and block copolymer with siRNA and the formed particles were stable at physiological ionic strength...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334507/comparative-study-of-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-commercial-jeffamines%C3%A2-and-polyethylenimine-in-cho-k1-cells
#5
Leniher Castan, Cristiano José da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira Molina, Raquel Alves Dos Santos
Jeffamines(®) are a family of polymers containing primary amine groups attached to the extremities of polyether backbone which can be used as biomaterials. They have been used in combination with polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve biocompatibility in drug and gene delivery systems. Despite these facts, very few studies have been done on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of pure Jeffamines(®) or compared with PEI. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Jeffamines(®) and PEI in CHO-K1 cells...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330769/difference-in-the-core-shell-dynamics-of-polyethyleneimine-and-poly-l-lysine-dna-polyplexes
#6
Elina Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Ekaterina S Lisitsyna, Tiia-Maaria Ketola, Emmanuelle Morin-Pickardat, Huamin Liang, Martina Hanzlíková, Marjo Yliperttula
Electrostatic polymer-DNA complexes (polyplexes) have been widely investigated for DNA delivery, and remarkable differences in transfection efficacy have been seen among the materials. For example, polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediates DNA transfection more effectively than poly(l-lysine) (PLL). Biophysical properties of the polyplexes may explain their different properties in gene delivery. We investigated the structural dynamics in DNA polyplexes, especially the material exchange between the core and shell regions of the PEI and PLL polyplexes...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330734/enhanced-cellular-uptake-and-gene-silencing-activity-of-sirna-using-temperature-responsive-polymer-modified-liposome
#7
Jian Wang, Eri Ayano, Yoshie Maitani, Hideko Kanazawa
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery systems using nanoparticle carriers have been limited by inefficient intracellular delivery. One drawback is the poor cellular uptake of siRNA/particle complexes through the plasma membrane and release of the nucleic acids into the cytosol. In this study, to develop the temperature-responsive liposome as a novel carrier for siRNA delivery, we prepared lipoplexes and assessed cellular uptake of siRNA and gene silencing activity of target genes, compared with those of a commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine RNAiMAX, and non-modified or PEGylated liposomes...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330308/construction-of-aspergillus-niger-integrated-with-cellulase-gene-from-ampullaria-gigas-spix-for-improved-enzyme-production-and-saccharification-of-alkaline-pretreated-rice-straw
#8
Peizhou Yang, Haifeng Zhang, Lili Cao, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang
Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism that has been used for decades to produce extracellular enzymes. In this study, a novel Aspergillus niger strain integrated with a eukaryotic expression vector harboring the gpd-Shi promoter of shiitake mushrooms and cellulase gene of Ampullaria gigas Spix was engineered to improve cellulase production for the achievement of highly efficient saccharification of agricultural residues. In one strain, designated ACShi27, which exhibited the highest total cellulase expression, total cellulase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and xylanase expression levels were 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327732/properties-of-polyplexes-formed-through-interaction-between-hydrophobically-modified-poly-ethylene-imine-s-and-calf-thymus-dna-in-aqueous-solution
#9
I C Bellettini, S J Fayad, V G Machado, E Minatti
Polycationic polymers and DNA form soluble complexes in aqueous solution, which allows the transfer of genetic material into cells. Therefore, these chemically-modified polymers are of interest for use in studies aimed at better transfection efficiency and gene expression along with reduced cytotoxicity. In this study, branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) was modified by alkylation with n-alkyl groups (n = 4, 6, 8 and 12 carbons). The polyplexes formed through interaction of the modified PEIs and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, ethidium bromide fluorescence emission, circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques along with the determination of the zeta potential and viscosity...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325296/an-atelocollagen-coating-for-efficient-local-gene-silencing-by-using-small-interfering-rna
#10
Olivia Koenig, Dimitrios Nothdurft, Nadja Perle, Bernd Neumann, Andreas Behring, Ilka Degenkolbe, Tobias Walker, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Andrea Nolte
In the last decades, many efforts have been made to counteract adverse effects after stenting atherosclerotic coronary arteries. A breakthrough in better vascular wall regeneration was noted in the new era of drug-eluting stents. A novel personalized approach is the development of gene-eluting stents promising an alteration in gene expression involved in regeneration. We investigated a coating system consisting of the polymer atelocollagen (ATCOL) and a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) found on the surface of defective endothelial cells (ECs)...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323177/biodegradable-cationic-poly-carbonates-effect-of-varying-side-chain-hydrophobicity-on-key-aspects-of-gene-transfection
#11
Zhan Yuin Ong, Chuan Yang, Wei Cheng, Zhi Xiang Voo, Willy Chin, James L Hedrick, Yi Yan Yang
The degree of hydrophobicity in cationic polymers plays an important but often underappreciated role in the safety and efficacy of gene delivery processes. In order to further elucidate structure-activity relationships of biodegradable cationic poly(carbonate) gene carriers, we synthesized a series of narrowly dispersed homo-polymers via metal-free organocatalytic living ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic carbonate monomers bearing either alkyl (propyl, hexyl or nonyl) or 4-methyl benzyl halide side chains...
March 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322564/bioreducible-zinc-ii-coordinative-pei-with-low-molecular-weight-for-robust-gene-delivery-of-primary-and-stem-cells
#12
Shuai Liu, Dezhong Zhou, Jixiang Yang, Hao Zhou, Jiatong Chen, Tianying Guo
To transform the common low molecular weight (LMW) cationic polymers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI) to highly efficient gene vectors will be of great significance but remains challenging. Since that LMW cationic polymers perform far less efficient to their high molecular weight counterparts mainly due to weaker nucleic acid encapsulation, herein, we report the design and synthesis of a dipicolylamine (DPA)-based disulfide-containing zinc(II) coordinative module (Zn-DDAC), which is used to functionalize LMW PEI (Mw~1800 Da) to give a non-viral vector (Zn-PD) with high efficiency and safety in primary and stem cells...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319816/dna-polyplexes-with-dendritic-glycopolymer-entrapped-gold-nanoparticles
#13
Jens Rumschöttel, Sabine Kosmella, Claudia Prietzel, Dietmar Appelhans, Joachim Koetz
Polyplexes, composed of Salmon DNA and very small gold nanoparticles embedded into a dendritic glycopolymer architecture of sugar-modified poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI-Mal) with a molar mass of about 25,000g/mol, were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, micro differential scanning calorimetry (μ-DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The PEI-Mal-entrapped gold nanoparticles of about 2nm in diameter influence the polyplex formation of the hyperbranched PEI containing bulky maltose, and in consequence the DNA is more compactized in the inner part of spherical polyplex particles of about 150nm in diameter...
March 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315963/enhancement-of-2-3-butanediol-production-from-jerusalem-artichoke-tuber-extract-by-a-recombinant-bacillus-sp-strain-brc1-with-increased-inulinase-activity
#14
Jang Min Park, Baek-Rock Oh, In Yeong Kang, Sun-Yeon Heo, Jeong-Woo Seo, Seung-Moon Park, Won-Kyung Hong, Chul Ho Kim
A Bacillus sp. strain named BRC1 is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) using hydrolysates of the Jerusalem artichoke tuber (JAT), a rich source of the fructose polymer inulin. To enhance 2,3-BD production, we undertook an extensive analysis of the Bacillus sp. BRC1 genome, identifying a putative gene (sacC) encoding a fructan hydrolysis enzyme and characterizing the activity of the resulting recombinant protein expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Introduction of the sacC gene into Bacillus sp...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314988/polymeric-micelles-as-mighty-nanocarriers-for-cancer-gene-therapy-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Mahsa Yousefpour Marzbali, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
PURPOSE: Gene therapy has shown extensive potential to treat human diseases occurring from the defection of genes like various types of cancers. The cationic polymers, as non-viral gene carriers, offer the ability to engineer carrier systems having customized features that can be adapted to suit any system. Upon polymeric micelle systems' core-shell structure, micelles can create the capacity to load genes/gene-drugs into the different micelle compartments, respectively. METHODS: The search will be managed in Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Proquest for articles related to polymeric micelle-based gene delivery in order to cancer gene therapy using the accommodative search terms...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302908/tubulin-isotype-substitution-revealed-that-isotype-composition-modulates-microtubule-dynamics-in-c-elegans-embryos
#16
Yu Honda, Kenta Tsuchiya, Eisuke Sumiyoshi, Nami Haruta, Asako Sugimoto
Microtubules (MTs) are polymers composed of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers, which are generally encoded by multiple gene loci. Despite implications of distinct properties of isotypes, how they contribute to diverse MT dynamics in vivo remains unclear. Here, using genome editing and RNAi depletion of tubulin isotypes, we demonstrate that four tubulin isotypes (hereafter α1, α2, β1 and β2) cooperatively confer distinct MT properties in Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos. GFP insertion into each isotype locus reveals their distinct expression levels and MT incorporation rates...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301509/genome-wide-association-mapping-in-winter-barley-for-grain-yield-and-culm-cell-wall-polymer-content-using-the-high-throughput-compp-technique
#17
Andrea Bellucci, Alessandro Tondelli, Jonatan U Fangel, Anna Maria Torp, Xin Xu, William G T Willats, Andrew Flavell, Luigi Cattivelli, Søren K Rasmussen
A collection of 112 winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in the field for two years (2008/09 and 2009/10) in northern Italy and grain and straw yields recorded. In the first year of the trial, a severe attack of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) strongly influenced final performances with an average reduction of ~ 50% for grain and straw harvested in comparison to the second year. The genetic determination (GD) for grain yield was 0.49 and 0.70, for the two years respectively, and for straw yield GD was low in 2009 (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300728/transcriptional-and-computational-study-of-expansins-differentially-expressed-in-response-to-inclination-in-radiata-pine
#18
Patricio Mateluna, Felipe Valenzuela-Riffo, Luis Morales-Quintana, Raúl Herrera, Patricio Ramos
Plants have the ability to reorient their vertical growth when exposed to inclination. This response can be as quick as 2 h in inclined young pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlings, with over accumulation of lignin observed after 9 days s. Several studies have identified expansins involved in cell expansion among other developmental processes in plants. Six putative expansin genes were identified in cDNA libraries isolated from inclined pine stems. A differential transcript abundance was observed by qPCR analysis over a time course of inclination...
March 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299937/noncovalent-protein-and-peptide-functionalization-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-biodelivery-and-optical-sensing-applications
#19
Alessandra Antonucci, Justyna Kupis-Rozmysłowicz, Ardemis A Boghossian
The exquisite structural and optical characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), combined with the tunable specificities of proteins and peptides, can be exploited to strongly benefit technologies with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine to industrial biocatalysis. The key to exploiting the synergism of these materials is designing protein/peptide-SWCNT conjugation schemes that preserve biomolecule activity while keeping the near-infrared optical and electronic properties of SWCNTs intact...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297991/solvent-free-molecular-level-modeling-of-self-assembling-amphiphiles-in-water
#20
Somajit Dey, Jayashree Saha
Aggregation mesophases of self-assembling amphiphiles in water are highly important in the context of biology (biomembranes), therapy (liposomes), industry (polymer surfactants), and condensed-matter physics (lyotropic liquid crystals). Besides helping to increase fundamental understanding of collective molecular behavior, simulations of these lyotropic phases are pivotal to technological and medical developments such as smart drug carriers for gene therapy. Implicit-solvent, coarse-grained, low resolution modeling with a simple pair potential is the key to realizing the larger length and time scales associated with such mesoscopic phenomena during a computer simulation...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
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