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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818103/enhancement-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-accumulation-in-arxula-adeninivorans-by-stabilization-of-production
#1
Mateusz Biernacki, Marek Marzec, Thomas Roick, Reinhard Pätz, Kim Baronian, Rüdiger Bode, Gotthard Kunze
BACKGROUND: In recent years the production of biobased biodegradable plastics has been of interest of researchers partly due to the accumulation of non-biodegradable plastics in the environment and to the opportunity for new applications. Commonly investigated are the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) poly(hydroxybutyrate) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-V). The latter has the advantage of being tougher and less brittle. The production of these polymers in bacteria is well established but production in yeast may have some advantages, e...
August 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813691/effects-of-superabsorbent-polymers-on-the-abundances-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-mobile-genetic-elements-and-the-bacterial-community-during-swine-manure-composting
#2
Aiyun Guo, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Ranran Zhang, Yanan Yin, Wei Sun, Xiaxia Tuo, Li Zhang
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg(-1) of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809766/crispr-cas9-editing-of-nf1-gene-identifies-crmp2-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-related-pain-that-is-reversed-by-s-lacosamide
#3
Aubin Moutal, Xiaofang Yang, Wennan Li, Kerry B Gilbraith, Shizhen Luo, Song Cai, Liberty François-Moutal, Lindsey A Chew, Seul Ki Yeon, Shreya S Bellampalli, Chaoling Qu, Jennifer Y Xie, Mohab M Ibrahim, May Khanna, Ki Duk Park, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a rare autosomal dominant disease linked to mutations of the Nf1 gene. NF1 patients commonly experience severe pain. Studies on mice with Nf1 haploinsufficiency have been instructive in identifying sensitization of ion channels as a possible cause underlying the heightened pain suffered by NF1 patients. However, behavioral assessments of Nf1+/- mice have led to uncertain conclusions about the potential causal role of Nf1 in pain. We used the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/(CRISPR)-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system to create and mechanistically characterize a novel rat model of NF1-related pain...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807417/fate-and-stability-of-polyamide-associated-bacterial-assemblages-after-their-passage-through-the-digestive-tract-of-the-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis
#4
Katharina Kesy, Alexander Hentzsch, Franziska Klaeger, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Stephanie Mothes, Matthias Labrenz
We examined whether bacterial assemblages inhabiting the synthetic polymer polyamide are selectively modified during their passage through the gut of Mytilus edulis in comparison to the biopolymer chitin with focus on potential pathogens. Specifically, we asked whether bacterial biofilms remained stable over a prolonged period of time and whether polyamide could thus serve as a vector for potential pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial diversity and identity were analysed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and sequencing of abundant bands...
August 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802737/multi-biofunctional-polymer-graphene-composite-for-bone-tissue-regeneration-that-elutes-copper-ions-to-impart-angiogenic-osteogenic-and-bactericidal-properties
#5
L R Jaidev, Sachin Kumar, Kaushik Chatterjee
Despite several recent advances, poor vascularization in implanted scaffolds impedes complete regeneration for clinical success of bone tissue engineering. The present study aims to develop a multi-biofunctional nanocomposite for bone tissue regeneration using copper nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Cu) hybrid particles in polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix (PCL/RGO_Cu). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of copper oxides (CuO and Cu2O) on RGO. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that 11...
August 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796282/disulfide-bond-containing-agamatine-cystaminebisacrylamide-polymer-demonstrates-better-transfection-efficiency-and-lower-cytotoxicity-than-polyethylenimine-in-nih-3t3-cells
#6
Zhen Yang, Yanping Sun, Lei Xian, Zhe Xun, Jiankun Yu, Tianzhi Yang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Cuifang Cai, Dongkai Wang, Pingtian Ding
Previously, we synthesized a non-viral vector containing disulfide bond by polymerization of agamatine (AGM) and N, N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA). In this study, we investigated the transfection efficiency of disulfide bond (-SS-) containing AGM-CBA polymer in gene delivery into NIH/3T3 cells, and examined the factors affecting its transfection efficiency by comparing with polyethylenimine (PEI). In addition, experiments were carried out to determine the mechanisms of cell entry pathways and intracellular behavior of AGM-CBA/pDNA polyplexes...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791440/therapeutic-potentials-of-short-interfering-rnas
#7
REVIEW
Chit Tam, Jack Ho Wong, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tao Zuo, Tzi Bun Ng
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is one of the members of the family of RNA interference (RNAi). Coupled with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), siRNA is able to trigger the cleavage of target RNAs which serve as a defensive system against pathogens. Meanwhile, siRNA in gene silencing opens a new avenue for the treatment of various diseases. SiRNA can effectively inhibit viral infection and replication and suppress tumorigenesis and various inflammation-associated diseases and cardiovascular diseases by inactivation of viral genes and downregulation of oncogene expression...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779982/redox-sensitive-cationic-pullulan-for-efficient-gene-transfection-and-drug-retention-in-c6-glioma-cells
#8
Priya S S, Rekha M R
Thiolated cationic pullulan was synthesized by conjugating pullulan with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA). The formed conjugate was oxidized to obtain disulfide linked cationic pullulan (PPMSS). PPMSS exhibited good buffering capacity and nanoplexes formulated were of size less than 150nm. Nanoplexes formed with PPMSS are redox sensitive and susceptible to reductive cleavage by dithiothreitol (DTT) ensuring the intracellular release of DNA. In vitro, cytotoxic evaluation studies of polymers in C6 cell lines established its non-toxic nature...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777137/natural-compounds-for-skin-tissue-engineering-by-electrospinning-of-nylon-beta-vulgaris
#9
Parviz Ranjbarvan, Matin Mahmoudifard, Mousa Kehtari, Ali Babaie, Shokoh Hamedi, Samaneh Mirzaei, Masoud Soleimani, Simzar Hosseinzadeh
Natural compounds containing polysaccharide ingredients have been employed as candidates for treatment of skin tissue. Herein, for the first time, electrospinning setup was proposed to fabricate an efficient composite nanofibrous structure of Beta vulgaris (obtained from Beet [Chenopodiaceae or Amaranthaceae]) belonged to polysaccharides and an elastic polymer named nylon 66 for skin tissue engineering. Both prepared scaffolds including noncomposite and composite types were studied by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical assay, and contact angle...
August 2, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773087/improved-gene-transfer-with-functionalized-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-of-reduced-cytotoxicity
#10
Zhengwen Zhan, Xiaoxu Zhang, Jiayuan Huang, Ying Huang, Zhengwei Huang, Xin Pan, Guilan Quan, Hu Liu, Lili Wang, And Chuanbin Wu
Gene therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of genetically caused diseases. Successful gene delivery requires an efficient carrier to transfer the desired gene into host cells. Recently, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with 25 kD polyethyleneimine (PEI) were extensively used as gene delivery carriers. However, 25 kD PEI could significantly reduce the safety of the modified MSNs although it is efficient for intracellular delivery of nucleic acids. In addition, limited drug loading remains a challenge for conventional MSNs drug carriers...
June 30, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770290/inorganic-polyphosphate-induces-accelerated-tube-formation-of-huvec-endothelial-cells
#11
Werner E G Müller, Maximilian Ackermann, Shunfeng Wang, Meik Neufurth, Rafael Muñoz-Espí, Qingling Feng, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
In this study, the effect of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) on the initial phase of angiogenesis and vascularization was investigated, applying the HUVEC cell tube formation assay. PolyP is a physiological and high energy phosphate polymer which has been proposed to act as a metabolic fuel in the extracellular space with only a comparably low ATP content. The experiments revealed that polyP accelerates tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), seeded onto a solidified basement membrane extract matrix which contains polyP-metabolizing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity...
August 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756280/engineering-of-small-interfering-rna-loaded-lipidoid-poly-dl-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-highly-efficient-and-safe-gene-silencing-a-quality-by-design-based-approach
#12
Kaushik Thanki, Xianghui Zeng, Sarah Justesen, Sarah Tejlmann, Emily Falkenberg, Elize Van Driessche, Hanne Mørck Nielsen, Henrik Franzyk, Camilla Foged
Safety and efficacy of therapeutics based on RNA interference, e.g., small interfering RNA (siRNA), are dependent on the optimal engineering of the delivery technology, which is used for intracellular delivery of siRNA to the cytosol of target cells. We investigated the hypothesis that commonly used and poorly tolerated cationic lipids might be replaced with more efficacious and safe lipidoids as the lipid component of siRNA-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for achieving more efficient gene silencing at lower and safer doses...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754284/temporal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-white-rot-fungus-obba-rivulosa-shows-expression-of-a-constitutive-set-of-plant-cell-wall-degradation-targeted-genes-during-growth-on-solid-spruce-wood
#13
Mila Marinović, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Miaomiao Zhou, Otto Miettinen, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä, Kristiina Hildén
The basidiomycete white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa, a close relative of Gelatoporia (Ceriporiopsis) subvermispora, is an efficient degrader of softwood. The dikaryotic O. rivulosa strain T241i (FBCC949) has been shown to selectively remove lignin from spruce wood prior to depolymerization of plant cell wall polysaccharides, thus possessing potential in biotechnological applications such as pretreatment of wood in pulp and paper industry. In this work, we studied the time-course of the conversion of spruce by the genome-sequenced monokaryotic O...
July 25, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753017/acidity-triggered-ligand-presenting-nanoparticles-to-overcome-sequential-drug-delivery-barriers-to-tumors
#14
Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Jianping Liu, Bing Feng, Fangyuan Zhou, Hanwu Zhang, Lei Zhou, Qi Yin, Zhiwen Zhang, Zhonglian Cao, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
The success of cancer chemotherapy is impeded by poor drug delivery efficiency due to the existence of a series of pathophysiological barriers in the tumor. In this study, we reported a tumor acidity-triggered ligand-presenting (ATLP) nanoparticle for cancer therapy. The ATLP nanoparticles were composed of an acid-responsive diblock copolymer as a sheddable matrix and an iRGD-modified polymeric prodrug of doxorubicin (iPDOX) as an amphiphilic core. A PEG corona of the polymer matrix protected the iRGD ligand from serum degradation and nonspecific interactions with the normal tissues while circulating in the blood...
August 1, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752963/systematic-genetic-dissection-of-chitin-degradation-and-uptake-in-vibrio-cholerae
#15
Chelsea A Hayes, Triana N Dalia, Ankur B Dalia
Vibrio cholerae is a natural resident of the aquatic environment, where a common nutrient is the chitinous exoskeletons of microscopic crustaceans. Chitin utilization requires chitinases, which degrade this insoluble polymer into soluble chitin oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides also serve as an inducing cue for natural transformation in Vibrio species. There are 7 predicted endochitinase-like genes in the V. cholerae genome. Here, we systematically dissect the contribution of each gene to growth on chitin as well as induction of natural transformation...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752479/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-optimal-cutting-temperature-oct-embedded-core-needle-biopsy-of-lung-cancer
#16
Xiaozheng Zhao, Kenneth E Huffman, Junya Fujimoto, Jamie Rodriguez Canales, Luc Girard, Guangjun Nie, John V Heymach, Igacio I Wistuba, John D Minna, Yonghao Yu
With recent advances in understanding the genomic underpinnings and oncogenic drivers of pathogenesis in different subtypes, it is increasingly clear that proper pretreatment diagnostics are essential for the choice of appropriate treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor tissue preservation in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound is commonly used in the surgical suite. However, proteins recovered from OCT-embedded specimens pose a challenge for LC-MS/MS experiments, due to the large amounts of polymers present in OCT...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752443/measuring-and-interpreting-serum-aat-concentration
#17
Leslie J Donato, Melissa R Snyder, Dina N Greene
Deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene that results in low concentrations of AAT in circulation. The low AAT concentration can result in uninhibited neutrophil elastase activity in the lung, leading to pulmonary tissue damage and lung disease. Clinical evaluation for possible AAT deficiency includes two critical components: measuring AAT concentration in serum and identification of AAT deficiency alleles. In this chapter the methods by which AAT concentration can be measured in the clinical laboratory are described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749533/charmm-force-field-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-protonated-polyethylenimine
#18
Titus Adrian Beu, Alexandra Farcaş
As a gene delivery vector, polyethylenimine (PEI) shows one of the highest transfection efficiencies, while effectively protecting DNA from enzyme degradation. The distinctive charge pattern of protonated PEI is widely considered responsible for fundamental process such as DNA condensation into PEI/DNA polyplexes (which are able to enter cells via endocytosis), proton sponge effect (which triggers the release of polyplexes from endosome), and release of DNA from polyplexes (to be further processed inside the nucleus)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748978/degradable-polyesters-via-ring-opening-polymerization-of-functional-valerolactones-for-efficient-gene-delivery
#19
Ling Song, Ai-Xiang Ding, Ke-Xin Zhang, Bing Gong, Zhong-Lin Lu, Lan He
Degradable polymers as gene and drug carriers are emerging as one of the most promising types of materials in the biomedical and pharmaceutical areas. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of block co-polyesters (B1-B6) and random co-polyesters (C1-C4) via ring-opening polymerization of tertiary amine-bearing valerolactone and alkylated valerolactone monomers. These polymers can completely inhibit the electrophoretic migrations of plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) at a w/w ratio of 2-6. The polyplexes of these polymers with pDNAs were steadily formed in a narrow range of sizes (75 to 220 nm) and could be effectively internalized into the cytoplasm...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747643/generation-of-ribosome-imprinted-polymers-for-sensitive-detection-of-translational-responses
#20
Helen A King, Hazim F El-Sharif, Ana M Matia-González, Valentina Iadevaia, Adeola Fowotade, Subrayal M Reddy, André P Gerber
Whilst the profiling of the transcriptome and proteome even of single-cells becomes feasible, the analysis of the translatome, which refers to all messenger RNAs (mRNAs) engaged with ribosomes for protein synthesis, is still an elaborate procedure requiring millions of cells. Herein, we report the generation and use of "smart materials", namely molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to facilitate the isolation of ribosomes and translated mRNAs from merely 1,000 cells. In particular, we show that a hydrogel-based ribosome imprinted polymer could recover ribosomes and associated mRNAs from human, simian and mice cellular extracts, but did not selectively enrich yeast ribosomes, thereby demonstrating selectivity...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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