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Imene Dalichaouche, Yamina Sifi, Carinne Roudaut, Karima Sifi, Abdelmadjid Hamri, Leila Rouabah, Noureddine Abadi, Isabelle Richard
INTRODUCTION: We report the genetic analysis of a large series of 76 Algerian patients from 65 unrelated families that presented with early onset severe muscular dystrophy and a clinical phenotype resembling Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C). METHODS: To define the genetic basis of the diseases in these families, we undertook a series of analysis of the γ-sarcoglycan (SGCG) and DMD genes. RESULTS: Fifteen families were shown to carry SGCG variants...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Katrin Koehler, Miroslav P Milev, Keshika Prematilake, Felix Reschke, Susann Kutzner, Ramona Jühlen, Dana Landgraf, Eda Utine, Filiz Hazan, Gulden Diniz, Markus Schuelke, Angela Huebner, Michael Sacher
BACKGROUND: Triple A syndrome (MIM #231550) is associated with mutations in the AAAS gene. However, about 30% of patients with triple A syndrome symptoms but an unresolved diagnosis do not harbour mutations in AAAS. OBJECTIVE: Search for novel genetic defects in families with a triple A-like phenotype in whom AAAS mutations are not detected. METHODS: Genome-wide linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing and functional analyses were used to discover and verify a novel genetic defect in two families with achalasia, alacrima, myopathy and further symptoms...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Matthew S Alexander, Anete Rozkalne, Alessandro Colletta, Janelle M Spinazzola, Samuel Johnson, Fedik Rahimov, Hui Meng, Michael W Lawlor, Elicia Estrella, Louis M Kunkel, Emanuela Gussoni
Cell-surface markers for prospective isolation of stem cells from human skeletal muscle have been difficult to identify. Such markers would be powerful tools for studying satellite cell function during homeostasis and in pathogenesis of diseases such as muscular dystrophies. In this study, we show that the tetraspanin KAI/CD82 is an excellent marker for prospectively isolating stem cells from human fetal and adult skeletal muscle. Human CD82(+) muscle cells robustly engraft into a mouse model of muscular dystrophy...
September 7, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Joseph J Belanto, John T Olthoff, Tara L Mader, Christopher M Chamberlain, D'anna M Nelson, Preston M McCourt, Dana M Talsness, Gregg G Gunderson, Dawn A Lowe, James M Ervasti
Absence of the protein dystrophin causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin directly binds to microtubules in vitro, and its absence in vivo correlates with disorganization of the subsarcolemmal microtubule lattice, increased detyrosination of α-tubulin, and altered redox signaling. We previously demonstrated that the dystrophin homologue utrophin neither binds microtubules in vitro nor rescues microtubule lattice organization when overexpressed in muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Here, we fine-mapped the dystrophin domain necessary for microtubule binding to spectrin-like repeats 20-22...
September 16, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Puneet Jain, Suvasini Sharma, Fred van Ruissen, Satinder Aneja
Hereditary myoclonus-dystonia (DYT 11) is caused by the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) mutation. The clinical details and investigations of cases diagnosed with myoclonus-dystonia were reviewed. We describe 5 patients (3 families) with myoclonus-dystonia diagnosed at our center. Majority of the patients had the classical phenotype with few atypical features (adult-onset disease and onset in lower limbs). Four patients carried a mutant variant in the SGCE-gene. A diagnosis of myoclonus-dystonia should be considered in cognitively normal patients with early-onset myoclonus (that may occur both at rest and/or action) with or without dystonia and with or without psychiatric-disturbances...
September 2016: Neurology India
Adrian J Waite, Francesca A Carlisle, Yiumo Michael Chan, Derek J Blake
BACKGROUND: Myoclonus-dystonia is a neurogenic movement disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding ɛ-sarcoglycan. By contrast, mutations in the α-, β-, γ-, and δ-sarcoglycan genes cause limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The sarcoglycans are part of the dystrophin-associated protein complex in muscle that is disrupted in several types of muscular dystrophy. Intriguingly, patients with myoclonus-dystonia have no muscle pathology; conversely, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients have not been reported to have dystonia-associated features...
August 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mikako Ito, Yuka Ehara, Shin Li, Kosuke Inada, Kinji Ohno
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in <i>DMD</i> encoding dystrophin. No rational therapy is currently available. Utrophin is a paralog of dystrophin and is highly expressed at the neuromuscular junction. In <i>mdx</i> mice, utrophin is naturally upregulated throughout the muscle fibers, which mitigates muscular dystrophy. We previously reported the protein-anchoring therapy, in which a recombinant extracellular matrix protein is delivered to and anchored to a specific target using its proprietary binding domains...
August 2, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
David C Hughes, George R Marcotte, Andrea G Marshall, Daniel W D West, Leslie M Baehr, Marita A Wallace, Perrie M Saleh, Sue C Bodine, Keith Baar
The loss of muscle strength with age has been studied from the perspective of a decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability. A third potential factor is force transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the force transfer apparatus within aging muscle and the impact on membrane integrity and NMJ stability. We measured an age-related loss of dystrophin protein that was greatest in the flexor muscles. The loss of dystrophin protein occurred despite a twofold increase in dystrophin mRNA...
July 5, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
S A Durward-Akhurst, C J Finno, N Barnes, J Shivers, L T Guo, G D Shelton, S J Valberg
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II expression is not normally detected on sarcolemma, but is detected with lymphocytic infiltrates in immune-mediated myositis (IMM) of humans and dogs and in dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine if sarcolemmal MHC is expressed in active IMM in horses, if MHC expression is associated with lymphocytic subtype, and if dysferlin is expressed in IMM. ANIMALS: Twenty-one IMM horses of Quarter Horse-related breeds, 3 healthy and 6 disease controls (3 pasture myopathy, 3 amylase-resistant polysaccharide storage myopathy [PSSM])...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
G Cutroneo, G Vermiglio, A Centofanti, G Rizzo, M Runci, A Favaloro, M G Piancino, P Bracco, G Ramieri, F Bianchi, F Speciale, A Arco, F Trimarchi
Unilateral posterior crossbite is a widespread, asymmetric malocclusion characterized by an inverse relationship of the upper and lower buccal dental cusps, in the molar and premolar regions, on one side only of the dental arch. Patients with unilateral posterior crossbite exhibit an altered chewing cycles and the crossbite side masseter results to be less active with respect to the contralateral one. Few studies about morphological features of masticatory muscle in malocclusion disorders exist and most of these have been performed on animal models...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Balaji Krishnaiah, Jennifer Jheesoo Lee, Matthew Paul Wicklund, Divpreet Kaur
INTRODUCTION: The sarcoglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies that cause varying degrees of progressive proximal muscle weakness. METHODS: We describe the case of a Caucasian girl who presented with exercise intolerance, myalgia, and dark urine. Onset of symptoms was at age 4, and she had myalgia with physical activity throughout childhood. Creatine kinase levels were as high as 18,000. RESULTS: Immunostaining of a muscle biopsy showed mildly diminished alpha sarcoglycan staining, and SGCA gene sequencing revealed n...
June 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Marzieh Mojbafan, Yalda Nilipour, Seyed Hasan Tonekaboni, Samira Dabbagh Bagheri, Hamideh Bagherian, Zohreh Sharifi, Zahra Zeinali, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Sirous Zeinali
Sarcoglycanopathies (SGPs) constitute a subgroup of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) which are caused by mutations in sarcoglycan (SGs) genes. SG proteins form a core complex consisting of α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans which are encoded by SGCA, SGCB, SGCG and SGCD genes, respectively. Genetic defect, in any of these SG proteins, results in instability of the whole complex. This effect can be helpful in interpreting muscle biopsy results. Autozygosity mapping is a gene mapping approach which can be applied in large consanguineous families for tracking the defective gene in most autosomal recessive disorders...
March 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
Rodi Zutt, Joke M Dijk, Kathryn J Peall, Hans Speelman, Yasmine E M Dreissen, Maria Fiorella Contarino, Marina A J Tijssen
INTRODUCTION: Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a young onset movement disorder typically involving myoclonus and dystonia of the upper body. A proportion of the cases are caused by mutations to the autosomal dominantly inherited, maternally imprinted, epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE). Despite several sets of diagnostic criteria, identification of patients most likely to have an SGCE mutation remains difficult. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients meeting pre-existing diagnostic clinical criteria for M-D underwent a standardized clinical examination (20 SGCE mutation positive and 20 negative)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Teresa Giugliano, Marina Fanin, Marco Savarese, Giulio Piluso, Corrado Angelini, Vincenzo Nigro
A large mutation screening of 504 patients with muscular dystrophy or myopathy has been performed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Among this cohort of patients, we report a case with a severe form of muscular dystrophy with a proximal weakness in the limb-girdle muscles. Her biopsy revealed typical dystrophic features and immunohistochemistry for α- and γ-sarcoglycans showed an absent reaction, addressing the clinical diagnosis toward a sarcoglycanopathy. Considering that no causative point mutation was detected in any of the four sarcoglycan genes, we re-evaluated the NGS data by careful quantitative analysis of the specific reads mapping on the four sarcoglycan genes...
June 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Marzieh Mojbafan, Yalda Nilipour, Seyed Hasan Tonekaboni, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Sirous Zeinali
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The sarcoglycanopathies (SGPs) are a subgroup of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies. They are caused by mutations in gamma, alpha, beta, and delta sarcoglycans (SGs) genes. Alpha-SGPs are the most frequent form of SGPs. Muscle biopsy studies in patients with SGPs have indicated that loss of one SG subunit leads to instability of whole SG complex. Autozygosity mapping is a powerful gene mapping approach for rare recessive inherited disorders in consanguineous families...
March 2016: Neurological Research
Ritesh A Ramdhani, Steven J Frucht, Anousheh Behnegar, Brian H Kopell
BACKGROUND: Myoclonus-dystonia is a condition that manifests predominantly as myoclonic jerks with focal dystonia. It is genetically heterogeneous with most mutations in the epsilon sarcoglycan gene (SGCE). In medically refractory cases, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to provide marked sustainable clinical improvement, especially in SGCE-positive patients. We present two patients with myoclonus-dystonia (one SGCE positive and the other SGCE negative) who have the isolated myoclonus phenotype and had DBS leads implanted in the bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi)...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Narinder Janghra, Jennifer E Morgan, Caroline A Sewry, Francis X Wilson, Kay E Davies, Francesco Muntoni, Jonathon Tinsley
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and currently incurable progressive neuromuscular condition, caused by mutations in the DMD gene that result in the inability to produce dystrophin. Lack of dystrophin leads to loss of muscle fibres and a reduction in muscle mass and function. There is evidence from dystrophin-deficient mouse models that increasing levels of utrophin at the muscle fibre sarcolemma by genetic or pharmacological means significantly reduces the muscular dystrophy pathology. In order to determine the efficacy of utrophin modulators in clinical trials, it is necessary to accurately measure utrophin levels and other biomarkers on a fibre by fibre basis within a biopsy section...
2016: PloS One
Matthew D Campbell, Marc Witcher, Anoop Gopal, Daniel E Michele
Delta-sarcoglycan is a component of the sarcoglycan subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex located at the plasma membrane of muscle cells. While recessive mutations in δ-sarcoglycan cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F, dominant mutations in δ-sarcoglycan have been linked to inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of this study was to investigate functional cellular defects present in adult cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycans harboring the dominant inherited DCM mutations R71T or R97Q...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sandra Murphy, Paul Dowling, Margit Zweyer, Rustam R Mundegar, Michael Henry, Paula Meleady, Dieter Swandulla, Kay Ohlendieck
UNLABELLED: Cardiomyopathy is a serious complication in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, an X-linked neuromuscular disease of childhood that is triggered by primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. In order to directly correlate the deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin to secondary abnormalities in the dystrophic heart, this study has used label-free mass spectrometry to compare protein expression patterns in the aged mdx-4cv heart model of dystrophinopathy versus wild type heart...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Wen-Chen Liang, Po-Ching Chou, Chia-Cheng Hung, Yi-Ning Su, Tsu-Min Kan, Wan-Zi Chen, Yukiko K Hayashi, Ichizo Nishino, Yuh-Jyh Jong
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D), an autosomal-recessive inherited LGMD, is caused by the mutations in SGCA. SGCA encodes alpha-sarcoglycan (SG) that forms a heterotetramer with other SGs in the sarcolemma, and comprises part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. The frequency of LGMD2D is variable among different ethnic backgrounds, and so far only a few patients have been reported in Asia. We identified five patients with a novel homozygous mutation of c.101G>T (p.Arg34Leu) in SGCA from a big aboriginal family ethnically consisting of two tribes in Taiwan...
March 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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