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Hair thinning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295600/exogenous-and-endogenous-lipids-of-human-hair
#1
L Coderch, M A Oliver, V Martínez, A M Manich, L Rubio, M Martí
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. METHODS: Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted...
March 13, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294070/dutasteride-in-androgenetic-alopecia-an-update
#2
Tasleem Arif, Konchok Dorjay, Mohammad Adil, Marwa Sami
BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia is a common condition characterized by thinning of scalp hair. Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a more potent androgen, by the enzyme 5-a-reductase is responsible for underlying pathogenesis. Dutasteride, a synthetic 4-azasteroid, is a selective and competitive inhibitor of both type-1 and type-2 isoenzymes of 5-alpha-reductase. Finasteride and minoxidil are the only approved drugs for androgenetic alopecia. Dutasteride has been demonstrated to be effective in several randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials in androgenetic alopecia...
March 10, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274810/non-clinical-safety-evaluation-and-risk-assessment-to-human-of-aleglitazar-a-dual-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-and-its-major-human-metabolite
#3
Martin Bopst, Elke-Astrid Atzpodien
The non-clinical safety profile of aleglitazar, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist, and its major human metabolite M6 was studied in a complete package consisting of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics characterization, safety pharmacology, genotoxicity, repeat dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. These studies identified the following main targets similar to other PPAR agonists: red blood cell parameters, liver, heart, kidney, ovaries, testes, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and fluid accumulation...
March 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261924/the-effect-of-a-herbal-paste-and-oil-extract-on-the-lipid-content-of-canine-hair-fibres
#4
Yutaka Momota, Kenichiro Shimada, Chihiro Kadoya, Azusa Gin, Jun Kobayashi, Yuka Nakamura, Takako Matsubara, Toshinori Sako
BACKGROUND: Application of herbal paste and oil to a dog's coat and body before rinsing (often combining with shampooing) is a cosmetic therapy available in Japan. It is highly appreciated by users, who claim that the treatment makes the coat shinier, improves volume and eliminates tangles. However, there has been no scientific evaluation of such treatments. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Improvement of hair condition is derived from oils such as sebum and conditioning oils because chemicals are not used...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256045/two-cases-of-legg-perthes-and-intellectual-disability-in-tricho-rhino-phalangeal-syndrome-type-1-associated-with-novel-trps1-mutations
#5
Jordana L Gilman, Heather A Newman, Rebecca Freeman, Kathryn E Singh, Rebecca L Puckett, David K Morohashi, Constance Stein, Kathryn Palomino, Robert Roger Lebel, Virginia E Kimonis
Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in the TRPS1 gene. This malformation syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features including sparse scalp hair, bulbous tip of the nose, long flat philtrum, thin upper vermilion border, and protruding ears. Skeletal abnormalities include cone-shaped epiphyses at the phalanges, hip malformations, and short stature. In this report, we describe two patients with the physical manifestations and genotype of TRPS type I but with learning/intellectual disability not typically described as part of the syndrome...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255918/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-four-sarcocystis-spp-including-sarcocystis-linearis-n-sp-from-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-in-italy
#6
Bjørn Gjerde, Stefano Giacomelli, Alessandro Bianchi, Irene Bertoletti, Hajime Mondani, Lucia Rita Gibelli
Fresh (frozen/thawed) muscle samples from four 2-12-year-old roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the Sondrio province in north-eastern Italy were examined under a dissecting microscope, and about 180 sarcocysts were isolated and identified to morphological type in wet mounts by light microscopy (LM). Seventy-seven of these sarcocysts were subsequently examined by molecular methods, comprising polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) of all isolates, as well as PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the complete18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of two isolates of each species found...
March 2, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217761/modeling-of-chronic-radiation-induced-cystitis-in-mice
#7
Bernadette M M Zwaans, Sarah Krueger, Sarah N Bartolone, Michael B Chancellor, Brian Marples, Laura E Lamb
PURPOSE: Radiation cystitis (RC), a severe inflammatory bladder condition, develops as a side-effect of pelvic radiation therapy in cancer patients. There are currently no effective therapies to treat RC, in part due to the lack of preclinical model systems. In this study, we developed a mouse model for RC and used a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) to simulate the targeted delivery of radiation as used with human patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To induce RC, C3H mice received a single radiation dose of 20Gy delivered through two beams...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211977/1q21-3-deletion-involving-gatad2b-an-emerging-recurrent-microdeletion-syndrome
#8
Thipwimol Tim-Aroon, Natini Jinawath, Weerin Thammachote, Praweena Sinpitak, Anchalee Limrungsikul, Chaiyos Khongkhatithum, Duangrurdee Wattanasirichaigoon
GATAD2B gene is involved in chromatin modification and transcription activity. Loss-of-function mutations of GATAD2B have recently been defined to cause a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability (ID). Human TPM3 gene encoding thin filament protein is associated with myopathies. Both genes are located on chromosome 1q21.3. We herein report an infant with feeding difficulty, developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features including small palpebral fissures, telecanthus, sparse hair and eyebrow, cup-shaped ears, and clinodactyly...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192564/a-japanese-family-with-autosomal-dominant-oculocutaneous-albinism-type-4
#9
Ryoko Oki, Kisaburo Yamada, Satoko Nakano, Kenichi Kimoto, Ken Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Kondo, Toshiaki Kubota
Purpose: We report the clinical characteristics of a Japanese family with autosomal dominant oculocutaneous albinism and a SLC45A2 gene mutation. Methods: A total of 16 members of a Japanese family with general hypopigmentation and foveal hypoplasia underwent detailed clinical examinations. We evaluated the severity of foveal hypoplasia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and graded it according to the criteria of Thomas et al. DNA was extracted from 17 family members and used for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and linkage analysis...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190350/kinetics-of-wetting-and-spreading-of-droplets-over-various-substrates
#10
Omid Arjmandi-Tash, Nina M Kovalchuk, Anna Trybala, Igor V Kuchin, Victor Starov
There has been a substantial increase in the number of publications in the field of wetting and spreading since 2010. This increase in the rate of publications can be attributed to the broader application of wetting phenomena in new areas. It is impossible to review such a huge number of publications; that is, some topics in the field of wetting and spreading are selected to be discussed below. These topics are as follows: (i) Contact angle hysteresis on smooth homogeneous solid surfaces via disjoining/conjoining pressure...
February 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025844/cross-sectional-study-evaluating-skin-hair-nail-and-bone-disease-in-patients-with-focal-dermal-hypoplasia
#11
Nicole S Gunasekera, Joan K Divito, Thomas S Kupper, Jennifer T Huang, Sherrie J Divito
Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant disease characterized by dermal thinning and fat herniation with other ectodermal and mesodermal abnormalities. There is limited literature regarding the symptomatology and progression of skin, hair, and nail disease. The risk of bone fragility has not been explored either. This cross-sectional survey-based study explored these gaps in knowledge and provides direction for future avenues of research in FDH.
March 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987254/application-of-free-serratus-anterior-fascial-flap-for-reconstruction-of-ear-deformity-due-to-hemifacial-microsomia-a-report-of-two-cases
#12
Takashi Nuri, Koichi Ueda, Akira Yamada
Reconstructing congenital auricular defects due to hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is often required to deal with low hairline and defects of the temporal fascia/muscular systems. In this report, we present two cases of HFM patients (16-year-old and 20-year-old) with positional anomaly of the remnant lobule and 95% low hairline, who were treated with serratus anterior fascial flap (SFF) at the second stage of auricular construction. At the first stage, 3D costal cartilage framework was placed following the removal of hair-bearing skin, and was resurfaced with the pericranial flap...
December 17, 2016: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981612/cutaneous-reactions-in-children-treated-with-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-inhibitor-trametinib-for-neural-tumors
#13
Christina Boull, Kristen Hook, Christopher Moertel, Sheilagh Maguiness
BACKGROUND: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a target for the treatment of a growing number of malignancies. The cutaneous reactions to medications that inhibit this pathway have not been described in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for eight children with neural tumors treated with the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor trametinib. All children were evaluated by a pediatric dermatologist with documentation of cutaneous findings...
January 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924851/senescence-novel-insight-into-dlx3-mutations-leading-to-enhanced-bone-formation-in-tricho-dento-osseous-syndrome
#14
Na Zhao, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Yue Li, Sing-Wai Wong, Zhengyi Cao, Jian Xu, Xiaowei Zhang, Tao Cai, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
The homeodomain transcription factor distal-less homeobox 3 gene (DLX3) is required for hair, tooth and skeletal development. DLX3 mutations have been found to be responsible for Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome, characterized by kinky hair, thin-pitted enamel and increased bone density. Here we show that the DLX3 mutation (c.533 A>G; Q178R) attenuates osteogenic potential and senescence of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from a TDO patient, providing a molecular explanation for abnormal increased bone density...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915340/2q33-1q34-deletion-in-a-girl-with-brain-anomalies-and-anorectal-malformation
#15
Luisa Ronzoni, Antonio Novelli, Giulia Brisighelli, Angela Peron, Fabio Triulzi, Vera Bianchi, Ernesto Leva, Maria F Bedeschi
2q33 deletions are considered to constitute a distinct clinical entity (Glass syndrome or 2q33 microdeletion syndrome) with a characteristic phenotype. Most patients have moderate to severe developmental delay, speech delay, a particular behavioural phenotype, feeding problems, growth restriction, a typical facial appearance, thin and sparse hair, tooth abnormalities, and skeletal anomalies. Here, we report on a patient with a 2q33.1q34 deletion spanning 8.3 Mb of genomic DNA. Although her clinical features are very reminiscent of the 2q33 microdeletion syndrome, she also presented with brain and anorectal malformations...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882597/morphological-analyses-in-fragility-of-pili-torti-with-bj%C3%A3-rnstad-syndrome
#16
Yuki Marubashi, Takeshi Yanagishita, Jun Muto, Nobuhiko Taguchi, Kazumitsu Sugiura, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, Masashi Akiyama, Daisuke Watanabe
Pili torti is an extremely rare hair phenotype characterized by short length of hairs with hair shafts being easily broken. However, the mechanism of fragility in pili torti is unclear. In this study, we examined the underlying morphological features responsible for pili torti formation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We used pili torti samples from a patient with Björnstad syndrome and normal hairs from a healthy subject as a comparison. The macroscopic morphological features of the samples agreed with the results of a previous study showing that pili torti is twisted, flattened, thin and with partial trichorrhexis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852030/-a-case-of-pol-iii-related-leukodystrophy-with-homozygous-mutation-in-polr3a
#17
Tomoaki Shima, Takeshi Fujimoto, Teiichiro Miyazaki, Fumiaki Nonaka
We describe a 27-year-old man with mental retardation, symptomatic epilepsy, myopia, and cerebellar ataxia without spontaneous puberty whose brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hypomyelination. He had child-like facial appearance, with thin facial hair. He had no underarm and pubic hairs, and his penis was small. Laboratory tests showed low levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone. Brain MRI showed diffuse hypomyelination, atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem, and hypoplastic corpus callosum...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768157/initial-experience-with-low-dose-methotrexate-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-rapidly-recurrent-nonvasculitic-laryngotracheal-stenosis
#18
David E Rosow, Jamal Ahmed
Importance: Adult laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is typically managed surgically, but some patients fail treatment because of rapid restenosis or granulation tissue formation. The need for frequent surgery or tracheostomy reduces the quality of life in these patients and poses a significant challenge for the treating physician. New adjuvant treatments are required to reduce the surgical burden of this condition. Objective: To examine whether patients with rapidly recurrent nonvasculitic LTS who fail surgical management of their stenosis (ie, requiring dilation more frequently than every 6 months) experience longer intervals between surgical procedures when receiving adjuvant treatment with low-dose methotrexate...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766696/clinical-ultrasonographic-and-arthroscopic-characteristics-of-hair-shafts-within-synovial-structures-of-seven-horses
#19
Jessica L Partlow, Meghann Lustgarten, W Rich Redding
To the authors' knowledge, the ultrasonographic appearance of hair shafts within a synovial structure of the horse has not been described previously. The purpose of this descriptive study was to illustrate the clinical, ultrasonographic, and arthroscopic characteristics of confirmed hair shafts within synovial structures of seven horses. A review of medical records of the Farm and Equine Veterinary Medical Center at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine identified seven horses with clinical signs suspicious for inflammatory or septic synovitis/tenosynovitis that had hair shafts identified within those structures ultrasonographically...
January 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762642/efficacy-and-safety-of-mascara-dyeing-as-an-adjunct-to-alexandrite-and-nd-yag-laser-applications-for-removing-thin-and-white-colored-facial-and-axillary-hair
#20
Pelin Üstüner, Ali Balevi, Mustafa Özdemir
INTRODUCTION: There is no satisfactory and efficient method for long-term removal of white-colored and thin hair. METHODS: We conducted a randomised clinical trial of hirsute patients with excessive white and/or thin hair on the face and/or axilla. In Group I (n: 16), the facial hair on one side of the face was painted with a black eyelash mascara immediately before Nd:YAG laser and the other half was only treated by Nd:YAG. In Group II (n: 20), the axillary hair on one side was painted with the mascara before the Alexandrite laser with the other side being only treated by Alexandrite...
December 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
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