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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632911/polymer-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-non-viral-gene-delivery-reagents
#1
M Mar Encabo-Berzosa, Maria Sancho-Albero, Victor Sebastian, Silvia Irusta, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria, Pilar Martín Duque
BACKGROUND: In this study we investigated the ability of PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles as non-viral vectors in the transfection of different cell lines, comparing them with commercial lipoplexes. METHODS: Positively charged gold nanoparticles were synthesized using PEI as reducing and stabilizer agent and its cytotoxicity reduced by its functionalization with PEG. We bound the nanoparticles to three plasmids with different sizes (4-40 kpb). The vector internalization was evaluated by confocal and electronic microscopy...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629080/efficient-megalin-targeted-delivery-to-renal-proximal-tubular-cells-mediated-by-modified-polymyxin-b-polyethylenimine-based-nano-gene-carriers
#2
Fatemeh Oroojalian, Ali Hossein Rezayan, Faramarz Mehrnejad, Azadeh Hashem Nia, Wayne Thomas Shier, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Ramezani
Non-viral vectors have attracted great interest, as they are simple to prepare, easy to modify and relatively safe, compared to viral vectors. Kidney-targeted gene delivery systems depict a promising technology to improve drug efficacy in renal diseases treatments. In order to develop a novel kidney-targeted gene delivery system, we synthesized polyamine-PEI conjugates using polymyxin B as ligand and investigated their potential targeting efficiency. After grafting either PEI25 kDa or PEI10 kDa with polymyxin B through amidation reaction, the modified-polymyxin-PEI/DNA-nanoplexes were produced via electrostatic attraction between the cationic polymers and EGFP plasmid...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628725/dendronized-semiconducting-polymer-as-photothermal-nanocarrier-for-remote-activation-of-gene-expression
#3
Yan Lyu, Dong Cui, He Sun, Yansong Miao, Hongwei Duan, Kanyi Pu
Regulation of transgene systems is imperative to develop innovative medicines. However, noninvasive remote control of gene expression has been rarely developed and remains elusive. We herein synthesize a near-infrared (NIR) absorbing dendronized semiconducting polymer (DSP) and utilize it as a photothermal nanocarrier not only to efficiently deliver genes but also to spatiotemporally control gene expression in conjunction with heat-inducible promoter. DSP has a high photothermal conversion efficiency (44.2%) at 808 nm, permitting fast transduction of NIR light into heat signals for intracellular activation of transcription...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622510/microbial-genetic-composition-tunes-host-longevity
#4
Bing Han, Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Chih-Chun J Lin, Isaiah A A Neve, Jingquan He, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Jessica N Sowa, Antons Sizovs, Guangwei Du, Jin Wang, Christophe Herman, Meng C Wang
Homeostasis of the gut microbiota critically influences host health and aging. Developing genetically engineered probiotics holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm to promote healthy aging. Here, through screening 3,983 Escherichia coli mutants, we discovered that 29 bacterial genes, when deleted, increase longevity in the host Caenorhabditis elegans. A dozen of these bacterial mutants also protect the host from age-related progression of tumor growth and amyloid-beta accumulation. Mechanistically, we discovered that five bacterial mutants promote longevity through increased secretion of the polysaccharide colanic acid (CA), which regulates mitochondrial dynamics and unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in the host...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619643/superior-transfection-efficiency-of-phagocytic-astrocytes-by-large-chitosan-dna-nanoparticles
#5
Fanqiang Kong, Guoping Liu, Shumin Zhou, Jie Guo, Song Chen, Zhiyun Wang
PURPOSE: Mechanism study of why astrocytes isolated from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced B6 mice or after being exposed to inflammatory factors had the highest transfection efficiency to larger-sized, but not compacted, pspCS/pDNA particles. METHODS: Phosphorylatable short peptide conjugated chitosan (pspCS) was compounded with plasmid DNA (pDNA) at different N:P ratios to form pspCS/pDNA particles of different size and zeta potentials. These pspCS/pDNA particles were used for the transfection of astrocytes isolated from either EAE induced or healthy B6 mice...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607074/carbohydrate-microarrays-and-their-use-for-the-identification-of-molecular-markers-for-plant-cell-wall-composition
#6
Ian P Wood, Bruce M Pearson, Enriqueta Garcia-Gutierrez, Lenka Havlickova, Zhesi He, Andrea L Harper, Ian Bancroft, Keith W Waldron
Genetic improvement of the plant cell wall has enormous potential to increase the quality of food, fibers, and fuels. However, the identification and characterization of genes involved in plant cell wall synthesis is far from complete. Association mapping is one of the few techniques that can help identify candidate genes without relying on our currently incomplete knowledge of cell wall synthesis. However, few cell wall phenotyping methodologies have proven sufficiently precise, robust, or scalable for association mapping to be conducted for specific cell wall polymers...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602136/in-situ-forming-hydrogels-with-long-lasting-mir-21-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-msc-by-sustaining-stimulation-of-target-gene
#7
Xianwei Zhang, Yufa Sun, Jianfeng Liu, Zhiyong Yi, Feng Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Yundai Chen
Regulating stem cells by microRNA (miRNA) is promising in regenerative medicine. However, non-viral transfection is usually transient while stably lentiviral transfection is accompanied with oncogenic risk. In the study, we explored the feasibility to retain the microRNAs within biopolymer hydrogels for their long-lasting working and sustaining stimulation of target gene. miRNA-21 (MiR-21), a reported microRNA enhancing the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was used. We demonstrated that miR-21 could be efficiently retained within collagen hydrogel after forming complex with cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600130/highly-antibacterial-polypeptide-based-amphiphilic-copolymers-as-multifunctional-non-viral-vectors-for-enhanced-intracellular-sirna-delivery-and-anti-infection
#8
Li Zhou, Yuewei Xi, Meng Yu, Min Wang, Yi Guo, Peng Li, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
For next-generation regenerative medicine and cancer therapy applications, the development of multifunctional biodegradable biomaterials with good antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and gene delivery capability is showing increased interests. As a natural cationic polypeptide, poly(ε-L-lysine) (EPL) has been as attractive antibacterial agent and non-viral gene vectors, however, its gene therapy is still limited probably due to the cytotoxicity, low stability in physiological environment and poor transfection efficiency...
June 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589096/identification-of-s-nitrosylated-sno-proteins-in-entamoeba-histolytica-adapted-to-nitrosative-stress-insights-into-the-role-of-sno-actin-and-in-vitro-virulence
#9
Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Preeti Shahi, Shruti Nagaraja, Shai Vanunu, Shiran Manor, Amit Avrahami, Serge Ankri
We have recently reported that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites can adapt to toxic levels of the nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Even if the consequences of this adaptation on the modulation of gene expression in NO-adapted trophozoites (NAT) have been previously explored, insight on S-nitrosylated (SNO) proteins in NAT is missing. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap by performing a screening of SNO proteins in NAT. Employing SNO resin-assisted capture (RAC), we identified 242 putative SNO proteins with key functions in calcium binding, enzyme modulation, redox homeostasis, and actin cytoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586546/a-bioartificial-environment-for-kidney-epithelial-cells-based-on-a-supramolecular-polymer-basement-membrane-mimic-and-an-organotypical-culture-system
#10
Björne B Mollet, Iven L J Bogaerts, Geert C van Almen, Patricia Y W Dankers
Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters...
June 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582708/new-immobilisation-method-for-oligonucleotides-on-electrodes-enables-highly-sensitive-electrochemical-label-free-gene-sensing
#11
Nihan Aydemir, Eddie Chan, Paul Baek, David Barker, David E Williams, Jadranka Travas-Sejdic
We present a versatile and facile procedure for the immobilisation of bioprobe molecules to an electrochemical sensing element. We eliminate lengthy preparation procedures for direct functionalisation of electrode surfaces by pre-attaching probe molecules to carboxylic acid bearing termonomers of pyrrole phenylenes or thiophene phenylenes. We demonstrate that these conjugates can be electrodeposited at low potentials to form nano-scale porous, electroactive conducting polymer films, exposing the bioprobe and retaining activity and specificity for binding, exemplified here with DNA sensors...
June 1, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578944/pullulan-a-novel-molecule-for-biomedical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Navpreet Kaur, Vikas Rana, John F Kennedy
Pullulan is an imperative natural polymer produced commercially by yeast like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. It is non-toxic, non-immunogenic, non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic in nature. The structure of pullulan consist unique linkage pattern with two α-(1→4) and one α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds in maltotriose repeating units (G3). Pullulan endows distinctive physical traits due to the presence of nine hydroxyl groups on glucopyranose rings of G3 units. It can be derivatized in various forms by substituting these hydroxyl groups to enhance its utility in biomedical applications...
September 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576035/bmp-2-immobilized-plga-hydroxyapatite-fibrous-scaffold-via-polydopamine-stimulates-osteoblast-growth
#13
Xingyu Zhao, Yu Han, Jiawei Li, Bo Cai, Hang Gao, Wei Feng, Shuqiang Li, Jianguo Liu, Dongsong Li
Combining biomaterials scaffolds with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is currently used to promote the regeneration of bone tissue. However, the traditional strategies used to add BMP-2 into the polymer scaffolds directly suffer from limitations that can result in lower growth factor loading and damage the bioactivity of growth factors. In this study, we report the fabrication of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) composite fibrous scaffolds via melt-spinning method to mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM)...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576020/polymeric-micelles-self-assembled-from-amphiphilic-polymers-with-twin-disulfides-used-as-sirna-carriers-to-enhance-the-transfection
#14
Can Yang Zhang, Shiyuan Peng, Bin Zhao, Wenji Luo, Lijuan Zhang
The sequence-defined polycationic polymers with or without Cys-Arg-Cys motifs conjugated with targeting and shielding segments were synthesized as siRNA carriers via native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction. After purification, the structures and physicochemical characteristics were determined by a variety of experimental techniques. The particle size of siRNA/CRC-polymer polyplex was much smaller than that of polyplex without CRC motifs. The buffer capacity and siRNA binding ability of CRC motifs modified polymers were significantly improved, resulting from the twin disulfides and hexatomic ring formulation...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573188/a-hyper-crosslinked-carbohydrate-polymer-scaffold-facilitates-lineage-commitment-and-maintains-a-reserve-pool-of-proliferating-cardiovascular-progenitors
#15
Jonathan M Baio, Ryan C Walden, Tania I Fuentes, Charles C Lee, Nahidh W Hasaniya, Leonard L Bailey, Mary K Kearns-Jonker
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) have been cultured on various scaffolds to resolve the challenge of cell retention after transplantation and to improve functional outcome after cell-based cardiac therapy. Previous studies have reported successful culture of fully differentiated cardiomyocytes on scaffolds of various types, and ongoing efforts are focused on optimizing the mix of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells as well as on the identification of a source of progenitors capable of reversing cardiovascular damage...
May 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567486/xenobiology-state-of-the-art-ethics-and-philosophy-of-new-to-nature-organisms
#16
Markus Schmidt, Lei Pei, Nediljko Budisa
The basic chemical constitution of all living organisms in the context of carbon-based chemistry consists of a limited number of small molecules and polymers. Until the twenty-first century, biology was mainly an analytical science and has now reached a point where it merges with engineering science, paving the way for synthetic biology. One of the objectives of synthetic biology is to try to change the chemical compositions of living cells, that is, to create an artificial biological diversity, which in turn fosters a new sub-field of synthetic biology, xenobiology...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557533/induced-cell-turnover-a-novel-therapeutic-modality-for-in-situ-tissue-regeneration
#17
Francesco Albert Bosco Cortese, Sebastian Aguiar, Giovanni Santostasi
Induced Cell Turnover (ICT) is a theoretical intervention in which the targeted ablation of damaged, diseased and/or nonfunctional cells is coupled with replacement by partially differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells in a gradual and multi-phasic manner. Tissue-specific ablation can be achieved using pro-apoptotic small molecule cocktails, peptide mimetics, and/or tissue-tropic AAV-delivered suicide genes driven by cell-type specific promoters. Replenishment with new cells can be mediated by systemic administration of cells engineered for homing, robustness, and even enhanced function and disease resistance...
May 30, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555295/expression-and-characterization-of-hyperthermostable-exopolygalacturonase-rmgh28-from-rhodothermus-marinus
#18
Kurt C Wagschal, J Rose Stoller, Victor J Chan, Douglas B Jordan
The gene RmGH28 from the organism Rhodothermus marinus, a putative glycosyl hydrolase family 28 polygalacturonase, was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. The gene was found to encode an exopolygalacturonase termed RmGH28, with galacturonic acid monomer and the polymer substrate (n-1) as the products released when acting on de-esterified polygalacturonic acid from citrus pectin. The enzyme at 25 °C had k cat ∼6 s(-1) when acting on polygalacturonic acid, with K m ∼0.7 μM and a substrate inhibition constant K si ∼70 μM...
May 29, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555280/fabrication-of-low-generation-dendrimers-into-nanostructures-for-efficient-and-nontoxic-gene-delivery
#19
REVIEW
Hui Wang, Hong Chang, Qiang Zhang, Yiyun Cheng
Dendrimers with well-defined molecular structure and high monodispersity have gained tremendous interest in gene delivery. However, current gene carriers based on dendrimers are either not effective or are too toxic on the transfected cells. The efficacy and cytotoxicity of dendrimers are strongly correlated with their molecular weight or generation. High-generation dendrimers are reported with relatively high transfection efficacy but serious cytotoxicity due to the excess positive charges on the polymers, while low-generation dendrimers with minimal toxicity have poor polyplex stability and thus weak transfection efficacy...
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532899/nanodiamond-based-injectable-hydrogel-for-sustained-growth-factor-release-preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-analysis
#20
Settimio Pacelli, Francisca Acosta, Aparna R Chakravarti, Saheli G Samanta, Jonathan Whitlow, Saman Modaresi, Rafeeq P H Ahmed, Johnson Rajasingh, Arghya Paul
Nanodiamonds (NDs) represent an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials that possess favorable physical and chemical properties to be used as multifunctional carriers for a variety of bioactive molecules. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a new injectable ND-based nanocomposite hydrogel which facilitates a controlled release of therapeutic molecules for regenerative applications. In particular, we have formulated a thermosensitive hydrogel using gelatin, chitosan and NDs that provides a sustained release of exogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for wound healing applications...
May 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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