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Kevin A Kovalchik, Matthew S MacLennan, Kerry M Peru, Chukwuemeka Ajaero, Dena W McMartin, John V Headley, David D Y Chen
RATIONALE: The characterization of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (NAFCs) in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) is of interest for both toxicology studies and regulatory reasons. Previous studies utilizing authentic standards have identified dicarboxylic naphthenic acids using two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). The selective derivatization of hydroxyl groups has also recently aided in the characterization of oxy-NAFCs, and indirectly the characterization of dicarboxylic NAFCs...
September 25, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yun Zhang, Chen Cai, Shu-Feng Pang, Jonathan P Reid, Yun-Hong Zhang
We report a new method to investigate water transport kinetics in aerosol particles by using rapid scan FTIR spectroscopy combined with a custom-built pulse relative humidity (RH) control system. From real time in situ measurements of RH and composition using high time resolution infrared spectroscopy (0.12 s for one spectrum), and through achieving a high rate of RH change (as fast as 60% per second), we are able to investigate the competition between the gas and condensed phase diffusive transport limits of water for particles with mean diameter ∼3 μm and varying phase and viscosity...
September 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Miguel Berenguel-Alonso, Maria Sabés-Alsina, Roser Morató, Oriol Ymbern, Laura Rodríguez-Vázquez, Oriol Talló-Parra, Julián Alonso-Chamarro, Mar Puyol, Manel López-Béjar
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) can benefit from the features of microfluidic technologies, such as the automation of time-consuming labor-intensive procedures, the possibility to mimic in vivo environments, and the miniaturization of the required equipment. To date, most of the proposed approaches are based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as platform substrate material due to its widespread use in academia, despite certain disadvantages, such as the elevated cost of mass production. Herein, we present a rapid fabrication process for a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) monolithic microfluidic device combining hot embossing-using a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) master-and micromilling...
October 2017: SLAS Technology
Kyung Sook Hong, Hee Jung Yi, Ryung-Ah Lee, Kwang Ho Kim, Soon Sup Chung
Fournier's gangrene is a gas-forming, necrotising soft tissue infection affecting the perineum. It spreads rapidly along the deep fascial planes and is associated with a high mortality rate. With a growing elderly population with comorbidities, the frequency of severe cases of Fournier's gangrene is expected to increase. We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene at our institution from 2003 to 2014 and analysed data. Thirteen patients had diabetes mellitus, two had been diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, and four were chronic alcoholics...
September 25, 2017: International Wound Journal
Li-Na Yun, Yi-Qiao Xing
AIM: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling with or without gas tamponade for highly myopic foveoschisis. METHODS: We performed an open-label, observer-blinded clinical trial of 85 patients with myopic foveoschisis between 2000 and 2012. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups, those who received vitrectomy and ILM peeling without gas tamponade (no-gas group) or those who with gas tamponade (gas group) and follow up at least 5y...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
M Queißer, M R Burton, F Arzilli, A Chiarugi, G I Marliyani, F Anggara, A Harijoko
Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %...
June 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Nazila Masoud, Laurent Delannoy, Herrick Schaink, Ad van der Eerden, Jan Willem de Rijk, Tiago A G Silva, Dipanjan Banerjee, Johannes D Meeldijk, Krijn P de Jong, Catherine Louis, Petra E de Jongh
Supported gold nanoparticles are highly selective catalysts for a range of both liquid-phase and gas-phase hydrogenation reactions. However, little is known about their stability during gas-phase catalysis and the influence of the support thereon. We report on the activity, selectivity, and stability of 2-4 nm Au nanoparticulate catalysts, supported on either TiO2 or SiO2, for the hydrogenation of 0.3% butadiene in the presence of 30% propene. Direct comparison of the stability of the Au catalysts was possible as they were prepared via the same method but on different supports...
September 1, 2017: ACS Catalysis
Asunción Fuente, Clément Baruteau, Roberto Neri, Andrés Carmona, Marcelino Agúndez, Javier R Goicoechea, Rafael Bachiller, José Cernicharo, Olivier Berné
One serious challenge for planet formation is the rapid inward drift of pebble-sized dust particles in protoplanetary disks. Dust trapping at local maxima in the disk gas pressure has received much theoretical attention but still lacks observational support. The cold dust emission in the AB Aur disk forms an asymmetric ring at a radius of about 120 au, which is suggestive of dust trapping in a gas vortex. We present high spatial resolution (0".58×0".78 ≈ 80×110 au) NOEMA observations of the 1.12 mm and 2...
September 1, 2017: Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Evangelia Gole, Stavroula Oikonomou, Sian Ellard, Elisa De Franco, Kyriaki Karavanaki
BACKGROUND: Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare type of monogenic diabetes that presents in the first 6 months of life. Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding for the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channel can lead to transient (TNDM) or permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). CASE REPORT: A female infant presented at the 22nd day of life with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis (glucose: 907mg/dl, blood gas pH: 6.84, HCO3: 6mmol/l). She was initially managed with intravenous (IV) fluids and IV insulin...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Adel Boueiz, Yale Chang, Michael H Cho, George R Washko, Raul San José Estépar, Russell P Bowler, James D Crapo, Dawn L DeMeo, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, Peter J Castaldi
BACKGROUND: Emphysema has considerable variability in its regional distribution. Cranio-caudal emphysema distribution is an important predictor of the response to lung volume reduction. However, there is little consensus regarding how to define upper and lower-lobe predominant emphysema subtypes. Consequently, the clinical and genetic associations with these subtypes are poorly characterized. METHODS: We sought to identify subgroups characterized by upper or lower lobe emphysema predominance and comparable amounts of total emphysema by analyzing data from 9,210 non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient smokers in the COPDGene cohort...
September 21, 2017: Chest
Zhi-Jun Zang, You-Qiang Fang, Su-Yun Ji, Yong Gao, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Ting-Ting Xia, Mei-Hua Jiang, Ya-Nan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is used extensively and has been proved to impair male reproduction in mammals. However, no trials have explored whether formaldehyde affects sexual function. AIM: To evaluate the effect of long-term formaldehyde exposure on sexual behavior and to investigate the potential mechanism. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 male mice were randomly allocated to four equally sized groups. Mice were exposed to formaldehyde at a dose of 0 (control), 0...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Alberico Del Torto, Nicoletta Corrieri, Carlo Vignati, Piero Gentile, Gaia Cattadori, Stefania Paolillo, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
BACKGROUND: A reduced cardiac output (CO) response during exercise is a major limiting factor in heart failure (HF). Oxygen consumption (VO2) is directly proportional to CO. Peripheral mechanisms via arteriovenous oxygen difference (Δ(a-v)O2) play a pivotal role in chronic HF. We hypothesized a weak correlation between peak VO2 and peak CO with a greater Δ(a-v)O2 variability in most severe HF. METHODS: We analyzed 278 HF patients (NYHA II-III) who performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with non-invasive CO measurement by inert gas rebreathing...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Andrea L Herrera, Kuta Suso, Stephanie Allison, Abby Simon, Evelyn Schlenker, Victor C Huber, Michael S Chaussee
The mortality associated with influenza A virus (IAV) is often due to the development of secondary bacterial infections known as superinfections. The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a relatively uncommon cause of IAV superinfections, but the mortality of these infections is high. We used a murine model to determine whether the surface-localized GAS M protein contributes to the outcome of IAV-GAS superinfections. A comparison between wild-type GAS and an M protein mutant strain (emm3) showed that the M3 protein was essential to virulence...
September 25, 2017: Microbiology
Lucas R Parent, Huy Pham, Joseph P Patterson, Michael S Denny, Seth M Cohen, Nathan C Gianneschi, Francesco Paesani
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as an effective platform for the rational design of multifunctional materials, combining large specific surface areas with flexible, periodic frameworks that can undergo reversible structural transitions, or "breathing", upon temperature and pressure changes, and through gas adsorption/desorption processes. Although MOF breathing can be inferred from the analysis of adsorption isotherms, direct observation of the structural transitions has been lacking, and the underlying processes of framework-reorganization in individual MOF nanocrystals is largely unknown...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Javier A Barrera, Pablo R Dalmasso, Raúl A Taccone, Silvia I Lane
Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with 1-methoxy-2-propanone (1-M-2-PONE), 1-methoxy-2-propanol (1-M-2-POL), and 1-methoxy-2-butanol (1-M-2-BOL) were determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using a conventional relative-rate technique. The following absolute rate coefficients were derived: k 1(OH + 1-M-2-PONE) = (0.64 ± 0.13) × 10(-11), k 2(OH + 1-M-2-BOL) = (2.19 ± 0.23) × 10(-11), k 3(Cl + 1-M-2-PONE = (1.07 ± 0.24) × 10(-10), k 4(Cl + 1-M-2-POL) = (2...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pooja V Reddy, T B Karegoudar, T R Monisha, I Mukram, Anand S Nayak
A high-efficiency fluoranthene-degrading bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PRNK-6 was isolated from PAH-contaminated soil. The strain degrades 96% (240 mg l(-1)) of fluoranthene in 48 h. Various metabolic intermediates of fluoranthene catabolism were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Metabolite characterization, metabolite-feeding experiments, and appropriate enzyme activities in the cell-free extracts suggest the existence of a bifurcated pathway down the phthalic acid for complete mineralization of fluoranthene in PRNK-6...
September 23, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Zachary Andrew Vesoulis, Steve M Liao, Rakesh Rao, Shamik B Trivedi, Alison G Cahill, Amit M Mathur
OBJECTIVE: Screening criteria for neonatal encephalopathy remain a complex combination of subjective and objective criteria. We examine the utility of universal cord blood gas testing and mandatory encephalopathy evaluation for infants with pH ≤7.10 on umbilical cord arterial blood gas (cABG) as a single screening measure for timely identification of moderate/severe encephalopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS: Infants born at a single centre between 2008 and 2015, who were ≥36 weeks, had no congenital anomalies and had a cABG pH ≤7...
September 23, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Runmiao Xue, Honglan Shi, Yinfa Ma, John Yang, Bin Hua, Enos C Inniss, Craig D Adams, Todd Eichholz
Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
Danni Cui, Alexander M Mebel, Luis E Arroyo-Mora, Howard Holness, Kenneth G Furton, Kevin O'Shea
A massive spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM), a semi-volatile organic compound, contaminated the Elk river and forced the recent closure of tap water for nearly 300,000 residents. Typical water treatment methods are not effective for MCHM remediation, however ultrasonic irradiation leads to its rapid pseudo-first order degradation. The degradation processes were effectively modeled employing heterogeneous kinetic models with the reaction surface corresponding to the gas-liquid interface of the cavitation bubble...
September 5, 2017: Water Research
Scott Sneddon, Jürgen Kahr, Angelica F Orsi, David J Price, Daniel M Dawson, Paul A Wright, Sharon E Ashbrook
Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a subclass of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with extended three-dimensional networks of transition metal nodes (bridged by rigid imidazolate linkers), with potential applications in gas storage and separation, sensing and controlled delivery of drug molecules. Here, we investigate the use of (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy to characterise the local structure and disorder in a variety of single- and dual-linker ZIFs. In most cases, a combination of a basic knowledge of chemical shifts typically observed in solution-state NMR spectroscopy and the use of dipolar dephasing NMR experiments to reveal information about quaternary carbon species are combined to enable spectral assignment...
September 9, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
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