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Small bowel transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866686/whole-abdominopelvic-radiotherapy-in-desmoplastic-small-round-cell-tumour-of-abdomen-a-challenge-for-radiation-oncologists
#1
Anjali K Pahuja, Mahammood Suhail Mundodan
An adolescent patient diagnosed with disseminated abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) was taken up for systemic chemotherapy, debulking surgery, stem cell transplant followed by whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Following this, the patient developed multiple episodes of small bowel obstruction, a known complication of abdominal surgery and radiotherapy. The patient expired due to the complications of bowel obstruction 13 months after the completion of radiotherapy...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804272/current-evidence-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-using-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Seong Ran Jeon, Jocelyn Chai, Christiana Kim, Christine H Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review examines current evidence around the efficacy and safety of FMT for patients with IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have suggested that FMT may facilitate clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the evidence for FMT in Crohn's disease (CD) is more limited, positive outcomes have been observed in small cohort studies...
May 26, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801578/the-pharmacogenetics-of-immune-modulating-therapy
#3
Ingolf Cascorbi
Immunosuppressive drugs are a prerequisite in organ transplantation to prevent rejection and are also widely used in inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or also in some hematologic malignancies-depending on the mode of action. For thiopurine analogs the polymorphic thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) was early detected to be associated with thiopurine-induced leukopenia; recent studies identified also NUDT15 to be related to this severe side effect. For drugs like methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil a number of ADME genes like UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and ABC efflux transporters were investigated, however, with partly contradicting results...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783995/bowel-obstruction-due-to-retained-intraperitoneal-left-ventricular-assist-device-lvad-driveline
#4
Daniel Miklin, Ivy Lewis, Howard Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) provide a lifesaving bridge to cardiac transplant. Utilization of these devices is increasing in the United States. When a patient undergoes cardiac transplant, the left ventricular device is surgically removed and the driveline is extracted or left tunneled in the subcutaneous tissue. Our group encountered a rare and previously unreported complication of this device: intraperitoneal infiltration of a retained driveline after cardiac transplant causing a small bowel obstruction...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771163/review-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-as-a-treatment-option-in-ibd
#5
Kavitha Sivananthan, Andreas Munk Petersen
CONTEXT: Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVE: IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND ulcerative colitis' and 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Crohn's disease' gave total a total of 80 articles...
May 17, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750876/evaluation-of-molecular-changes-of-distal-organs-after-small-bowel-transplantation-experimental-study
#6
P Urban, M Rabajdová, Š Feterik, G Bódy, T Granda, M Mareková, J Veselá
The ischemia and reperfusion of a jejunal graft during transplantation triggers the stress of endoplasmic reticulum; thus inducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spreading of these signals stimulate immunological reactions in distal tissues i.e. lung, liver and spleen. The aim of this study was to detect the molecular changes in liver and spleen induced by transplanted jejunal graft with one or six hours of reperfusion (group Tx1 and Tx6). Analysis of gene expression changes of inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha, IL-10) and specific chaperones (Gadd153, Grp78) derived from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was done and compared to control group...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706374/risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Akihiro Yamada, Yuga Komaki, Fukiko Komaki, Dejan Micic, Samantha Zullow, Atsushi Sakuraba
BACKGROUND: The management and life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis have improved substantially in the past three decades, which has resulted in an increased number of these patients being diagnosed with malignancies. Our aim was to assess the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases with no language restrictions for studies published from inception of the databases to Aug 1, 2017, assessing the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in patients with cystic fibrosis...
June 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701871/pediatric-intestinal-failure-the-key-outcomes-for-the-first-100-patients-treated-in-a-national-tertiary-referral-center-during-1984-2017
#8
Laura Merras-Salmio, Annika Mutanen, Elisa Ylinen, Risto Rintala, Antti Koivusalo, Mikko P Pakarinen
BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset intestinal failure (IF) remains a severe illness with life-threatening consequences. In this study, we analyzed a single center's outcomes of IF over 3 decades. METHODS: All children with IF who required parenteral nutrition (PN) >2 months or small-intestinal resection ≥50% managed since 1984 were included for retrospective outcome analyses. RESULTS: In total, 100 patients with median PN duration of 1.2 (interquartile range, 0...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684865/the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-psychiatric-symptoms-among-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-functional-diarrhea-and-functional-constipation-an-open-label-observational-study
#9
Shunya Kurokawa, Taishiro Kishimoto, Shinta Mizuno, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Makoto Naganuma, Kuo-Ching Liang, Momoko Kitazawa, Moeko Nakashima, Chie Shindo, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUNDS: The intestinal microbiota is considered as a potential common underpinning pathophysiology of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has been reported to have therapeutic effects on diseases related to dysbiosis, but few studies have evaluated its effect on psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: We followed 17 patients with either Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Functional Diarrhea (FDr) or Functional Constipation (FC) who underwent FMT for the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms and observation of psychiatric symptoms...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682387/surgical-management-of-encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-a-case-report-in-kidney-transplant-patient
#10
R Shahbazov, M Talanian, J L Alejo, F Azari, A Agarwal, K L Brayman
Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a clinical syndrome of progressive fibrotic change in response to prolonged, repetitive, and typically severe insult to the peritoneal mesothelium, often occurring in the setting of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Clear guidelines for successful management remain elusive. We describe the successful surgical management of EPS in a 28-year-old male s/p deceased donor kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681874/alexithymia-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-a-systematic-review
#11
Danilo Carrozzino, Piero Porcelli
Background: Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct that represents a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotions and is currently understood to be related to a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. The present review aims to investigate the relationship of alexithymia with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders as functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)] and liver diseases as chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis, and liver transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602547/ostomy-in-continuity-a-novel-approach-for-the-management-of-children-with-complex-short-bowel-syndrome
#12
Sona Sehgal, Anthony D Sandler, A Alfred Chahine, Parvati Mohan, Clarivet Torres
INTRODUCTION: Despite medical and surgical management, a subset of children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) who have discrepancy between proximal small bowel and distal colon have persistent feeding intolerance. We propose the use of an Ostomy in Continuity (OIC) (Bishop-Koop or Santulli) as a salvage procedure to decompress the proximal bowel while still maintaining maximal intestinal length, in these patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 104 SBS patients identified sixteen patients who underwent an OIC...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600975/highly-activated-carbon-enterosorbent-mediates-the-suppression-of-paraneoplastic-syndrome-associated-with-lewis-lung-carcinoma-in-mice
#13
V V Sarnatskaya, L Sakhno, L M Paziuk, L A Yushko, N K Rodionova, V N Maslenniy, A S Sidorenko, V Nikolaev
AIM: To investigate the effect of enterosorption on the development of paraneoplastic syndrome in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on male С57/ВL6 mice with transplanted LLC. As an enterosorbent, highly activated powder fraction of HSGD was administered per os daily at a dose of 0.625 g/kg for two weeks starting from the 7th day after tumor cell transplantation. Analysis of hemo- and myelograms, morphological alterations in vital organs, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, biochemical analysis of blood and quantitative analysis of hydroperoxides, malonic dialdehyde, аdvanced oxidation protein products was carried out by standard methods after completing the course of enterosorption...
March 2018: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571064/spontaneous-migration-of-thrombosed-synthetic-vascular-graft-to-the-duodenum-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#14
Ahmed Mohamed Sultan, Ahmed Shehta, Tarek Salah, Mohamed Elshoubary, Mohamed Abdel Wahab
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous migration of synthetic grafts had been described after abdominal vascular procedures into the duodenum and small bowel. In the setting of liver transplantation, synthetic grafts are commonly used for overcoming shortened or poor-quality vasculatures. We describe a case of spontaneous migration of thrombosed synthetic vascular graft after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). PRESENTATION: A 59 years male patient with end stage liver disease underwent LDLT utilizing a right hemi-liver graft...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532509/successful-placement-of-nasointestinal-feeding-tubes-using-an-electromagnetic-sensor-guided-enteral-access-system-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#15
Kay Lash, Rachelle Oppel, Jeanette Hasse
Technology advances have made it possible to prolong life for patients with heart failure who are not transplant candidates or while awaiting transplant. Many different cardiac devices are available that can be used as a bridge to transplant (temporary support) or as a destination therapy (permanent support). Placement of these devices can cause complications that, if not addressed, could negatively impact the nutrition status of patients. Placement of nasointestinal feeding tubes using an electromagnetic sensor-guided enteral access system (EMS-EAS) has been difficult in patients with implantable devices because of the potential for interference with the EMS-EAS and the left ventricular assist device (LVAD)...
April 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524068/gut-microbiota-and-its-implications-in-small-bowel-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Chenyang Wang, Qiurong Li, Jieshou Li
The gut microbiota is mainly composed of a diverse population of commensal bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immune modulation and metabolism. The influence of the gut microbiota on solid organ transplantation has recently been recognized. In fact, several studies indicated that acute and chronic allograft rejection in small bowel transplantation (SBT) is closely associated with the alterations in microbial patterns in the gut. In this review, we focused on the recent findings regarding alterations in the microbiota following SBTand the potential roles of these alterations in the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection...
June 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511548/citrulline-as-a-marker-of-intestinal-function-and-absorption-in-clinical-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Konstantinos C Fragkos, Alastair Forbes
Background: Citrulline has been described as a marker of intestinal function or absorption but evidence varies according to clinical settings. Objective: The objective of this article is to examine the evidence of plasma citrulline as a marker of intestinal function and absorption in various clinical settings. Methods: Studies were examined for p values, means and standard deviations, correlation coefficients or other metrics depicting the association of citrulline with intestinal function...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500650/mimics-of-malrotation-on-pediatric-upper-gastrointestinal-series-a-pictorial-review
#18
REVIEW
Anilawan Smitthimedhin, Angela Suarez, Ryan L Webb, Hansel J Otero
Intestinal malrotation is a continuum of congenital anomalies due to lack of rotation or incomplete rotation of the fetal intestine around the superior mesenteric artery axis. The abnormal bowel fixation (by mesenteric bands) or absence of fixation of portions of the bowel increases the risk of bowel obstruction, acute or chronic volvulus, and bowel necrosis. The clinical presentation of patients with malrotation without, with intermittent, or with chronic volvulus can be problematic, with an important minority presenting late or having atypical or chronic symptoms, such as intermittent vomiting, abdominal pain, duodenal obstruction, or failure to thrive...
March 3, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491050/update-on-surgical-management-of-small-bowel-neuroendocrine-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Stylianos Vagios, Andreas Karamitros, Georgios Karaolanis, John Griniatsos, Alexandros Papalampros, Ioannis Papaconstantinou, Georgios K Glantzounis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Dan G Blazer, Evangelos Felekouras
The widespread use of endoscopy and imaging in combination with the continuous update of the staging systems for neuroendocrine tumors has led to an increase in the incidence of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (si-NENs) globally. Despite high survival rates, severe complications may occur even in early stages due to the anatomic location of the primary site and the desmoplastic reaction. Surgery plays a central role in the management of patients with si-NENs. Excision of locoregional disease along with extensive lymph node dissection should be performed in fit patients, even in the presence of metastases...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487492/chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction
#20
REVIEW
Khalil El-Chammas, Manu R Sood
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is defined by either continuous or intermittent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of fixed lumen excluding lesion. CIP includes a heterogeneous group of disorders which result either from diseases affecting the enteric neurons and smooth muscle lining or those involving the autonomic innervation of the bowel. Symptoms associated with CIP are nonspecific, which can sometimes contribute to the delay in recognizing the condition and making the correct diagnosis...
March 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
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