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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722515/construction-of-a-plga-based-targeted-sirna-delivery-system-for-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#1
Deniz Sezlev Bilecen, Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello, Hasan Uludag, Vasif Hasirci
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder which occurs when the bone turnover balance is disrupted. With the identification of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, studies on development of new osteoporosis treatments has intensified. RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism uses short interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown disease related gene expression as a treatment approach. Targeting while protecting siRNA against hydrolysis by nucleases in vivo is, however, challenging. The maintenance of therapeutic plasma level is also hampered by the clearance of siRNA from the body...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719858/interfacial-analysis-of-sirna-complexes-with-poly-ethylenimine-pei-or-pamam-dendrimers-in-gene-delivery
#2
Patrick K C Chang, Clive A Prestidge, Kristen E Bremmell
Solution and interfacial analysis has been employed to gain insight into the complexation of siRNA using either G4 PAMAM dendrimers or 25kDa branched poly-ethylenimine (bPEI). The size, charge and shape/structure of the complexing agents were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism spectrometry (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and gel electrophoresis (GE). The binding capability of these cationic polymers to the siRNA molecule, subsequently controls the surface/adsorption behaviour of the complexes to a negatively charged surface...
July 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719819/electrical-preconditioning-of-stem-cells-with-a-conductive-polymer-scaffold-enhances-stroke-recovery
#3
Paul M George, Tonya M Bliss, Thuy Hua, Alex Lee, Byeongtaek Oh, Alexa Levinson, Swapnil Mehta, Guohua Sun, Gary K Steinberg
Exogenous human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are promising stroke therapeutics, but optimal delivery conditions and exact recovery mechanisms remain elusive. To further elucidate repair processes and improve stroke outcomes, we developed an electrically conductive, polymer scaffold for hNPC delivery. Electrical stimulation of hNPCs alters their transcriptome including changes to the VEGF-A pathway and genes involved in cell survival, inflammatory response, and synaptic remodeling. In our experiments, exogenous hNPCs were electrically stimulated (electrically preconditioned) via the scaffold 1 day prior to implantation...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#4
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716960/bacterial-tubulin-a-b-exhibit-polarized-growth-mixed-polarity-bundling-and-destabilization-by-gtp-hydrolysis
#5
César Díaz-Celis, Viviana I Risca, Felipe Hurtado, Jessica K Polka, Scott D Hansen, Daniel Maturana, Rosalba Lagos, R Dyche Mullins, Octavio Monasterio
Bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter express homologs of eukaryotic α- and β-tubulin, called BtubA and BtubB, that have been observed to assemble into filaments in presence of GTP. BtubA/B polymers are proposed to be composed in vitro by two to six protofilaments, in contrast to in vivo where they have been reported to form 5-protofilaments tubes named bacterial microtubules (bMTs). The btubAB genes likely entered the Prosthecobacter lineage via horizontal gene transfer and may derive from an early ancestor of the modern eukaryotic microtubule (MT)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714842/molecular-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-the-inulosucrase-hugo-from-streptomyces-viridochromogenes-dsm40736-t%C3%A3-494
#6
Hans-Jörg Frasch, Sander S van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Polyfructans are synthesized from sucrose by plants (mostly inulin) and by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (mostly levan). In the phylum Actinobacteria only levan synthesis by Actinomyces species has been reported. We have identified a putative fructansucrase gene (hugO) in Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM40736 (Tü494). HugO was heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized. HPSEC-MALLS and 2D-1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the fructan polymer produced in vitro has an Molecular Weight of 2...
July 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714572/surface-modified-mesh-filter-for-direct-nucleic-acid-extraction-and-its-application-to-gene-expression-analysis
#7
Jae Bem You, Yong Tae Kim, Kyoung G Lee, Yunho Choi, Seongkyun Choi, Chi Hyun Kim, Kyung Hoon Kim, Sung Jin Chang, Tae Jae Lee, Seok Jae Lee, Sung Gap Im
Rapid and convenient isolation of nucleic acids (NAs) from cell lysate plays a key role for onsite gene expression analysis. Here, this study achieves one-step and efficient capture of NA directly from cell lysate by developing a cationic surface-modified mesh filter (SMF). By depositing cationic polymer via vapor-phase deposition process, strong charge interaction is introduced on the surface of the SMF to capture the negatively charged NAs. The NA capturing capability of SMF is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescent microscopy, and zeta potential measurement...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710003/amelioration-of-atherosclerotic-inflammation-and-plaques-via-endothelial-adrenoceptor-targeted-enos-gene-delivery-using-redox-sensitive-polymer-bearing-l-arginine
#8
Qurrat Ul Ain, Hyunji Chung, Jee Young Chung, Jae-Hoon Choi, Yong-Hee Kim
Endothelial dysfunction combined with inflammation leads to atherosclerosis. Endothelium-specific delivery of therapeutic agents at the cellular level-specifically in vivo-is still a difficult task for proper management of atherosclerosis. We designed a redox-sensitive poly(oligo-l-arginine) (rsPOLA) playing dual roles as an endothelium α-2 adrenoceptors(α-2ARs)-targeted gene carrier and as a substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Overexpression of α-2ARs on atherosclerotic endothelial cells was confirmed and the eNOS/rsPOLA nanoplexes following systemic injection demonstrated to 1) enhance eNOS gene delivery into endothelial cells via α-2ARs/l-arginine specific binding, 2) increase intracellular level of nitric oxide, 3) suppress inflammatory response in endothelium and finally 4) reduce atherosclerotic plaque in a Ldlr(-/-) atherosclerotic mouse model...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705193/spatial-regulation-of-monolignol-biosynthesis-and-laccase-genes-control-developmental-and-stress-related-lignin-in-flax
#9
Julien Le Roy, Anne-Sophie Blervacq, Anne Créach, Brigitte Huss, Simon Hawkins, Godfrey Neutelings
BACKGROUND: Bast fibres are characterized by very thick secondary cell walls containing high amounts of cellulose and low lignin contents in contrast to the heavily lignified cell walls typically found in the xylem tissues. To improve the quality of the fiber-based products in the future, a thorough understanding of the main cell wall polymer biosynthetic pathways is required. In this study we have carried out a characterization of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in flax along with some of their regulation mechanisms...
July 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704374/spatial-organization-of-the-budding-yeast-genome-in-the-cell-nucleus-and-identification-of-specific-chromatin-interactions-from-multi-chromosome-constrained-chromatin-model
#10
Gamze Gürsoy, Yun Xu, Jie Liang
Nuclear landmarks and biochemical factors play important roles in the organization of the yeast genome. The interaction pattern of budding yeast as measured from genome-wide 3C studies are largely recapitulated by model polymer genomes subject to landmark constraints. However, the origin of inter-chromosomal interactions, specific roles of individual landmarks, and the roles of biochemical factors in yeast genome organization remain unclear. Here we describe a multi-chromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model (mC-SAC) to gain understanding of the budding yeast genome organization...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699871/two-component-system-cbra-cbrb-controls-alginate-production-in-azotobacter-vinelandii
#11
Elva Quiroz-Rocha, Fernando Bonilla-Badía, Valentina García-Aguilar, Liliana López-Pliego, Jade Serrano-Román, Miguel Cocotl-Yañez, Josefina Guzmán, Carlos L Ahumada-Manuel, Luis Felipe Muriel-Millán, Miguel Castañeda, Guadalupe Espín, Cinthia Nuñez
Azotobacter vinelandii, belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family, is a free-living bacterium that has been considered to be a good source for the production of bacterial polymers such as alginate. In A. vinelandii the synthesis of this polymer is regulated by the Gac/Rsm post-transcriptional regulatory system, in which the RsmA protein binds to the mRNA of the biosynthetic algD gene, inhibiting translation. In several Pseudomonas spp. the two-component system CbrA/CbrB has been described to control a variety of metabolic and behavioural traits needed for adaptation to changing environmental conditions...
July 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699537/recent-advances-in-polymeric-nanosystems-for-treating-cutaneous-melanoma-and-its-metastasis
#12
Yi-Ping Chou, Yin-Ku Lin, Chun-Han Chen, Jia-You Fang
Melanoma shows a high possibility of mortality after it metastasizes because of its aggressive nature. Although there are several options for anti-melanoma therapy, this skin malignancy is resistant to some therapies. Chemotherapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, and adoptive cell therapy have failed to exhibit a significant amelioration in overall survival. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the efficiency of the anti-melanoma regimen. Nanoparticles for treating melanoma provide the advantages over conventional therapies such as drug solubility increment, drug stability enhancement, epithelium permeability and bioavailability amelioration, half-life prolonging, tumor targeting, and side effect minimization...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699530/gene-delivery-with-organic-electronic-biomaterials
#13
Kathryn Frances Anne Clancy, John George Hardy
Gene therapy may be capable of treating a variety of diseases, a prerequisite of which is the successful delivery of polynucleic acids (e.g., DNA, RNA) to a patient's cells. Delivery can be achieved technologically (e.g., using electroporation), using viruses (natural gene delivery vectors) or non-viral vectors (e.g., lipids, nanoparticles, polymers). This article aims to give the reader an overview of the use of organic electronic materials (i.e., fullerenes, graphenes and conjugated polymers) as non-viral gene delivery vectors...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697412/conformation-and-activity-alteration-of-horseradish-peroxidase-induced-by-the-interaction-with-gene-carrier-polyethyleneimines
#14
Aimin Huang, Bangzhi Wei, Junyong Mo, Yajing Wang, Lin Ma
Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has long been considered as "golden standard" for polymeric gene delivery carriers. However the molecular basis of the cytotoxicity of PEI is poorly understood. Little is known about the effects of PEI on the structure and functions of biomacromolecules. In this work, fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism spectroscopy were conducted to investigate the influence of PEI of average molecular weight 25, 10 and 1.8kDa (denoted as PEI25k, PEI10k and PEI1.8k) on the conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its catalytic efficiency...
July 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694032/biodegradable-brain-penetrating-dna-nanocomplexes-and-their-use-to-treat-malignant-brain-tumors
#15
Panagiotis Mastorakos, Clark Zhang, Eric Song, Young Eun Kim, Hee Won Park, Sneha Berry, Won Kyu Choi, Justin Hanes, Jung Soo Suk
The discovery of powerful genetic targets has spurred clinical development of gene therapy approaches to treat patients with malignant brain tumors. However, lack of success in the clinic has been attributed to the inability of conventional gene vectors to achieve gene transfer throughout highly disseminated primary brain tumors. Here, we demonstrate ex vivo that small nanocomplexes composed of DNA condensed by a blend of biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE), with PBAE conjugated with 5kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (PBAE-PEG) rapidly penetrate healthy brain parenchyma and orthotopic brain tumor tissues in rats...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689336/v79-fibroblasts-are-protected-against-reactive-oxygen-species-by-flax-fabric
#16
Katarzyna Skórkowska-Telichowska, Anna Kulma, Tomasz Gębarowski, Wioleta Wojtasik, Kamil Kostyn, Helena Moreira, Anna Szyjka, Aleksandra Boba, Marta Preisner, Justyna Mierziak, Malgorzata Arendt, Anna Kostyn, Michał Szatkowski, Jan Szopa, Kazimierz Gąsiorowski
Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts (V79 cells) pre-treated with flax fabrics derived from non-modified or genetically engineered flax fibres and treated with H2O2 revealed a markedly lower level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) than control, non-pre-treated cells. The fabrics were prepared from fibres derived from two kinds of transgenic plants: W92 plants, which overproduce flavonoids, and M type plants, which produce hydroxybutyrate polymer in their vascular bundles and thus in fibres. Incubating the V79 cells with the flax fabrics prior to H2O2 treatment also reduced the amount of DNA damage, as established using the comet assay (also known as alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis) and pulsed-field electrophoresis of intact cellular DNA...
July 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688987/tumor-targeting-by-lentiviral-vectors-combined-with-magnetic-nanoparticlesin-mice
#17
Ester Borroni, Marta Miola, Sara Ferraris, Giulia Ricci, Kristina ŽužekRožman, Nina Kostevšek, Angela Catizone, Lia Rimondini, Maria Prat, Enrica Verné, Antonia Follenzi
Nanomaterials conjugated or complexed with biological moieties such as antibodies, polymers or peptides appear to be suitable not only for drug delivery but also for specific cancer treatment. Here, biocompatible iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with or without a silica shell coupled with lentiviral vectors (LVs) are proposed as a combined therapeutic approach to specifically target gene expression in a cancer mouse model. Initially, four different MNPs were synthesized and their physical properties were characterized to establish and discriminate their behaviors...
July 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686016/a-combination-of-guanidyl-and-phenyl-groups-on-a-dendrimer-enables-efficient-sirna-and-dna-delivery
#18
Hong Chang, Jia Zhang, Hui Wang, Jia Lv, Yiyun Cheng
Gene therapy has received considerable attention due to its great potential in the treatment of various diseases; however, the design of efficient and biocompatible carriers for the delivery of siRNA as well as DNA still remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed an efficient carrier for gene delivery by modification of a compound containing both guanidyl and phenyl groups on the surface of a cationic dendrimer. The guanidyl group on the dendrimer facilitates nucleic acid condensation via specific guanidinium-phosphate interactions, whereas the phenyl group on the polymer is critical for efficient endosomal escape...
July 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678504/effect-of-polycation-structure-on-interaction-with-lipid-membranes
#19
Natalia Wilkosz, Dorota Jamróz, Wojciech Kopeć, Keita Nakai, Shin-Ichi Yusa, Magdalena Wytrwal-Sarna, Jan Bednar, Maria Nowakowska, Mariusz Kepczynski
Interaction of polycations with lipid membranes is a very important issue in many biological and medical applications such as gene delivery or antibacterial usage. In this work, we address the influence of hydrophobic substitution of strong polycations containing quaternary ammonium groups on the polymer-zwitterionic membrane interactions. In particular, we focus on the polymer tendency to adsorb on or/and incorporate into the membrane. We used complementary experimental and computational methods to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of the polycation-membrane interactions...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677742/upregulation-of-hoxb7-promotes-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#20
Yang Yang, Jing Chen, Qingzhong Chen
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Unfortunately, treatment failures are common due to metastasis and chemore-sistance, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Accumulating evidence indicated that the homeobox B7 (HOXB7) gene was associated with the development of cancer. However, the expression and function of HOXB7 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In the current study, the expression of HOXB7 was upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells compared with paired adjacent non‑tumor bone tissues and osteoblastic cells using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymer chain reaction and western blotting...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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