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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924308/ph-sensitive-pt-nanocluster-assembly-overcomes-cisplatin-resistance-and-heterogeneous-stemness-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Hongping Xia, Fangyuan Li, Xi Hu, Wooram Park, Shuaifei Wang, Youngjin Jang, Yang Du, Seungmin Baik, Soojeong Cho, Taegyu Kang, Dong-Hyun Kim, Daishun Ling, Kam Man Hui, Taeghwan Hyeon
Response rates to conventional chemotherapeutics remain unsatisfactory for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to the high rates of chemoresistance and recurrence. Tumor-initiating cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are refractory to chemotherapy, and their enrichment leads to subsequent development of chemoresistance and recurrence. To overcome the chemoresistance and stemness in HCC, we synthesized a Pt nanocluster assembly (Pt-NA) composed of assembled Pt nanoclusters incorporating a pH-sensitive polymer and HCC-targeting peptide...
November 23, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917281/gene-therapy-based-on-interleukin-12-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-a-mouse-model-of-fibrosarcoma
#2
Saiedeh Razi Soofiyani, Somayeh Hallaj-Nezhadi, Farzaneh Lotfipour, Akbar Mohammad Hosseini, Behzad Baradaran
OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a cytokine has been proved to have a critical role in stimulating the immune system and has been used as immunotherapeutic agents in cancer gene therapy. Chitosan as a polymer, with high ability of binding to nucleic acids is a good candidate for gene delivery since it is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-allergenic polysaccharide. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cells transfected with IL-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles on the regression of fibrosarcoma tumor cells (WEHI-164) in vivo...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#3
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900823/high-frequency-mechanostimulation-of-cell-adhesion
#4
Laith F Kadem, K Grace Suana, Michelle Holz, Wei Wang, Hannes Westerhaus, Rainer Herges, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899629/enhanced-non-viral-gene-delivery-by-coordinated-endosomal-release-and-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-deactylase
#5
Yoon Khei Ho, Li Han Zhou, Kam C Tam, Heng Phon Too
Efficient non-viral gene delivery is highly desirable but often unattainable with some cell-types. We report here that non-viral DNA polyplexes can efficiently transfect differentiated neuronal and stem cells. Polyplex transfection centrifugation protocols was enhanced by including a simultaneous treatment with a DOPE/CHEMS lipid suspension and a microtubule inhibitor, Tubastatin A. Lipoplex transfection protocols were not improved by this treatment. This mechanism of action was unravelled by systematically identifying and rationally mitigating barriers limiting high transfection efficiency, allowing unexpected improvements in the transfection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), primary neuron and several hard-to-transfect cell types beyond what are currently achievable using cationic polymers...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896282/a-patient-with-lissencephaly-developmental-delay-and-infantile-spasms-due-to-de-novo-heterozygous-mutation-of-kif2a
#6
Guoling Tian, Ana G Cristancho, Holly A Dubbs, Grant T Liu, Nicholas J Cowan, Ethan M Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Microtubules are dynamic polymers of α/β tubulin heterodimers that play a critical role in cerebral cortical development, by regulating neuronal migration, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Mutations in genes that encode either α- or β-tubulin or a spectrum of proteins involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics lead to clinically devastating malformations of cortical development, including lissencephaly. METHODS: This is a single case report or a patient with lissencephaly, developmental delay, nystagmus, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and infantile spasms, and undertook a neurogenetic workup...
November 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892545/erythrocyte-membrane-based-cationic-polymer-mcdna-complexes-as-an-efficient-gene-delivery-system
#7
Ping Huang, Jing Zhao, Chiju Wei, Xiaohu Hou, Pingzhang Chen, Yan Tan, Cheng-Yi He, Zhiyong Wang, Zhi-Ying Chen
Gene therapy has great promise for the treatment of obtained and inherited serious diseases. However, the lack of safe and efficient gene delivery systems remains a barrier for their clinical application. Here, we reported a potential gene delivery vehicle composed of the erythrocyte membrane and cationic polymers, for example the XtremeGENE from Roche and the ε-caprolactone modified polyethylenimine. In addition to high efficiency, this system showed negligible cytotoxicity compared to the two cationic polymers alone in various cell lines, including human embryonic kidney cells (293T), human liver cancer cells (Huh7 and HepG2), murine dendritic cells (DC2...
November 28, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885938/genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis-lytic-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-nit1-capable-of-obstructing-natto-fermentation-carrying-genes-for-the-capsule-lytic-soluble-enzymes-poly-%C3%AE-glutamate-hydrolase-and-levanase
#8
Tatsuro Ozaki, Naoki Abe, Keitarou Kimura, Atsuto Suzuki, Jun Kaneko
Bacillus subtilis strains including the fermented soybean (natto) starter produce capsular polymers consisting of poly-γ-glutamate and levan. Capsular polymers may protect the cells from phage infection. However, bacteriophage ϕNIT1 carries a γ-PGA hydrolase gene (pghP) that help it to counteract the host cell's protection strategy. ϕNIT had a linear double stranded DNA genome of 155,631-bp with a terminal redundancy of 5,103-bp, containing a gene encoding an active levan hydrolase. These capsule-lytic enzyme genes were located in the possible foreign gene cluster regions between central core and terminal redundant regions, and were expressed at the late phase of the phage lytic cycle...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884808/biodegradable-nano-polymers-as-delivery-vehicles-for-therapeutic-small-non-coding-ribonucleic-acids
#9
REVIEW
Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Abbas Alibakhshi, Maryam Hashemi, Maryam Hejazi, Vahedeh Hosseini, Miguel de la Guardia, Mohammad Ramezani
Nowadays, small non-coding Ribo Nucleic Acids (sncRNAs) such as siRNA, miRNA and shRNA are extremely serving to gene regulation. They are involved in many biological processes and in an increasing number of studies regarding a variety of application of sncRNAs toward human health and relieving diseases ranging from metabolic disorders to those involving various organ systems as well as different types of cancer. One of the most severe limitations for applying RNA interference technology is the absence of safe and effective carriers for in vivo delivery, including localizing the molecules to a specific site of interest and sustaining the presentation of the payloads for a controlled period of time...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883045/acidic-mammalian-chitinase-is-a-proteases-resistant-glycosidase-in-mouse-digestive-system
#10
Misa Ohno, Masahiro Kimura, Haruko Miyazaki, Kazuaki Okawa, Riho Onuki, Chiyuki Nemoto, Eri Tabata, Satoshi Wakita, Akinori Kashimura, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Nobuyuki Nukina, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc)2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879056/in-vitro-drug-and-gene-delivery-using-random-cationic-copolymers-forming-stable-and-ph-sensitive-polymersomes
#11
Partha Laskar, Joykrishna Dey, Payel Banik, Mahitosh Mandal, Sudip Kumar Ghosh
Stimuli-sensitive polymeric vesicles or polymersomes as self-assembled colloidal nanocarriers have received paramount importance for their integral role as delivery system for therapeutics and biotherapeutics. This work describes spontaneous polymersome formation at pH 7, as evidenced by surface tension, steady state fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, and microscopic studies, by three hydrophilic random cationic copolymers synthesized using N,N-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate in different mole ratios...
November 23, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878786/enhancing-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate-production-in-escherichia-coli-by-the-removal-of-the-regulatory-gene-arca
#12
Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878118/cancer-related-functions-and-subcellular-localizations-of-septins
#13
REVIEW
Christian Poüs, Laurence Klipfel, Anita Baillet
Since the initial discovery of septin family GTPases, the understanding of their molecular organization and cellular roles keeps being refined. Septins have been involved in many physiological processes and the misregulation of specific septin gene expression has been implicated in diverse human pathologies, including neurological disorders and cancer. In this minireview, we focus on the importance of the subunit composition and subcellular localization of septins relevant to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877908/an-immuno-wall-microdevice-exhibits-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-idh1-r132h-mutation-specific-to-grade-ii-and-iii-gliomas
#14
Akane Yamamichi, Toshihiro Kasama, Fumiharu Ohka, Hiromichi Suzuki, Akira Kato, Kazuya Motomura, Masaki Hirano, Melissa Ranjit, Lushun Chalise, Michihiro Kurimoto, Goro Kondo, Kosuke Aoki, Noritada Kaji, Manabu Tokeshi, Toshio Matsubara, Takeshi Senga, Mika K Kaneko, Hidenori Suzuki, Masahito Hara, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yoshinobu Baba, Yukinari Kato, Atsushi Natsume
World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69-80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83-90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877903/the-novel-functional-nucleic-acid-ired-effectively-regulates-target-genes-following-cytoplasmic-delivery-by-faint-electric-treatment
#15
Mahadi Hasan, Noriko Tarashima, Koki Fujikawa, Takashi Ohgita, Susumu Hama, Tamotsu Tanaka, Hiroyuki Saito, Noriaki Minakawa, Kentaro Kogure
An intelligent shRNA expression device (iRed) contains the minimum essential components needed for shRNA production in cells, and could be a novel tool to regulate target genes. However, general delivery carriers consisting of cationic polymers/lipids could impede function of a newly generated shRNA via electrostatic interaction in the cytoplasm. Recently, we found that faint electric treatment (fET) of cells enhanced delivery of siRNA and functional nucleic acids into the cytoplasm in the absence of delivery carriers...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875623/biophysical-characterization-of-quaternary-pyridinium-functionalized-polynorbornenes-for-dna-complexation-and-their-cellular-interactions
#16
Zeliha Guler, Semra Zuhal Birol, Tarık Eren, Sebnem Ercelen Ceylan
Cationic polymers with hydrophobic side chains have gained great interest as DNA carriers since they form a compact complex with negatively charged DNA phosphate groups and interact with the cell membrane. Amphiphilic polyoxanorbornenes with different quaternary alkyl pyridinium side chains with ethyl-p(OPy2) and hexyl units-p(OPy6) bearing 10 kDa MWT were synthesized by living Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization method. The physicochemical characteristics: critical micellar concentration, size distribution, surface charge and condensation of polymer/DNA complex were investigated...
November 22, 2016: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872011/aminoclay-as-a-highly-effective-cationic-vehicle-for-enhancing-adenovirus-mediated-gene-transfer-through-nanobiohybrid-complex-formation
#17
Soo-Yeon Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Hyo-Kyung Han, Soo-Jeong Lim
: Electrostatic complexation of adenovirus (Ad) with cationic lipids or polymers has been shown to be an effective means for overcoming the limitations of adenoviral vectors and enhancing gene-transfer efficacy. However, such complexation causes cytotoxicity, limiting the use of this strategy. The present study explored the potential of 3-aminopropyl functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay) as a cationic vehicle for improving Ad-mediated gene transfer without inducing cytotoxicity...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871989/quality-by-design-qbd-approach-of-pharmacogenomics-in-drug-designing-and-formulation-development-for-optimization-of-drug-delivery-systems
#18
REVIEW
Sumeet Gupta, Vikas Jhawat
Conventional approaches of drug discovery are very complex, costly and time consuming. But after the completion of human genome project, applications of pharmacogenomics in this area completely revolutionize the drug discovery and development process to produce a quality by design (QbD) approach based products. The applications of two areas of pharmacogenomics i.e. structural and functional pharmacogenomics excel the drug discovery process by employing genomic data in drug target identification and evaluation, lead optimization via high throughput screening, evaluation of drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug receptors using computer aided technique and bioinformatics library data base...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870837/ubiquitin-utilizes-an-acidic-surface-patch-to-alter-chromatin-structure
#19
Galia T Debelouchina, Karola Gerecht, Tom W Muir
Ubiquitylation of histone H2B, associated with gene activation, leads to chromatin decompaction through an unknown mechanism. We used a hydrogen-deuterium exchange strategy coupled with NMR spectroscopy to map the ubiquitin surface responsible for its structural effects on chromatin. Our studies revealed that a previously uncharacterized acidic patch on ubiquitin comprising residues Glu16 and Glu18 is essential for decompaction. These residues mediate promiscuous electrostatic interactions with the basic histone proteins, potentially positioning the ubiquitin moiety as a dynamic 'wedge' that prevents the intimate association of neighboring nucleosomes...
November 21, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868364/production-and-characterization-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-from-vibrio-harveyi-mccb-284-utilizing-glycerol-as-carbon-source
#20
Sowmya P Mohandas, Linu Balan, N Lekshmi, Sherine Sonia Cubelio, Rosamma Philip, I S Bright Singh
AIM: Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 isolated from tunicate Phallusia nigra. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty five bacterial isolates were obtained from tunicate samples and three among them exhibited an orange fluorescence in Nile red staining indicating the presence of PHB. One of the isolates, MCCB 284, which showed rapid growth and good polymer yield, was identified as V. harveyi...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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